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Iara Karise, Fernanda Ornellas, Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva, Cristiane Matsuura, Mariano Del Sol, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Studies show that the continuous consumption of fructose can lead to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the role of Metformin in an animal model of liver injury caused by fructose intake, focusing on the molecular markers of lipogenesis, beta-oxidation, and antioxidant defenses. Male three months old C57BL/6 mice were divided into control group (C) and fructose group (F, 47% fructose), maintained for ten weeks. After, the groups received Metformin or vehicle for a further eight weeks: control (C), control + Metformin (CM), fructose (F), and fructose + Metformin (FM)...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
Jinheng Zhu, Jiyan Qi, Yongjun Fang, Xiaohu Xiao, Jiuhui Li, Jixian Lan, Chaorong Tang
Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in plant leaves have hitherto been investigated mainly in temperate plants, and rarely conducted in tandem with gene expression and sugar analysis. Here, we investigated the sugar content, gene expression, and the activity of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in the leaves of Hevea brasiliensis , a tropical tree widely cultivated for natural rubber. Sucrose, fructose and glucose were the major sugars detected in Hevea leaves at four developmental stages (I to IV), with starch and quebrachitol as minor saccharides...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jianmei Li, Xiwei He, Yang Yang, Mei Li, Chenke Xu, Rong Yu
This study aims to assess the effects and the mechanisms of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on hepatotoxicity in both normal and metabolic syndrome mouse models induced by fructose. Here, we found that SiNPs exposure lead to improved insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome mice, but markedly worsened hepatic ballooning, inflammation infiltration, and fibrosis. Moreover, SiNPs exposure aggravated liver injury in metabolic syndrome mice by causing serious DNA damage. Following SiNPs exposure, liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in metabolic syndrome mice were stimulated, which is accompanied by significantly increased malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as compared to normal mice...
February 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Patrick A Gibney, Ariel Schieler, Jonathan C Chen, Jessie M Bacha-Hummel, Maxim Botstein, Matthew Volpe, Sanford J Silverman, Yifan Xu, Bryson D Bennett, Joshua D Rabinowitz, David Botstein
Toxicity resulting from accumulation of sugar-phosphate molecules is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon, observed in multiple bacterial and eukaryotic systems, including a number of human diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in sugar-phosphate toxicity remain unclear. Using the model eukaryote S. cerevisiae , we developed two systems to accumulate human disease-associated sugar-phosphate species. One system utilizes constitutive expression of galactose permease and galactose kinase to accumulate galactose-1-phosphate, while the other system utilizes constitutive expression of a mammalian ketohexokinase gene to accumulate fructose-1-phosphate...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Md Nafiujjaman, Hwang Joon, Kwang Soo Kwak, Yong-Kyu Lee
In this study, we synthesized high quantum yield nitrogen and chlorine-doped graphene quantum dots (Cl-GQDs-N) for cancer cell imaging using simple and high production yield hydrothermal method from low-cost fructose. Prepared Cl-GQDs-N are about 30 nm in diameter and these Cl-GQDs-N display powerful blue color photoluminescence under the 365 nm UV lamp. We have further investigated their optical performances under various conditions. In vitro study shows no toxicity effect in normal and cancer cells treated with Cl-GQDs-N...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Sergey Y But, Natalia P Solntseva, Svetlana V Egorova, Ildar I Mustakhimov, Valentina N Khmelenina, Alexander Reshetnikov, Yuri A Trotsenko
Four enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism: sucrose phosphate synthase (Sps), sucrose phosphate phosphatase (Spp), sucrose synthase (Sus) and fructokinase (FruK), were obtained as his-tagged proteins from the moderately thermophilic methanotroph Methylocaldum szegediense O12. Sps, Spp, FruK and Sus demonstrated biochemical properties similar to those of other bacterial counterparts, but the translated amino acid sequences of Sps and Spp displayed high divergence from the respective microbial enzymes. The Sus of M...
February 13, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Marion E Fraunhofer, Frank Jakob, Rudi F Vogel
We wanted to identify key factors influencing the extent of β-glucan production by Lactobacillus brevis TMW 1.2112, which has been isolated from viscous, spoiled beer and which could contribute to viscosity increases of spoiled beverages via exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. In this way, we analyzed the influence of different initial pH values and carbohydrate sources on growth of and slime/β-glucan formation by this strain. In a screening of 48 carbohydrates, 14 fermentable sugars which enabled growth were identified...
February 13, 2018: Current Microbiology
Thibault Houles, Simon-Pierre Gravel, Geneviève Lavoie, Sejeong Shin, Mathilde Savall, Antoine Méant, Benoit Grondin, Louis Gaboury, Sang-Oh Yoon, Julie St-Pierre, Philippe P Roux
Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer that includes increased glucose uptake and accelerated aerobic glycolysis. This phenotype is required to fulfill anabolic demands associated with aberrant cell proliferation and is often mediated by oncogenic drivers such as activated BRAF. In this study, we show that the MAPK-activated p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) is necessary to maintain glycolytic metabolism in BRAF-mutated melanoma cells. RSK directly phosphorylated the regulatory domain of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 2 (PFKFB2), an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate during glycolysis...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Research
Elena S George, Adrienne Forsyth, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Amanda J Nicoll, Marno Ryan, Siddharth Sood, Stuart K Roberts, Audrey C Tierney
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. In the absence of effective pharmacotherapies, clinical guidelines focus primarily on weight loss to treat this condition. Established consensus, evidence-based, and clinical dietary recommendations for NAFLD are currently lacking. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence-based practical dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of NAFLD in adults. A literature review focusing on established principles for the development of clinical practice recommendations was employed using the following criteria: based on substantial evidence, ensures risk minimization, is flexible for an individual patient approach, and is open to further modification as evidence emerges...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Helga Simon-Molas, Claudia Arnedo-Pac, Pere Fontova, Anna Vidal-Alabró, Esther Castaño, Ana Rodríguez-García, Àurea Navarro-Sabaté, Núria Lloberas, Anna Manzano, Ramon Bartrons
Lymphocyte activation is associated with rapid increase of both the glycolytic activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) and the enzyme responsible for its synthesis, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2/FBPase-2). PFKFB3 gene, which encodes for the most abundant PFK-2 isoenzyme in proliferating tissues, has been found overexpressed during cell activation in several models, including immune cells. However, there is limited knowledge on the pathways underlying PFKFB3 regulation in human T-lymphocytes, and the role of this gene in human immune response...
February 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Kee Wook Jung, Myeognsook Seo, Young Hwan Cho, Young-Ok Park, So-Yoon Yoon, Jungbok Lee, Dong-Hoon Yang, In Ja Yoon, So Young Seo, Hyo Jeong Lee, Sang Hyoung Park, Kyung Jo Kim, Byong Duk Ye, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Hwoon-Yong Jung, Suk-Kyun Yang, Jin-Ho Kim, Seung-Jae Myung
Background/Aims: Fructose malabsorption (FM) mimics symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and its prevalence has increased. Diagnosing FM in IBS is challenging because of its overlap with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). We assessed the prevalence of FM by comparing patients with IBS with asymptomatic control individuals after excluding SIBO using the glucose hydrogen breath test (HBT). Methods: Patients diagnosed with IBS and asymptomatic control individuals were prospectively enrolled in the study...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Kuan Wei Se, Sib Krishna Ghoshal, Roswanira Abdul Wahab, Raja Kamarulzaman Raja Ibrahim, Mohd Nizam Lani
In this study, we propose an easy approach by combining the Fourier transform infrared and attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy together with chemometrics analysis for rapid detection and accurate quantification of five adulterants such as fructose, glucose, sucrose, corn syrup and cane sugar in stingless bees (Heterotrigona itama) honey harvested in Malaysia. Adulterants were classified using principal component analysis and soft independent modeling class analogy, where the first derivative of the spectra in the wavenumber range of 1180-750cm-1 was utilized...
March 2018: Food Research International
Matthew A Cutulle, Gregory R Armel, Dean Adam Kopsell, Henry P Wilson, James Brosnan, Jose J Vargas, Thomas E Hines, Rebecca M Koepke-Hill
Herbicides are pesticides used to eradicate unwanted plants in both crop and non-crop environments. These chemistries are toxic to weeds due to inhibition of key enzymes or disruption of essential biochemical processes required for weedy plants to survive. Crops can survive systemic herbicide applications through various forms of detoxification including metabolism that can be enhanced by safeners. Field studies were conducted near Louisville, TN and Painter, VA to determine how the herbicides mesotrione, topramezone, nicosulfuron, and atrazine applied with or without the safener isoxadifen-ethyl would impact the nutritional quality of 'Incredible' sweet corn (Zea mays L...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mariarosa Maietta, Raffaella Colombo, Federica Corana, Adele Papetti
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in vivo is associated with many chronic disorders such as diabetes, renal failure, aging, and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to expand the knowledge about the functional properties of Origanum dictamnus L. beverage (Cretan tea) by an investigation about the inhibitory effects on the formation of AGEs and the capacity to trap dicarbonyl compounds. Dittany infusion was characterized for its polyphenolic composition by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n and twenty compounds were detected...
February 12, 2018: Food & Function
Jaspreet Kalra, Suresh Babu Mangali, Audesh Bhat, Indu Dhar, Mary Priyanka Udumula, Arti Dhar
Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) activated protein kinase R (PKR), a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase is a key inducer of inflammation, insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in obesity. Recent studies have demonstrated that PKR can respond to metabolic stress in mice as well as in humans. However the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of high fructose (HF) in cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK 52E) derived from rat kidney and to investigate whether inhibition of PKR could prevent any deleterious effects of HF in these cells...
February 11, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Motharasan Manogaran, Siti Aqlima Ahmad, Nur Adeela Yasid, Hafeez Muhammad Yakasai, Mohd Yunus Shukor
In this novel study, we report on the use of two molybdenum-reducing bacteria with the ability to utilise the herbicide glyphosate as the phosphorus source. The bacteria reduced sodium molybdate to molybdenum blue (Mo-blue), a colloidal and insoluble product, which is less toxic. The characterisation of the molybdenum-reducing bacteria was carried out using resting cells immersed in low-phosphate molybdenum media. Two glyphosate-degrading bacteria, namely Burkholderia vietnamiensis AQ5-12 and Burkholderia sp...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Motharasan Manogaran, Mohd Yunus Shukor, Nur Adeela Yasid, Khalilah Abdul Khalil, Siti Aqlima Ahmad
The herbicide glyphosate is often used to control weeds in agricultural lands. However, despite its ability to effectively kill weeds at low cost, health problems are still reported due to its toxicity level. The removal of glyphosate from the environment is usually done by microbiological process since chemical process of degradation is ineffective due to the presence of highly stable bonds. Therefore, finding glyphosate-degrading microorganisms in the soil of interest is crucial to remediate this glyphosate...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Lynette Lincoln, Sunil S More
This study focused on the purification and characterization of an extracellular β-d-fructofuranosidase or invertase from Aspergillus sojae JU12. The protein was purified by size exclusion chromatography with 5.41 fold and 10.87% recovery. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be ~ 35 kDa using SDS-PAGE and confirmed by deconvoluted mass spectrometry. The fungal β-d-fructofuranosidase was suggested to be a monomer by native PAGE and zymography, and was found to be a glycoprotein possessing 68...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
William Black, Linyue Zhang, Cody Kamoku, James C Liao, Han Li
Coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent pathways have been explored extensively for the biosynthesis of fuels and chemicals. While CoA-dependent mechanisms are widely used to elongate carbon chains in a linear fashion, branch-making chemistry has not been incorporated. In this study, we demonstrated the production of isobutanol, a branched-chain alcohol that can be used as a gasoline substitute, using a novel CoA-dependent pathway in recombinant Ralstonia eutropha H16. The designed pathway is constituted of three modules: chain elongation, rearrangement, and modification...
February 11, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Yeong-Jun Park, Byung Kwon Jung, Sung-Jun Hong, Gun-Seok Park, Jerald Conrad Ibal, HuyQuang Pham, Jae-Ho Shin
The enzyme xylose isomerase (EC, XI) is responsible for theconversion of an aldose to ketose, especially xylose to xylulose. Owing to the ability of XI to isomerize glucose to fructose, this enzyme is used in the food industry to prepare high-fructose corn syrup. Therefore, we studiedthe characteristics of XI from Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis G10, a thermophilic bacterium. First, a gene coding for XI (xylA) was insertedinto the pET-21a (+) expression vector and the construct was transformed into an Escherichia coli competent cell BL21 (DE3)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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