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J C Yugar-Toledo, V Brunelli, J F Vilela-Martin, A Fattori, H Moreno
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is a condition in which besides the antihypertensive therapy using at least three different drugs (including a diuretics), brachial blood pressure does not reach the target (e.g., 140/90 mmHg). RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the diversity of clinical presentations, we divide RHTN in two major groups according to blood pressure and number of drugs taken: controlled (C-RHTN) and uncontrolled (UC-RHTN) resistant hypertension, with refractory hypertension (RfHTN) included in the latter subgroup...
March 27, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Stefano Guarino, Mario Diplomatico, Rosaria Marotta, Anna Pecoraro, Daniela Furlan, Lorenzo Cerrone, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Cesare Polito, Angela La Manna, Pierluigi Marzuillo
Patients affected by nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) can present with hypernatremic dehydration, and first-line rehydration schemes are completely different from those largely applied in usual conditions determining a mild to severe hypovolemic dehydration/shock. In reporting the case of a patient affected by NDI and presenting with severe dehydration triggered by acute pharyngotonsillitis and vomiting, we want to underline the difficulties in managing this condition. Restoring the free-water plasma amount in patients affected by NDI may not be easy, but some key points can help in the first line management of these patients: (1) hypernatremic dehydration should always be suspected; (2) even in presence of severe dehydration, skin turgor may be normal and therefore the skinfold recoll should not be considered in the dehydration assessment; (3) decreased thirst is an important red flag for dehydration; (4) if an incontinent patient with NDI appears to be dehydrated, it is important to place the urethral catheter to accurately measure urine output and to be guided in parenteral fluid administration; (5) if the intravenous route is necessary, the more appropriate fluid replenishment is 5% dextrose in water with an infusion rate that should slightly exceed the urine output; (6) the 0...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Latifa Jedday, Véronique Trombert, Philippe Meyer, Georg Ehret, Jean-Luc Reny, Clémence Cuvelier
The prevalence of the right heart failure (RHF) is poorly known. However, RHF is often a consequence of left heart failure due to an interdependance between both ventricles. RHF should be indentified because of prognostic relevance. RHF is defined by the inability to maintain adequate cardiac output through the lung circulation. It can result from volume overload, pressure overload, or a disorder of systolic function. Adaptive mechanisms such as dilation or hyper-trophy will maintain adequate hemodynamics. Once these mechanisms become insufficient, congestive signs and hemodynamic consequences will appear...
November 8, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
J Grellier, A Jaafar, A Martin, M El Alaoui, C Lebely, I Tack, M Vallet
Hyponatremia is associated with bone demineralization. We hypothesized that, during hyponatremia, calciuria and calcium balance depend on volemic status. We evaluated calciuria in patients with hyponatremia, secondary to SIAD or hypovolemia. Patients with SIAD exhibited a volemic expansion that was associated with hypercalciuria. Calciuria was proportional to markers of volemia. INTRODUCTION: Chronic mild hyponatremia has been associated with bone demineralization of unknown mechanisms...
November 2017: Osteoporosis International
Petronio Generoso Thomaz, Leonel Adelino Moura, Giovana Muramoto, Renato Samy Assad
The clinical definition of cardiogenic shock is that of a low cardiac output and evidence of tissue hypoxia in the presence of adequate blood volume. Cardiogenic shock is the main cause of death related to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with a mortality rate of 45-70% in the absence of aggressive and highly specialized technical care. The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is one of the most widely used mechanical assisting devices. During the last two decades, about 42% of patients with AMI who evolved with cardiogenic shock received mechanical circulatory assistance with IABP...
January 2017: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
Letycia Silvano da Silva, Carlos Henrique Rocha Catalão, Tatiana Tocchini Felippotti, Gabriela Ravanelli de Oliveira-Pelegrin, Sérgio Petenusci, Luis Alexandre Pedro de Freitas, Maria José Alves Rocha
CONTEXT: Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties, besides reducing mortality in sepsis. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the biological activities of a curcumin dispersion formulated by spray-drying in experimental sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP), controls were sham operated. The animals were treated with curcumin dispersion (100 mg/kg, p...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
O Collange, L Jazaerli, A Lejay, C Biermann, S Caillard, B Moulin, N Chakfe, F Severac, M Schaeffer, P-M Mertes, A Steib
BACKGROUND: Delayed graft function (DGF) is an early postoperative complication of kidney transplantation (KT) predisposing to acute rejection and lower graft survival. Intraoperative arterial hypotension and hypovolemia are associated with DGF. Central venous pressure (CVP) is used to estimate volemia but its reliability has been criticized. Pleth variability index (PVI) is a hemodynamic parameter predicting fluid responsiveness. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between intraoperative PVI and CVP values and the occurrence of DGF...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Maria Rita Araújo, Céline Marques, Sara Freitas, Rita Santa-Bárbara, Joana Alves, Célia Xavier
BACKGROUND: Marfan's Syndrome (MFS) is a disorder of connective tissue, mainly involving the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and ocular systems. The most severe problems include aortic root dilatation and dissection. Anesthetic management is vital for the improvement on perioperative morbidity. CASE REPORT: 61-year-old male with MFS, presenting mainly with pectus carinatum, scoliosis, ectopia lens, previous spontaneous pneumothorax and aortal aneurysm and dissection submitted to thoracoabdominal aortic prosthesis placement...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Alexandre Hideaki Oshiro, Denise Aya Otsuki, Marcelo Waldir M Hamaji, Kaleizu T Rosa, Keila Kazue Ida, Denise T Fantoni, José Otavio Costa Auler
OBJECTIVES: Inhalant anesthesia induces dose-dependent cardiovascular depression, but whether fluid responsiveness is differentially influenced by the inhalant agent and plasma volemia remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane on pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation in pigs undergoing hemorrhage. METHODS: Twenty-five pigs were randomly anesthetized with isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane...
December 2015: Clinics
Maria Kałan, Agnieszka Witczak, Jerzy Mosiewicz, Helena Donica
Hart failure (HF) accounts for numerous serious problems: medical, social and financial. HF affects 2-3% adult population and its frequency increases with age. Despite advances in laboratory diagnostics of HR the use of biochemical markers remains limited. Currently, only natriuretic peptides, especially type B natriuretic peptides (BNP) and N-terminal fragment of pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) have been fully approved biomarkers employed in diagnosing HF. The concentration of those peptides fluctuates and largely depends on age, gender, renal function, day/night rhythm and volemia which reflects hemodynamic state rather than hart abnormal structure...
September 21, 2015: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Mauro Bernardi, Carmen Serena Ricci, Luca Santi
Hyponatremia is common in cirrhosis. It mostly occurs in an advanced stage of the disease and is associated with complications and increased mortality. Either hypovolemic or, more commonly, hypervolemic hyponatremia can be seen in cirrhosis. Impaired renal sodium handling due to renal hypoperfusion and increased arginine-vasopressin secretion secondary to reduced effective volemia due to peripheral arterial vasodilation represent the main mechanisms leading to dilutional hyponatremia in this setting. Patients with cirrhosis usually develop slowly progressing hyponatremia...
December 31, 2014: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Daniel A Lichtenstein
This review article describes two protocols adapted from lung ultrasound: the bedside lung ultrasound in emergency (BLUE)-protocol for the immediate diagnosis of acute respiratory failure and the fluid administration limited by lung sonography (FALLS)-protocol for the management of acute circulatory failure. These applications require the mastery of 10 signs indicating normal lung surface (bat sign, lung sliding, A-lines), pleural effusions (quad and sinusoid sign), lung consolidations (fractal and tissue-like sign), interstitial syndrome (lung rockets), and pneumothorax (stratosphere sign and the lung point)...
June 2015: Chest
Avnish Bharadwaj, Mamta Khandelwal, Suresh Kumar Bhargava
Paediatric patients undergoing surgical procedures commonly require some volume of blood or blood component replacement in the perioperative period. Paediatric patients undergoing major surgery associated with substantial blood loss should be evaluated pre-operatively. Pre-operative correction of anaemia may be done considering the age, plasma volume status, clinical status and comorbidities. Maximum allowable blood loss (MABL) for surgery must be calculated, and appropriate quantity of blood and blood components should be arranged...
September 2014: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
José Resende de Castro Júnior, Natália Fernandes, Thiago Bento de Paiva Lacet, Fábio Simplício Maia, Glauco Resende Bonato, Cristianne Nogueira, Sílvio Henrique Barberato, Rogério Baumgratz de Paula
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease and hypervolemia is one of the principal causes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the reduction of volemia on blood pressure as well as on echocardiographic parameters in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. METHODS: Twelve patients with no clinical evidence of hypervolemia were submitted to an increase in the rate of the dialysis with the purpose of reducing body weight by 5%...
October 2014: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Jerzy Kopeć, Wladyslaw Sułowicz
UNLABELLED: Even though significant progress has been attained in the question of dialysis therapy--experts have not addressed the aspect of when is proper moment to initiate dialysis therapy. It has not been proven that early starting of hemodialysis with higher GFRvalues has positive influence on decreasing mortality in this patients population. Steady rise in the number of elderly patients with multiple comorbidities qualified for hemodialysis results in increased mortality in this group...
2014: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Guilherme Schettino, Rezende Ederlon, Ciro Leite Mendes, Alvaro Réa-Neto, Cid Marcos David, Suzana Margareth Ajeje Lobo, Alberto Barros, Eliézer Silva, Gilberto Friedman, José Luiz Gomes do Amaral, Marcelo Park, Maristela Monachini, Mirella Cristine de Oliveira, Murillo Santucci César Assunção, Nelson Akamine, Patrícia Veiga C Mello, Renata Andréa Pietro Pereira, Rubens Costa Filho, Sebastião Araújo, Sérgio Félix Pinto, Sérgio Ferreira, Simone Mattoso Mitushima, Sydney Agareno, Yuzeth Nóbrega de Assis Brilhante
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cardiac output and preload as absolute data do not offer helpful information about the hemodynamic of critically ill patients. However, monitoring the response of these variables to volume challenge or inotropic drugs is a very useful tool in the critical care setting, particularly for patients with signs of tissue hypoperfusion. Although PAC remains the " gold standard" to measure cardiac output and preload, new and alternative technologies were developed to evaluate these hemodynamic variables...
March 2006: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Raphaël Giraud, Nils Siegenthaler, Diego Arroyo, Karim Bendjelid
BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure variations (PPVs) and stroke volume variations (SVVs) are dynamic indices for predicting fluid responsiveness in intensive care unit patients. These hemodynamic markers underscore Frank-Starling law by which volume expansion increases cardiac output (CO). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the administration of catecholamines on PPV, SVV, and inferior vena cava flow (IVCF). METHODS: In this prospective, physiologic, animal study, hemodynamic parameters were measured in deeply sedated and mechanically ventilated pigs...
October 2014: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Biagio Barbano, Liborio Sardo, Antonietta Gigante, Maria Ludovica Gasperini, Marta Liberatori, Gianluca Di Lazzaro Giraldi, Antonio Lacanna, Antonio Amoroso, Rosario Cianci
Advanced cirrhosis is frequently associated with renal dysfunction. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is characterized by the occurrence of kidney injury in cirrhotic patients in the absence of other identifiable causes. HRS is classified in 2 different types. Type 1 is characterized by acute renal failure and rapid functional deterioration of other organs, usually related to a precipitating event. Type 2 is characterized by slowly progressive renal failure and refractory ascites. Advanced liver disease induces the progression of hemodynamic alterations such as arterial vasodilation of splanchnic circulation and impairment of cardiac function...
January 2014: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Marianne Serveaux, Michel Burnier, Sébastien Kissling
Assessment of volume status is often challenging in daily clinical practice. One of the clinician's tasks is to prevent or to treat organ systems failures that arise from a mismatch between the transport of oxygen and metabolic needs. Renal failure is a frequently encountered in-hospital diagnosis that is known to alter significantly the prognosis. In patients with acute renal failure in particular, the consequences of an inadequate volume management further increase morbidity and mortality.
February 26, 2014: Revue Médicale Suisse
Wenqing Lu, Jing Dong, Zifeng Xu, Hao Shen, Jijian Zheng
BACKGROUND: The pleth variability index (PVI) has been demonstrated to be a useful, noninvasive indicator of continuous fluid responsiveness. Whether PVI can be used to assess the changes of intravascular volume status remains to be elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, we sought a correlation between PVI and the initial distribution volume of glucose (IDVG), evaluating PVI as an indicator of the central extracellular fluid volume after anesthesia induction in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery...
March 8, 2014: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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