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Anderson V Catarina, Carolina Luft, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Fernanda Ferreira, Eduardo P Marques, Letícia Rodrigues, Krista Wartchow, Marina C Leite, Carlos A Gonçalves, Angela T S Wyse, Jaderson C Da Costa, Jarbas R De Oliveira, Gisele Branchini, Fernanda B Nunes
Sepsis is one of the main causes of hospitalization and mortality in Intensive Care Units. One of the first manifestations of sepsis is encephalopathy, reported in up to 70% of patients, being associated with higher mortality and morbidity. The factors that cause sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) are still not well known, and may be multifactorial, as perfusion changes, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and glycolytic metabolism alterations. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), a metabolite of the glycolytic route, has been reported as neuroprotective agent...
June 19, 2018: Brain Research
Meredith E Bohannon, Tom E Porter, Emma T Lavoie, Mary Ann Ottinger
The upper Hudson River was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) Aroclor mixtures from the 1940s until the late 1970s. Several well-established biomarkers, such as induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, were used to measure exposure to PCBs and similar contaminants in birds. In the present study, Japanese quail eggs were injected with a PCB mixture based upon a congener profile found in spotted sandpiper eggs at the upper Hudson River and subsequently, RNA was extracted from hatchling liver tissue for hybridization to a customized chicken cDNA microarray...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Thomas E Marler
The pachycaulous stem of arborescent cycad species exhibits unique traits and has received limited research. To date, nothing is known about the axial and radial spatial patterns of non-structural resources within cycad stems. Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill stem tissue was collected from apical and basal axial positions of ca. 100-cm tall plants to serve as two axial regions; and from pith, vascular, and cortex tissues to serve as three radial regions. Starch and four free sugars were quantified. These stems contained more starch than any of the individual sugars, and sucrose concentration exceeded that of fructose and glucose, which exceeded that of maltose...
June 22, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Frédéric Meuriot, Annette Morvan-Bertrand, Nathalie Noiraud-Romy, Marie-Laure Decau, Abraham J Escobar-Gutiérrez, François Gastal, Marie-Pascale Prud'homme
In grassland plant communities, the ability of individual plants to regrow after defoliation is of crucial importance since it allows the restoration of active photosynthesis and plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing defoliation intensity (0, 25, 65, 84, and 100% of removed leaf area) on sugar remobilization and N uptake, remobilization, and allocation in roots, adult leaves, and growing leaves of ryegrass over 2 days, using a 15N tracer technique. Increasing defoliation intensity decreased plant N uptake in a correlative way and increased plant N remobilization, but independently...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Keiji Ueno, Takahiro Sonoda, Midori Yoshida, Norio Shiomi, Shuichi Onodera
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) accumulates inulin- and inulin neoseries-type fructans. Fructose released by the hydrolysis of fructans is an energy source for emerging asparagus spears. Plant fructans are hydrolyzed by fructan exohydrolases (FEH), whose presence in asparagus has not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe for the first time the purification and characterization of a FEH from asparagus, and the functional analysis of its gene. The purified enzyme was predicted to exist as a dimer (approximately 130 kDa), consisting of two polypeptides with a molecular mass of approximately 68 kDa...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jung Hyun Park, Hyeong Jun Ku, Jae Kyeom Kim, Jeen-Woo Park, Jin Hyup Lee
Heart failure is a frequent unfavorable outcome of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Recent increase in dietary fructose consumption mirrors the rise in prevalence of cardiovascular diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy leading to concerns raised by public health experts. Mitochondria, comprising 30% of cardiomyocyte volume, play a central role in modulating redox-dependent cellular processes such as metabolism and apoptosis. Furthermore, mitochondrial dysfunction is a key cause of pathogenesis of fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun He, Hao-Xue Gao, Na Yang, Xiao-Dong Zhu, Run-Bin Sun, Yuan Xie, Cai-Hong Zeng, Jing-Wei Zhang, Jian-Kun Wang, Fei Ding, Ji-Ye Aa, Guang-Ji Wang
Epalrestat is an inhibitor of aldose reductase in the polyol pathway and is used for the management of diabetic neuropathy clinically. Our pilot experiments and accumulated evidences showed that epalrestat inhibited polyol pathway and reduced sorbitol production, and suggested the potential renal protection effects of epalrestat on diabetic nephropathy (DN). To evaluate the protective effect of epalrestat, the db/db mice were used and exposed to epalrestat for 8 weeks, both the physiopathological condition and function of kidney were examined...
June 21, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Busisani W Lembede, Kennedy H Erlwanger, Pilani Nkomozepi, Eliton Chivandi
Background Terminalia sericea (T. sericea) is traditionally used to treat stomach ailments, infections, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Previous in vitro studies have reported that T. sericea has lipolytic properties. This study interrogated the effects of T. sericea on linear growth, development of fatty liver disease, viscera morphometry and health of growing rats fed a 12% fructose solution (FS). Methods Thirty 21-day old male Wistar rat pups were randomly allocated to five treatments: group I - plain gelatine cubes (PGC) + plain tap water (PW), group II - 12% FS + PGC, group III - gelatine cubes containing fenofibrate (Feno) at a dose of 100 mg/kg body + FS, group IV - gelatine cubes containing the low dose (100 mg/kg body mass per day) of the T...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Valentina Kaden-Volynets, Marijana Basic, Ulrike Neumann, Dominik Pretz, Andreas Rings, André Bleich, Stephan C Bischoff
PURPOSE: Experimental liver steatosis induced by overfeeding is associated with enhanced gut permeability and endotoxin translocation to the liver. We examined the role of the gut microbiota for steatosis formation by performing the feeding experiments in mice raised under conventional and germ-free (GF) housing. METHODS: Adult wild-type and GF mice were fed a Western-style diet (WSD) or a control diet (CD), the latter combined with liquid fructose supplementation (F) or not, for 8 weeks...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
João C P Silva, Marta Mota, Fatima O Martins, Celia Nogueira, Teresa Gonçalves, Tatiana Carneiro, Joana Pinto, Daniela Duarte, Antonio S Barros, John G Jones, Ana M Gil
Increased sugar intake is implicated in Type-2 diabetes and fatty liver disease, however, the mechanisms through which glucose and fructose promote these conditions are unclear. We hypothesize that alterations in intestinal metabolite and microbiota profiles specific to each monosaccharide are involved. Two groups of six adult C57BL/6 mice were fed for 10-weeks with diets with glucose (G) or fructose (F) as sole carbohydrates, and a third group was fed with a normal chow carbohydrate mixture (N). Fecal metabolites were profiled by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and microbial composition by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Brenda Bley Folly, Alvaro D Ortega, Georg Hubmann, Silke Bonsing-Vedelaar, Hein J Wijma, Pieter van der Meulen, Andreas Milias-Argeitis, Matthias Heinemann
Bacteria regulate cell physiology in response to extra- and intracellular cues. Recent work showed that metabolic fluxes are reported by specific metabolites, whose concentrations correlate with flux through the respective metabolic pathway. An example of a flux-signaling metabolite is fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). In turn, FBP was proposed to allosterically regulate master regulators of carbon metabolism, Cra in Escherichia coli and CggR in Bacillus subtilis. However, a number of questions on the FBP-mediated regulation of these transcription factors is still open...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Federica Del Chierico, Francesca Abbatini, Alessandra Russo, Andrea Quagliariello, Sofia Reddel, Danila Capoccia, Romina Caccamo, Stefano Ginanni Corradini, Valerio Nobili, Francesco De Peppo, Bruno Dallapiccola, Frida Leonetti, Gianfranco Silecchia, Lorenza Putignani
Obesity levels, especially in children, have dramatically increased over the last few decades. Recently, several studies highlighted the involvement of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in obese adolescents and adults compared to age-matched normal weight (NW) volunteers in order to assemble age- and obesity-related microbiota profiles. The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA-based metagenomics. Ecological representations of microbial communities were computed, and univariate, multivariate, and correlation analyses performed on bacterial profiles...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Biranchi N Mishra, Manish S Kaushik, Gerard Abraham, Pawan K Singh
Spore (akinete) formation in the heterocystous and branched filamentous cyanobacterium Fischerella muscicola involves a significant increase in cell size and formation of several endospores in each of the cells. In present study, the physico-chemical factors (pH, light sources, nutrient deficiency, nitrogen sources, carbon sources, and growth hormones) affecting the germination of spores of F. muscicola were examined. Increase in spore germination frequency was detected above pH 8 with maximum germination (46...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Fabio Bruni, Camilla Di Mino, Silvia Imberti, Sylvia E McLain, Natasha Hazel Rhys, Maria Antonietta Ricci
Neutron diffraction experiments have been performed to investigate and compare the structure of the hydration shell of three monosaccharides, namely fructose, glucose and mannose. It is found that, in spite of their differences with respect to many thermodynamical quantities, bio-protective properties against environmental stresses and taste; the influence of these monosaccharides on the bulk water solvent structure is virtually identical. Conversely, these sugars interact with the neighboring water molecules by forming H-bonds of different length and strength...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Armin Tarrah, Laura Treu, Sabrina Giaretta, Vinicius Duarte, Viviana Corich, Alessio Giacomini
Streptococcus thermophilus and S. macedonicus are the only two species of the genus related to food productions so far known. In the present study, eight S. thermophilus and seven S. macedonicus strains isolated from dairy environments in Italy were compared in order to evidence possible species-specific technological characteristics. Their capability to use lactose, galactose, fructose, and glucose, sugars commonly present in foods and two carbohydrates considered as prebiotics, xylose and inulin, along with the respective growth kinetics were studied...
June 18, 2018: Current Microbiology
Jonathan H Martin, Katie Sherwood Rawls, Jou Chin Chan, Sungmin Hwang, Mar Martinez-Pastor, Lana J McMillan, Laurence Prunetti, Amy K Schmid, Julie A Maupin-Furlow
DeoR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) domain proteins are transcriptional regulators of sugar and nucleoside metabolism in diverse bacteria and occur in select archaea. In the model archaeon Haloferax volcanii , previous work implicated GlpR, a DeoR-type transcriptional regulator, in transcriptional repression of glpR and the gene encoding the fructose-specific phosphofructokinase ( pfkB ) during growth on glycerol. However, the global regulon governed by GlpR remained unclear. Here we compared transcriptomes of wild type and Δ glpR mutant strains grown on glycerol and glucose to detect significant transcript level differences for nearly 50 new genes regulated by GlpR...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Ling-Wei Wang, Yen-Wan Hsueh Liu, Fong-In Chou, Shiang-Huei Jiang
Head and neck (HN) cancer is an endemic disease in Taiwan, China. Locally recurrent HN cancer after full-dose irradiation poses a therapeutic challenge, and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may be a solution that could provide durable local control with tolerable toxicity. The Tsing-Hua Open Pool Reactor (THOR) at National Tsing-Hua University in Hsin-Chu, provides a high-quality epithermal neutron source for basic and clinical BNCT research. Our first clinical trial, entitled "A phase I/II trial of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent head and neck cancer at THOR", was carried out between 2010 and 2013...
June 19, 2018: Cancer communications
Katharina S Weber, Marie-Christine Simon, Klaus Strassburger, Daniel F Markgraf, Anette E Buyken, Julia Szendroedi, Karsten Müssig, Michael Roden
The association between the amount and sources of fructose intake with insulin sensitivity and liver fat needs further elucidation. This study aimed at examining whether habitual intake of sucrose plus non-sucrose bound as well as of non-sucrose bound fructose (total fructose, fruit-derived, juice-derived, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB)-derived fructose) is cross-sectionally associated with insulin sensitivity and fatty liver index (FLI). Fructose intake was estimated using the EPIC food frequency questionnaire from 161 participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the ongoing German Diabetes Study (GDS) (age 53 ± 9 years; HbA1c 6...
June 15, 2018: Nutrients
P Olausson, N Ghafouri, D Sjöström, E Blixt, B Gerdle, B Ghafouri
Aim This study aims to investigate the proteome of trapezius muscle biopsies of women with chronic widespread pain (CWP) compared to female pain-free controls using proteomic tools. CWP has a high prevalence (10%) resulting in prominent negative individual and societal consequences. There is no clear consensus concerning the etiology behind CWP although alterations in the central processing of nociception maintained by peripheral nociceptive input has been suggested. Methods Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis and nano-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (nLC/MS) was used to study the proteome differences of biopsies from the trapezius muscle between 18 female patients diagnosed with CWP and 19 healthy female controls...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Ingrit Hamann, Daniel Krys, Darryl Glubrecht, Vincent Bouvet, Alison Marshall, Larissa Vos, John R Mackey, Melinda Wuest, Frank Wuest
Elevated growth in breast cancer (BC) activates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1α) and downstream, facilitative glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which can be visualized with 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18 F]FDG). GLUT5 (fructose) and GLUT2 (glucose/fructose) might provide alternative targets for BC imaging as to why effects of hypoxia on GLUT1/2/5 levels and function were examined in human BC models. GLUT1/2/5 and HIF1α mRNA was analyzed in BC patient biopsies. In MCF10A, MCF7, and MDA-MB231 cells, [18 F]FDG, 6-deoxy-6-[18 F]fluoro-d-fructose (6-[18 F]FDF) and [18 F]-fluoroazomycin arabinoside were used in radiotracer experiments, whereas GLUT1/2/5 mRNA was analyzed with real-time PCR and protein levels determined via Western blot/immunohistochemistry...
April 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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