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Fish oil and cancer

Alfheidur Haraldsdottir, Laufey Steingrimsdottir, Unnur Valdimarsdottir, Thor Aspelund, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Tamara B Harris, Lenore Launer, Lorelei A Mucci, Edward L Giovannucci, Hans-Olov Adami, Vilmundur Gudnason, Johanna E Torfadottir
BACKGROUND: Little is known about fish intake throughout the life course and the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: We used data on the first residence of 9,340 women born 1908-1935 in the Reykjavik Study as well as food frequency data for different periods of life from a subgroup of the cohort entering the AGES-Reykjavik Study (n = 2,882). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 27.3 years, 744 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in the Reykjavik Study...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Zhenzhen Zhang, Mark Garzotto, Tomasz M Beer, Philippe Thuillier, Stephen Lieberman, Motomi Mori, Wesley A Stoller, Paige E Farris, Jackilen Shannon
Animal and human studies suggest fish oil and green tea may have protective effect on prostate cancer. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been hypothesized to be linked to chemoprotective effects of both compounds. This study evaluated the independent and joint effects of fish oil (FO) and green tea supplement (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG) on FAS and Ki-67 levels in prostate tissue. Through a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial with 2 × 2 factorial design, 89 men scheduled for repeat prostate biopsy following an initial negative prostate biopsy were randomized into either FO alone (1...
September 20, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Khurram Rehman, Mohd Hanif Zulfakar
PURPOSE: To characterize bigel system as a topical drug delivery vehicle and to establish the immunomodulatory role of imiquimod-fish oil combination against skin cancer and inflammation resulting from chemical carcinogenesis. METHODS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigel colloidal system was prepared using a blend of carbopol hydrogel and fish oil oleogel. Bigels were first characterized for their mechanical properties and compared to conventional gel systems. Ex vivo permeation studies were performed on murine skin to analyze the ability of the bigels to transport drug across skin and to predict the release mechanism via mathematical modelling...
September 12, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Abilasha Gayani Jayathilake, Paul Vincent Senior, Xiao Qun Su
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The current available treatments for CRC include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, surgery is only useful when the disease is diagnosed at the earlier stage. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with numerous side effects that decrease the patients' quality of life. Safer, effective alternatives, such as natural compounds, to chemotherapy are desirable. This study assessed the efficacy of free fatty acid (FFA) extract of krill oil on three human CRC cells lines...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Mark F McCarty, James DiNicolantonio
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), generated in the microenvironment of cancer cells, can drive the proliferation, invasion, and migration of cancer cells by activating G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Moreover, in cancer cells that have metastasized to bone, LPA signaling can promote osteolysis by inducing cancer cell production of cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8, which can stimulate osteoblasts to secrete RANKL, a key promoter of osteoclastogenesis. Indeed, in cancers prone to metastasize to bone, LPA appears to be a major driver of the expansion of osteolytic bone metastases...
August 25, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Anna Boss, Karen S Bishop, Gareth Marlow, Matthew P G Barnett, Lynnette R Ferguson
The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO...
2016: Nutrients
Hye-Won Yum, Hye-Kyung Na, Young-Joon Surh
The implication of inflammatory tissue damage in pathophysiology of human cancer as well as some metabolic disorders has been under intense investigation. Numerous studies have identified a series of critical signaling molecules involved in cellular responses to inflammatory stimuli. These include nuclear factor κB, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1. The proper regulation of these transcription factors mediating pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling hence provides an important strategy for the chemoprevention of inflammation-associated cancer...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Eun Ah Song, Hyeyoung Kim
The human diet contains low amounts of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high amounts of ω-6 PUFAs, which has been reported to contribute to the incidence of cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of colon, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. The ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), shows anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis of some human cancer cells without toxicity against normal cells. DHA induces oxidative stress and oxidative DNA adduct formation by depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the mitochondrial function of cancer cells...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ariel D Quiroga, María P Ceballos, Juan P Parody, Carla G Comanzo, Florencia Lorenzetti, Gerardo B Pisani, María T Ronco, María de L Alvarez, María C Carrilloa
It is accepted that cancer development is associated with metabolic changes. Previously, we established a model of hepatic preneoplasia in which adult rats were subjected to a 2-phase model of hepatocarcinogenesis (initiated-promoted, IP) for 6weeks until they develop altered hepatic foci (AHF). Here, we found that a whole metabolic shift occurs in order to favor cancer development. IP animals presented with increased plasma lipids due to increased VLDL secretion as well as increased liver lipid accretion due to stimulated transacetylase activity rather than lipogenesis, compared to control rats...
August 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Navneet Agnihotri, Gayatri Sharma, Isha Rani, Renuka, Archana Bhatnagar
Cancer cells are more susceptible to metabolic perturbations due to impaired electron transport chain (ETC) that promote uncontrolled proliferation. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in bioenergetics and apoptosis, hence are considered as a promising target in tumor cell eradication. Therefore, the present study is designed to elucidate chemopreventive action of fish oil (FO) in combination with corn oil (CO) on mitochondria in colorectal cancer (CRC). Male Wistar rats were divided into groups depending on dietary regimen-Control group, FO+CO(1:1) and FO+CO(2...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Parinaz Ahangar, Mohammad Reza Sam, Vahid Nejati, Reza Habibian
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of chemotherapy is often limited by the side effects on normal tissues. Consequently, the search for new therapeutic agents with minimal toxicity is of particular interest in cancer management. Many studies have shown that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have cytotoxic effects against different kinds of cancer cells. However, little attention has been paid to explore the effect of DHA on undifferentiated colorectal cancer cells. In this study, the effects of DHA on LS174T cells as an early stage of tumor initiation were investigated...
April 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Kazuki Moro, Masayuki Nagahashi, Rajesh Ramanathan, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai
Inflammation is a central process in several disorders and contributes to cancer progression. Inflammation involves a complex cascade of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signaling events with protein and lipid mediators. Recent advances in lipid detection have revealed the importance of lipid mediators in inflammation. Omega three polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are found naturally in fish oil and have been extensively studied in multiple inflammatory diseases with improved outcomes. Resolvins are thought to be the active metabolites of ω-3 PUFA, and are responsible for facilitating the resolving phase of acute inflammation...
July 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Lionel Ulmann, Vincent Blanckaert, Virginie Mimouni, Mats X Andersson, Benoît Schoefs, Benoît Chénais
The fatty acids of seed plants and microalgae stored in triglyceride are all produced in the plastid and incorporated into triglycerides by a complex biochemical exchange between the plastid envelope and the endoplasmic reticulum. The oils of seed plants provide the basis for vegetal fat production and the microalgal fats represent an important part of the basal food web of the marine environment. The health-promoting properties of these various sources of fats and in particular the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine microalgae are widely recognized...
July 22, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Kun Zhang, Yanan Chang, Zhemin Shi, Xiaohui Han, Yawei Han, Qingbin Yao, Zhimei Hu, Hongmei Cui, Lina Zheng, Tao Han, Wei Hong
Elevated levels of the transcriptional regulators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivators with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), key effectors of the Hippo pathway, have been shown to play essential roles in controlling liver cell fate and the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) has been positively associated with a number of health benefits including prevention and reduction of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation and cancers...
2016: Scientific Reports
J M Llop-Talaveron, M B Badia-Tahull, E Leiva-Badosa, J M Ramon-Torrel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intravenous fat emulsions are associated with liver disease and there is some evidence that the administration of intravenous fish oil (FO) may be useful in reversing it. The aim of our study was to assess whether there are differences in the changes of liver function tests (LFTs) in hospitalized adult patients with parenteral nutrition (PN) with FO and vegetal lipids vs patients without FO. The secondary aim was to study the relationship between impaired LFT and FO...
July 5, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jiyuan Bu, Yang Dou, Xiaodi Tian, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Stroke is the third commonest cause of death following cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In particular, in recent years, the morbidity and mortality of stroke keep remarkable growing. However, stroke still captures people attention far less than cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Past studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the progress of cerebral injury induced by stroke. Evidence is accumulating that the dietary supplementation of fish oil exhibits beneficial effects on several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Monique Aucoin, Kieran Cooley, Christopher Knee, Heidi Fritz, Lynda G Balneaves, Rodney Breau, Dean Fergusson, Becky Skidmore, Raimond Wong, Dugald Seely
Background The use of natural health products in prostate cancer (PrCa) is high despite a lack of evidence with respect to safety and efficacy. Fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids possess anti-inflammatory effects and preclinical data suggest a protective effect on PrCa incidence and progression; however, human studies have yielded conflicting results. Methods A search of OVID MEDLINE, Pre-MEDLINE, Embase, and the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) was completed for human interventional or observational data assessing the safety and efficacy of fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids in the incidence and progression of PrCa...
June 29, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Heng Zhao, Beth R Pflug, Xianyin Lai, Mu Wang
Prostate cancer is one of the leading cancers in men. Taking dietary supplements, such as fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been employed as a strategy to lower prostate cancer risk and control disease progression. In this study, we investigated the global phosphoproteomic changes induced by FO using a combination of phosphoprotein-enrichment strategy and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. We found that FO induces many more phosphorylation changes than oleic acid when they both are compared to control group...
September 2016: Proteomics
Liisa Byberg, Andrea Bellavia, Susanna C Larsson, Nicola Orsini, Alicja Wolk, Karl Michaëlsson
A Mediterranean diet, known to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, may also influence the risk of hip fracture although previous studies present discrepant results. We therefore aimed to determine whether the rate of hip fracture was associated with degree of adherence to a Mediterranean diet. We combined two Swedish cohort studies consisting of 37,903 men and 33,403 women (total n = 71,333, mean age 60 years) free of previous cardiovascular disease and cancer who answered a medical and a food-frequency questionnaire in 1997...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
A M Eltweri, A L Thomas, H L Fisk, A Arshad, P C Calder, A R Dennison, D J Bowrey
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that short term intravenous (IV) administration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is more effective than oral supplementation at promoting incorporation of the bioactive omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into plasma, blood cells and tissues. The effect of repeated short term IV infusion of omega-3 PUFAs was investigated in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer during palliative chemotherapy...
June 7, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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