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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931190/surgical-trainees-and-powered-drill-use-do-not-affect-type-i-tympanoplasty-hearing-outcomes
#1
David T Kent, David H Chi, Dennis J Kitsko
The purposes of this study were to determine if use of a powered drill or trainee involvement during tympanoplasty is associated with a decline in sensorineural hearing, as well as to examine whether trainee involvement affected tympanic membrane (TM) closure rates. This study was a chart review (February 2006 to October 2011) of 172 pediatric otolaryngology patients undergoing type I tympanoplasty for TM perforation of any etiology at a tertiary-care pediatric otolaryngology practice. Data collected included air conduction (AC) at 250 to 8,000 Hz, speech reception thresholds, bone conduction (BC) at 500 to 4,000 Hz, and air-bone gap (ABG) at 500 to 4,000 Hz...
September 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930769/acute-alcohol-consumption-directly-increases-hiv-transmission-risk-a-randomized-controlled-experiment
#2
Paul A Shuper, Narges Joharchi, Peter M Monti, Mona Loutfy, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption has frequently been purported as a driver of condomless sex and HIV transmission, but to date, experimental evidence for the causal risk-taking impact of alcohol among HIV-positive populations is lacking. The present experiment sought to determine whether acute alcohol consumption has a direct causal impact on condomless sex intentions among HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), and to assess whether alcohol's impact differs between MSM who are HIV-positive versus HIV-negative...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930661/il-1-family-cytokines-use-distinct-molecular-mechanisms-to-signal-through-their-shared-co-receptor
#3
Sebastian Günther, Daniel Deredge, Amanda L Bowers, Alessandra Luchini, Daniel A Bonsor, Robert Beadenkopf, Lance Liotta, Patrick L Wintrode, Eric J Sundberg
Within the interleukin 1 (IL-1) cytokine family, IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) is the co-receptor for eight receptor-cytokine pairs, including those involving cytokines IL-1β and IL-33. Unlike IL-1β, IL-33 does not have a signaling complex that includes both its cognate receptor, ST2, and the shared co-receptor IL-1RAcP, which we now present here. Although the IL-1β and IL-33 complexes shared structural features and engaged identical molecular surfaces of IL-1RAcP, these cytokines had starkly different strategies for co-receptor engagement and signal activation...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930054/impact-of-substance-messages-in-music-videos-on-youth-beware-the-influence-of-connectedness-and-its-potential-prevention-shielding-effect
#4
Cristel Antonia Russell, Véronique Régnier-Denois, Boris Chapoton, Denise Buhrau
OBJECTIVE: Two studies were conducted to investigate the role of connectedness with music videos in affecting youths' beliefs about substances (alcohol and tobacco) embedded therein and the potential for a prevention message to limit the impact of these images. METHOD: The first study used cross-sectional data from a national sample of 1,023 adolescents (54.3% male) to evaluate the relationship between youths' consumption of music videos and their beliefs about the consequences of consuming alcohol and tobacco...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929893/long-term-health-outcomes-of-childhood-sexual-abuse-and-peer-sexual-contact-among-an-urban-sample-of-behaviourally-bisexual-latino-men
#5
Brian Mattera, Ethan C Levine, Omar Martinez, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Carolina Hausmann-Stabile, José Bauermeister, M Isa Fernandez, Don Operario, Carlos Rodriguez-Diaz
While previous research indicates high rates of childhood sexual abuse among Latino men who have sex with men, few studies have examined the long-term health outcomes of childhood sexual abuse specifically among behaviourally bisexual Latino men. In a sample of 148 behaviourally bisexual Latino men in New York City, we examined associations between childhood sexual abuse and multiple dimensions of adult health: sexual risk behaviours; sexually transmitted infections incidence; polydrug use; depressive symptoms; and perceived stress...
September 20, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928681/how-does-l1-and-l2-exposure-impact-l1-performance-in-bilingual-children-evidence-from-polish-english-migrants-to-the-united-kingdom
#6
Ewa Haman, Zofia Wodniecka, Marta Marecka, Jakub Szewczyk, Marta Białecka-Pikul, Agnieszka Otwinowska, Karolina Mieszkowska, Magdalena Łuniewska, Joanna Kołak, Aneta Miękisz, Agnieszka Kacprzak, Natalia Banasik, Małgorzata Foryś-Nogala
Most studies on bilingual language development focus on children's second language (L2). Here, we investigated first language (L1) development of Polish-English early migrant bilinguals in four domains: vocabulary, grammar, phonological processing, and discourse. We first compared Polish language skills between bilinguals and their Polish non-migrant monolingual peers, and then investigated the influence of the cumulative exposure to L1 and L2 on bilinguals' performance. We then examined whether high exposure to L1 could possibly minimize the gap between monolinguals and bilinguals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928280/the-enigma-of-embryonic-diapause
#7
REVIEW
Marilyn B Renfree, Jane C Fenelon
Embryonic diapause - a period of embryonic suspension at the blastocyst stage - is a fascinating phenomenon that occurs in over 130 species of mammals, ranging from bears and badgers to mice and marsupials. It might even occur in humans. During diapause, there is minimal cell division and greatly reduced metabolism, and development is put on hold. Yet there are no ill effects for the pregnancy when it eventually continues. Multiple factors can induce diapause, including seasonal supplies of food, temperature, photoperiod and lactation...
September 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927341/perceived-need-of-and-interest-in-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-amongst-men-who-have-sex-with-men-attending-three-sexual-health-clinics-in-london-uk
#8
Lauren Bull, Pavle Dimitrijevic, Sophie Beverley, Alex Scarborough, Sundhiya Mandalia, Olamide Dosekun, Tristan Barber, Iain Reeves, Sheena McCormack, Michael Rayment
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has proven efficacy in reducing the risk of HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM), but has not yet been commissioned in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived need and benefit (or experience of) PrEP among HIV-negative MSM attending sexual health clinics. HIV-negative MSM attending three sexual health centres in London, UK were opportunistically invited to complete a questionnaire. Data collected comprised demographic data and sexual and drug use behaviours as well as questions regarding perceptions of risk and need for PrEP...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926679/medical-marijuana-in-pediatric-oncology-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-implications-for-practice
#9
REVIEW
Prasanna Ananth, Anne Reed-Weston, Joanne Wolfe
Medical marijuana (MM) has become increasingly legal at the state level and accessible to children with serious illness. Pediatric patients with cancer may be particularly receptive to MM, given purported benefits in managing cancer-related symptoms. In this review, we examine the evidence for MM as a supportive care agent in pediatric oncology. We describe the current legal status of MM, mechanism of action, common formulations, and potential benefits versus risks for pediatric oncology patients. We offer suggestions for how providers might approach MM requests...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926152/the-patients-perspective-of-sustaining-a-fall-in-hospital-a-qualitative-study
#10
Stephanie Gettens, Paul Fulbrook, Melanie Jessup, Nancy Low Choy
AIM: To understand the patient's perspective of falling in hospital. BACKGROUND: A fall in hospital can affect a patient physically and psychologically, increasing their hospital length of stay and potentially putting them at risk of further complications. Despite a wealth of literature on falls that focuses on risk assessment, preventive interventions and cost, very little research has focused on the experience of the patient that has fallen, particularly within the acute hospital setting...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924603/dieulafoy-s-lesion-of-the-rectum-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Mo Wang, Xiang Bu, Jing Zhang, Shanshan Zhu, Ying Zheng, Xinxing Tantai, Shiyang Ma
One patient with Dieulafoy's lesion (DL) of the rectum who had a history of anal receptive intercourse is described and the relevant literature reviewed. DL is rare in clinical practice and is extremely rare in the rectum. It often affects patients with no history of cirrhosis or gastrointestinal disease and occurs with abrupt or recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. Visible vessels can usually be found by endoscopy and coinstantaneous treatments are essential while surgical interventions can occur when necessary...
September 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922816/-people-love-player-s-cigarette-advertising-and-the-teenage-consumer-in-post-war-britain
#12
Daniel O'Neill
This article explores the background, creation and reception of a prominent cigarette advertising campaign from the early 1960s. The advertisements featured young couples falling in love as they shared Player's Medium cigarettes together. As such, the advertisements reflected the central place of the teenager within post-war British consumer culture. The campaign was built upon the insights of market research, particularly that carried out by Mark Abrams and his research organization Research Services Limited...
September 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922355/image-identification-from-brain-activity-using-the-population-receptive-field-model
#13
Wietske Zuiderbaan, Ben M Harvey, Serge O Dumoulin
A goal of computational models is not only to explain experimental data but also to make new predictions. A current focus of computational neuroimaging is to predict features of the presented stimulus from measured brain signals. These computational neuroimaging approaches may be agnostic about the underlying neural processes or may be biologically inspired. Here, we use the biologically inspired population receptive field (pRF) approach to identify presented images from fMRI recordings of the visual cortex, using an explicit model of the underlying neural response selectivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922115/colour-constancy-beyond-the-classical-receptive-field
#14
Arash Akbarinia, C Alejandro Parraga
The problem of removing illuminant variations to preserve the colours of objects (colour constancy) has already been solved by the human brain using mechanisms that rely largely on centre-surround computations of local contrast. In this paper we adopt some of these biological solutions described by long known physiological findings into a simple, fully automatic, functional model (termed Adaptive Surround Modulation or ASM). In ASM, the size of a visual neuron's receptive field (RF) as well as the relationship with its surround varies according to the local contrast within the stimulus, which in turn determines the nature of the centre-surround normalisation of cortical neurons higher up in the processing chain...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921762/inhibition-shapes-the-organization-of-hippocampal-representations
#15
Sam McKenzie
Hippocampal neurons become tuned to stimuli that predict behaviorally salient outcomes. This plasticity suggests that memory formation depends upon shifts in how different anatomical inputs can drive hippocampal activity. Here, I present evidence that inhibitory neurons can provide such a mechanism for learning-related changes in the tuning of pyramidal cells. Inhibitory currents arriving on the dendrites of pyramidal cells determine whether an excitatory input can drive action potential output. Specificity and plasticity of this dendritic modulation allows for precise, modifiable changes in how afferent inputs are integrated, a process that defines a neuron's receptive field...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921750/successful-treatment-with-intrauterine-delivery-of-dexamethasone-for-repeated-implantation-failure
#16
Tao Zhang, Chunyu Huang, Yan Du, Ruochun Lian, Meilan Mo, Yong Zeng, Gil Mor
PROBLEM: Effective therapy for endometrial receptivity of patients with repeated embryo implantation failure (RIF) is far undeveloped. Whether intrauterine perfusion of dexamethasone (DXM), local administration of drugs with less systematic side-effects, benefit for embryo implantation by suppressing uterine NK (uNK) cells to improve endometrial receptivity remains unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: Women with RIF were analyzed for the correlation between the percentage of uNK cells during implantation window and following clinical pregnancy rate to determine the appropriate range of uNK for embryo implantation...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919924/comparison-of-parent-report-and-direct-assessment-of-child-skills-in-toddlers
#17
Lauren E Miller, Kayla A Perkins, Yael G Dai, Deborah A Fein
BACKGROUND: There are unique challenges associated with measuring development in early childhood. Two primary sources of information are used: parent report and direct assessment. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses, particularly when used to identify and diagnose developmental delays. The present study aimed to evaluate consistency between parent report and direct assessment of child skills in toddlers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) across receptive language, expressive language, and fine motor domains...
September 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919854/pranas-a-new-platform-for-retinal-analysis-and-simulation
#18
Bruno Cessac, Pierre Kornprobst, Selim Kraria, Hassan Nasser, Daniela Pamplona, Geoffrey Portelli, Thierry Viéville
The retina encodes visual scenes by trains of action potentials that are sent to the brain via the optic nerve. In this paper, we describe a new free access user-end software allowing to better understand this coding. It is called PRANAS (https://pranas.inria.fr), standing for Platform for Retinal ANalysis And Simulation. PRANAS targets neuroscientists and modelers by providing a unique set of retina-related tools. PRANAS integrates a retina simulator allowing large scale simulations while keeping a strong biological plausibility and a toolbox for the analysis of spike train population statistics...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916507/cardiac-patients-experiences-and-perceptions-of-social-media-mixed-methods-study
#19
Stephanie R Partridge, Anne C Grunseit, Patrick Gallagher, Becky Freeman, Blythe J O'Hara, Lis Neubeck, Sarah Due, Glenn Paull, Ding Ding, Adrian Bauman, Philayrath Phongsavan, Kellie Roach, Leonie Sadler, Helen Glinatsis, Robyn Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Traditional in-person cardiac rehabilitation has substantial benefits for cardiac patients, which are offset by poor attendance. The rapid increase in social media use in older adults provides an opportunity to reach patients who are eligible for cardiac rehabilitation but unable to attend traditional face-to-face groups. However, there is a paucity of research on cardiac patients' experiences and perspectives on using social media to support their health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe cardiac rehabilitation patients' experiences in using social media in general and their perspective on using social media, particularly Facebook, to support their cardiac health and secondary prevention efforts...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916470/receptive-field-properties-of-cat-perigeniculate-neurons-correlate-with-excitatory-and-inhibitory-connectivity-to-lgn-relay-neurons
#20
Hironobu Osaki, Tomoyuki Naito, Shogo Soma, Hiromichi Sato
The cat perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) is a visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus that consists of GABAergic neurons. It receives excitatory axon-collateral input from relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to which it provides inhibitory input. Thus, it is usually argued that the PGN works as feedback inhibition to the LGN. At the single neuron level, however, this circuit can also provide lateral inhibition. Which inhibition dominates in the visual circuit of the thalamus has yet to be well characterized...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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