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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339807/differential-effects-of-carbohydrates-on-arabidopsis-pollen-germination
#1
Jörg Hirsche, José M García Fernández, Edith Stabentheiner, Dominik K Großkinsky, Thomas Roitsch
Pollen germination as a crucial process in plant development strongly depends on the accessibility of carbon as energy source. Carbohydrates, however, function not only as a primary energy source, but also as important signaling components. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed various aspects of the impact of 32 different sugars on in vitro germination of Arabidopsis pollen comprising about 150 variations of individual sugars and combinations. Twenty-six structurally different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides, and sugar analogs were initially tested for their ability to support pollen germination...
February 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339792/interference-of-age-and-supplementation-of-direct-fed-microbial-and-essential-oil-in-the-activity-of-digestive-enzymes-and-expression-of-genes-related-to-transport-and-digestion-of-carbohydrates-and-proteins-in-the-small-intestine-of-broilers
#2
M F Fernandez-Alarcon, N Trottier, J P Steibel, R Lunedo, D M B Campos, A M Santana, J M Pizauro, R L Furlan, L R Furlan
The objectives of this study were to describe alterations that age and dietary inclusion of direct-fed microbial (DFM) Bacillus subtilis (BS) and a specific essential oil (EO) blend (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, cineol, and pepper extract) causes in the activity of digestive enzymes (maltase: MALT; aminopeptidase-N: APN; intestinal alkaline phosphate: IAP) and expression patterns of genes related to transport (oligopeptide transporter gene: SLC15A1; Na+-dependent glucose and galactose transporter gene: SLC5A1; Na+-independent glucose, galactose, and fructose transporter gene: SLC2A2; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting gene: ATP1A1) and digestion (aminopeptidase-N gene: ANPEP; maltase-glucoamylase gene: MGAM; Sucrase-isomaltase gene: SI) of carbohydrates and proteins in the small intestine of broilers...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335563/the-effects-of-sweet-foods-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-glycyrrhizic-acid-by-icelisa
#3
Bingqian Jiang, Huihua Qu, Hui Kong, Yue Zhang, Shuchen Liu, Jinjun Cheng, Xin Yan, Yan Zhao
The effect of sweet foods, such as honey, was investigated from the perspective of pharmacokinetics on the absorption of glycyrrhizic acid (GA). Due to the unique properties of indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA), namely, its: specificity, sensitivity, repeatability, simple pretreatment of samples, fast and simple operation, and because it is economic and non-polluting, it has received increased attention. In this study, we used the advantages of this method to see how honey affected the pharmacokinetics of GA...
March 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334433/dietary-interventions-for-recurrent-abdominal-pain-in-childhood
#4
REVIEW
Tamsin V Newlove-Delgado, Alice E Martin, Rebecca A Abbott, Alison Bethel, Joanna Thompson-Coon, Rebecca Whear, Stuart Logan
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane review, last published in 2009 (Huertas-Ceballos 2009). Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), including children with irritable bowel syndrome, is a common problem affecting between 4% and 25% of school-aged children. For the majority of such children, no organic cause for their pain can be found on physical examination or investigation. Many dietary inventions have been suggested to improve the symptoms of RAP. These may involve either excluding ingredients from the diet or adding supplements such as fibre or probiotics...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332117/fructose-metabolism-from-a-functional-perspective-implications-for-athletes
#5
REVIEW
Luc Tappy, Robin Rosset
Substantial amounts of fructose are present in our diet. Unlike glucose, this hexose cannot be metabolized by most cells and has first to be converted into glucose, lactate or fatty acids by enterocytes, hepatocytes and kidney proximal tubule cells, which all express specific fructose-metabolizing enzymes. This particular metabolism may then be detrimental in resting, sedentary subjects; however, this may also present some advantages for athletes. First, since fructose and glucose are absorbed through distinct, saturable gut transporters, co-ingestion of glucose and fructose may increase total carbohydrate absorption and oxidation...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330196/cloning-and-expression-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-suc2-gene-in-yeast-platform-and-characterization-of-recombinant-enzyme-biochemical-properties
#6
Nooshin Mohandesi, Seyed Omid Ranaei Siadat, Kamahldin Haghbeen, Ardeshir Hesampour
Invertase (EC.3.2.1.26) catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to an equimolar mixture of D-glucose and D-fructose which is of interest for various industrial applications. In this research, Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase gene (SUC2) was optimized based on Pichia pastoris codon preference. The synthetic gene was introduced into the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under the control of the inducible AOX1 promoter. High level of the extracellular recombinant invertase (R-inv) production was achieved via methanol induction for 4 days and purified by His-Tag affinity chromatography which appeared to be a mixture of glycosylated proteins with various sizes of 85-95 kDa on SDS-PAGE...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326454/quercetin-and-ascorbic-acid-suppress-fructose-induced-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-blocking-intracellular-shuttling-of-txnip-in-human-macrophage-cell-lines
#7
Jung-Yoon Choe, Seong-Kyu Kim
The aim of this study was to identify the role of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and its interaction with antioxidants in the activation of the fructose-induced NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human macrophages. The study was performed with U937 and THP-1 macrophage cell lines. Total reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, NLRP3, TXNIP, and caspase-1 protein expression was detected using western blotting. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1 gene expression...
March 22, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323273/hydrogen-and-methane-based-breath-testing-in-gastrointestinal-disorders-the-north-american-consensus
#8
Ali Rezaie, Michelle Buresi, Anthony Lembo, Henry Lin, Richard McCallum, Satish Rao, Max Schmulson, Miguel Valdovinos, Salam Zakko, Mark Pimentel
OBJECTIVES: Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. METHODS: Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322320/sweet-taste-in-apple-the-role-of-sorbitol-individual-sugars-organic-acids-and-volatile-compounds
#9
Eugenio Aprea, Mathilde Charles, Isabella Endrizzi, Maria Laura Corollaro, Emanuela Betta, Franco Biasioli, Flavia Gasperi
Sweetness is one of the main drivers of consumer preference, and thus is given high priority in apple breeding programmes. Due to the complexity of sweetness evaluation, soluble solid content (SSC) is commonly used as an estimation of this trait. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that SSC and sweet taste are poorly correlated. Though individual sugar content may vary greatly between and within apple cultivars, no previous study has tried to investigate the relationship between the amount of individual sugars, or ratios of these, and apple sweetness...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320893/regional-differences-in-nutrient-induced-secretion-of-gut-serotonin
#10
Alyce M Martin, Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Claire F Jessup, Nick J Spencer, Damien J Keating
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide the vast majority of serotonin (5-HT) in the body and constitute half of all enteroendocrine cells. EC cells respond to an array of stimuli, including various ingested nutrients. Ensuing 5-HT release from these cells plays a diverse role in regulating gut motility as well as other important responses to nutrient ingestion such as glucose absorption and fluid balance. Recent data also highlight the role of peripheral 5-HT in various pathways related to metabolic control...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320301/characterization-of-two-recombinant-3-hexulose-6-phosphate-synthases-from-the-halotolerant-obligate-methanotroph-methylomicrobium-alcaliphilum-20z
#11
O N Rozova, S Y But, V N Khmelenina, A S Reshetnikov, I I Mustakhimov, Y A Trotsenko
Two key enzymes of the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) cycle for formaldehyde fixation, 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (HPS) and 6-phospho-3-hexulose isomerase (PHI), in the aerobic halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z are encoded by the genes hps and phi and the fused gene hps-phi. The recombinant enzymes HPS-His6, PHI-His6, and the two-domain protein HPS-PHI were obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. PHI-His6, HPS-His6 (2 × 20 kDa), and the fused protein HPS-PHI (2 × 40 kDa) catalyzed formation of fructose 6-phosphate from formaldehyde and ribulose-5-phosphate with activities of 172 and 22 U/mg, respectively...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319658/moisture-mediated-interactions-between-amorphous-maltodextrins-and-crystalline-fructose
#12
Alpana Thorat, Krystin N Marrs, Mohamed K Ghorab, Vincent Meunier, Laurent Forny, Lynne S Taylor, Lisa J Mauer
The effects of coformulating amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and crystalline fructose, a deliquescent solid, on the moisture sorption, deliquescence point (RH0 ), and glass transition temperature (Tg ) behaviors were determined. Moisture sorption profiles of binary fructose:MD mixtures and individual ingredients were generated using controlled relative humidity (RH) desiccators and by dynamic vapor sorption techniques. Blends exhibited synergistic moisture uptake at RHs below the RH0 of fructose, attributed to partial dissolution of fructose in plasticized MD matrices without a significant reduction in the RH0 of the undissolved fructose...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319117/comparative-genomics-of-clavibacter-michiganensis-subspecies-pathogens-of-important-agricultural-crops
#13
James T Tambong
Subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis are important phytobacterial pathogens causing devastating diseases in several agricultural crops. The genome organizations of these pathogens are poorly understood. Here, the complete genomes of 5 subspecies (C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Cmi; C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Cms; C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, Cmn; C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, Cmi and C. michiganensis subsp. capsici, Cmc) were analyzed. This study assessed the taxonomic position of the subspecies based on 16S rRNA and genome-based DNA homology and concludes that there is ample evidence to elevate some of the subspecies to species-level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319096/hyperglycemia-exacerbates-colon-cancer-malignancy-through-hexosamine-biosynthetic-pathway
#14
A Vasconcelos-Dos-Santos, H F B R Loponte, N R Mantuano, I A Oliveira, I F de Paula, L K Teixeira, J C M de-Freitas-Junior, K C Gondim, N Heise, R Mohana-Borges, J A Morgado-Díaz, W B Dias, A R Todeschini
Hyperglycemia is a common feature of diabetes mellitus, considered as a risk factor for cancer. However, its direct effects in cancer cell behavior are relatively unexplored. Herein we show that high glucose concentration induces aberrant glycosylation, increased cell proliferation, invasion and tumor progression of colon cancer. By modulating the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), we demonstrate that hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) is involved in those processes...
March 20, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315963/enhancement-of-2-3-butanediol-production-from-jerusalem-artichoke-tuber-extract-by-a-recombinant-bacillus-sp-strain-brc1-with-increased-inulinase-activity
#15
Jang Min Park, Baek-Rock Oh, In Yeong Kang, Sun-Yeon Heo, Jeong-Woo Seo, Seung-Moon Park, Won-Kyung Hong, Chul Ho Kim
A Bacillus sp. strain named BRC1 is capable of producing 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) using hydrolysates of the Jerusalem artichoke tuber (JAT), a rich source of the fructose polymer inulin. To enhance 2,3-BD production, we undertook an extensive analysis of the Bacillus sp. BRC1 genome, identifying a putative gene (sacC) encoding a fructan hydrolysis enzyme and characterizing the activity of the resulting recombinant protein expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Introduction of the sacC gene into Bacillus sp...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315617/dietary-fructose-augments-ethanol-induced-liver-pathology
#16
Paul G Thomes, Jennifer H Benbow, Elizabeth Brandon-Warner, Kyle J Thompson, Carl Jacobs, Terrence M Donohue, Laura W Schrum
Certain dietary components when combined with alcohol exacerbate alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI). Here, we tested whether fructose, a major ingredient of the western diet, enhances the severity of ALI. We fed mice ethanol for 8 weeks in the following Lieber-DeCarli diets: (a) Regular (contains olive oil); (b) corn oil (contains corn oil); (c) fructose (contains fructose and olive oil) and (d) corn+fructose (contains fructose and corn oil). We compared indices of metabolic function and liver pathology among the different groups...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303649/transforming-sugars-into-fat-lipid-biosynthesis-using-different-sugars-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#17
Piotr Hapeta, Magdalena Rakicka, Remi Dulermo, Heber Gamboa-Meléndez, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le Coq, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Zbigniew Lazar
In an era of ever-increasing energy demands, a promising technology is being developed: the use of oleaginous microorganisms such as Yarrowia lipolytica to convert waste materials into biofuels. Here, we constructed two Y. lipolytica strains that displayed both increased lipid accumulation and a more efficient use of biomass-derived sugars, including glucose, fructose, galactose, and inulin. The first strain, Y. lipolytica YLZ150, was derived from the French wild-type strain W29. It had inhibited triacylglycerol mobilization (∆tgl4) and β-oxidation (∆pox1-6), and it overexpressed GPD1, DGA2, HXK1, the native Leloir pathway, SUC2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and INU1 from Kluyveromyces marxianus...
March 17, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301812/identification-of-a-potential-proton-donor-to-the-linking-oxygen-atom-in-a-three-metal-ion-assisted-catalysis-pathway-catalyzed-by-fructose-1-6-bisphosphatase
#18
Jinhu Wang, Zhiguo Wang, Baoping Ling, Nan Cao, Wen Wang
In this paper, the dephosphorylation mechanism of FBP to F6P catalyzed by the Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (St-Fbp) from Sulfolobus tokodaii was studied using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach. Based on the experimental results, total five possible catalytic mechanisms (path1-path4') were designed. The most possible dephosphorylation reaction follows a two-step mechanism (path2): a dephosphorylation process (with D12 being an base of W6 and residue K133 being the proton donor of the linking FBP:O4) and a proton exchange process (between K133 and the water W1)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300505/mid-infrared-spectroscopic-analysis-of-saccharides-in-aqueous-solutions-with-sodium-chloride
#19
Mikihito Kanou, Takaharu Kameoka, Ken-Ichiro Suehara, Atsushi Hashimoto
The infrared spectral characteristics of three different types of disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, and sucrose) and four different types of monosaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose, and fructose) in aqueous solutions with sodium chloride (NaCl) were determined. The infrared spectra were obtained using the FT-IR/ATR method and the absorption intensities respected the interaction between the saccharide and water with NaCl were determined. This study also focused on not only the glycosidic linkage position and the constituent monosaccharides, but also the concentration of the saccharides and NaCl and found that they have a significant influence on the infrared spectroscopic characterization of the disaccharides in an aqueous solution with NaCl...
April 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300229/impedance-spectroscopy-for-monosaccharides-detection-using-responsive-hydrogel-modified-paper-based-electrodes
#20
C M Daikuzono, C Delaney, H Tesfay, L Florea, O N Oliveira, A Morrin, D Diamond
Herein we present a novel sensor for the detection of monosaccharides (e.g. glucose, fructose) in solution, using electrical impedance spectroscopy. The sensor is based on carbon interdigitated electrodes, printed on paper using screen printing. The surface of the electrodes was modified with a thin layer of hydrogel containing acrylamide copolymerised with 20 mol% 3-(Acrylamido)phenylboronic acid (PBA). It was observed that the hydrogel layers containing 20 mol% PBA swell considerably in the presence of glucose and fructose...
March 16, 2017: Analyst
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