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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934559/psychological-perspectives-on-interrogation
#1
Aldert Vrij, Christian A Meissner, Ronald P Fisher, Saul M Kassin, Charles A Morgan, Steven M Kleinman
Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881455/the-impact-of-enhancing-perceived-self-efficacy-in-torture-survivors
#2
Naser Morina, Richard A Bryant, Emma L Doolan, Chantal Martin-Sölch, Michael Plichta, Monique C Pfaltz, Ulrich Schnyder, Matthis Schick, Angela Nickerson
BACKGROUND: Perceived self-efficacy (SE) is an important factor underlying psychological well-being. Refugees suffer many experiences that can compromise SE. This study tested the impact of enhancing perceived SE on coping with trauma reminders and distress tolerance in tortured refugees. METHODS: Torture survivors (N = 40) were administered a positive SE induction in which they retrieved mastery-related autobiographical memories, or a non-SE (NSE) induction, and then viewed trauma-related images...
September 7, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877213/ostracism-via-virtual-chat-room-effects-on-basic-needs-anger-and-pain
#3
Ana Paula Gonçalves Donate, Lucas Murrins Marques, Olivia Morgan Lapenta, Manish Kumar Asthana, David Amodio, Paulo Sérgio Boggio
Ostracism is characterized by a social pain provoked by being excluded and ignored. In order to address the effects of social ostracism in virtual non-physical interactions, we developed a more realistic paradigm as an alternative to Cyberball and assessed its effects on participant's expression of basic social needs, emotional experience and painful feeling. The chat room consisted of controlled social dialogue interactions between participants and two other (confederate) chat room partners. Exclusion was manipulated by varying the number of messages a participant received (15% and 33% in exclusion and inclusion, respectively)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855961/the-mental-health-and-help-seeking-behaviour-of-resettled-afghan-refugees-in-australia
#4
Shameran Slewa-Younan, Anisa Yaser, Maria Gabriela Uribe Guajardo, Haider Mannan, Caroline A Smith, Jonathan M Mond
BACKGROUND: Psychological trauma, in particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, are highly prevalent among resettled refugees. However, little is known regarding the mental health status and associated help-seeking behaviour of resettled Afghan refugees in Australia. METHODS: A sample of 150 resettled Afghan refugees (74 males; mean age 32.8 years, SD = 12.2) living in Adelaide, South Australia were recruited. Self-reported measures of PTSD, depression, exposure to traumatic events, functional impairment, self-recognition of PTSD symptomatology and help-seeking behaviours were completed...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853003/-preventive-human-rights-monitoring-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-and-welfare-institutions
#5
Ernst Berger, Caroline Paar
Since 1 July 2012 the Austrian Ombudsman Board (AOB) together with its six regional expert commissions form the so called "National Prevention Mechanism" implementing the UN Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT). The commissions are mandated to conduct regular, unrestricted and unannounced visits to all types of places in which there is or can be a deprivation or restriction of personal liberty, such as prisons, police stations, but also psychiatric hospitals or residential homes/groups for children and juveniles supervised by youth welfare services...
August 30, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838279/do-resettlement-variables-predict-psychiatric-treatment-outcomes-in-a-sample-of-asylum-seeking-survivors-of-torture
#6
David Whitsett, Martin F Sherman
PURPOSE: Mental health clinicians who work with asylum seekers provide services to patients who face stressful everyday living conditions. However, little is known about how these problems potentially impact psychiatric treatment within these populations. The purpose of this study was thus to examine whether resettlement factors predict outcomes of a mental health intervention for a sample of asylum-seeking survivors of torture. METHODS: The study included data from a US outpatient clinic that specialized in treating asylum-seeking survivors of torture...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820231/interventions-for-treating-persistent-pain-in-survivors-of-torture
#7
REVIEW
Emma Baird, Amanda C de C Williams, Leslie Hearn, Kirstine Amris
BACKGROUND: Persistent (chronic) pain is a frequent complaint in survivors of torture, particularly but not exclusively pain in the musculoskeletal system. Torture survivors may have no access to health care; where they do, they may not be recognised when they present, and the care available often falls short of their needs. There is a tendency in state and non-governmental organisations' services to focus on mental health, with poor understanding of persistent pain, while survivors may have many other legal, welfare, and social problems that take precedence over health care...
August 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800997/temporary-removal-palliative-care-and-human-rights-a-decade-of-evolution-in-standards
#8
Tamar Ezer, Diederik Lohman, Gabriela B de Luca
The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794237/prolonged-immigration-detention-complicity-and-boycotts
#9
Melanie Jansen, Alanna Sue Tin, David Isaacs
Australia's punitive policy towards people seeking asylum deliberately causes severe psychological harm and meets recognised definitions of torture. Consequently, there is a tension between doctors' obligation not to be complicit in torture and doctors' obligation to provide best possible care to their patients, including those seeking asylum. In this paper, we explore the nature of complicity and discuss the arguments for and against a proposed call for doctors to boycott working in immigration detention. We conclude that a degree of complicity is unavoidable when working in immigration detention, but that it may be ethically justifiable...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767007/-i-am-not-a-friend-to-men-embodiment-and-desire-in-magnus-hirschfeld-s-transvestites-case-studies
#10
Emma Heaney
This article reads sexological case studies of the fin-de siècle that contain accounts of trans women's lives in the period. It argues that these sources contradict the diagnostic criteria that doctors determine as the factors that define trans feminine identity in the period: desire for men, social isolation, and tortured bodily dissatisfaction. Chief among these contradictions is the prevalence of the expression of trans women's desire for women and easy participation in women's social and kinship networks...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Lesbian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766413/laughing-and-innovating
#11
Joanna James
After qualifying as a nurse at St Mary's Hospital in London in 1988, Joanna James spent 20 years working in emergency departments. She co-developed and ran a successful education programme around the needs of refugees and survivors of torture. In 2008 she changed direction and started working on improving services for people with dementia in hospital. She is now lead nurse for dementia at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust in London.
August 2, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763568/comorbidity-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-in-tortured-treatment-seeking-refugees
#12
Angela Nickerson, Matthis Schick, Ulrich Schnyder, Richard A Bryant, Naser Morina
Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression is common in refugee groups; however, little is known about the predictors and correlates of comorbidity in treatment-seeking refugees. Participants in this study were 134 refugees resettled in Switzerland. Most participants were from Turkey, Iran, and Sri Lanka, and 92.7% had been exposed to torture. Self-report measures were implemented to assess PTSD, depression, mental and physical health-related quality of life (QoL), as well as pre- and postmigration experiences...
August 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762707/primary-care-for-refugees-challenges-and-opportunities
#13
REVIEW
Ranit Mishori, Shoshana Aleinikoff, Dawn Davis
Since 1975, more than 3 million refugees have settled in the United States, fleeing unrest, conflict, and persecution. Refugees represent diverse ethnic, cultural, religious, socioeconomic, and educational backgrounds. Despite this heterogeneity, there are commonalities in the refugee experience. Before resettlement, all refugees must undergo an overseas medical screening to detect conditions that pose a potential health threat in the United States. On arrival, they should undergo an examination to detect diseases with high prevalence in their country of origin or departure...
July 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751340/making-a-difference-working-at-freedom-from-torture
#14
Mary Lowth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748986/chronic-acromioclavicular-dislocation-and-torture-allegations-in-detention
#15
M Yassine Braham, M Jedidi, Y Chkirbene, M Kamel Souguir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738316/-what-kept-me-going-a-qualitative-study-of-avoidant-responses-to-war-related-adversity-and-perpetration-of-violence-by-former-forcibly-recruited-children-and-youth-in-the-acholi-region-of-northern-uganda
#16
Helle Harnisch, Edith Montgomery
This qualitative study investigates what, according to 36 former forcibly recruited women and men, enabled them to "keep on going" during and after their forced recruitment in the twenty-year-long civil war in northern Uganda. Furthermore, the study conveys the ways most of the former forcibly recruited kept on going and today cope with ongoing war-related adversity and difficult reintegration processes without relying on psycho-social intervention. Thirty-five of the 36 women and men were forcibly recruited when they were children by the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) from the Acholi region of northern Uganda...
July 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728860/-palimpsest-scar-lesions-in-a-context-of-torture-darfur-sudan
#17
P Charlier, F Bou Abdallah, Y Mostefai Dulac, S Deo, S Jacqueline, L Brun, C Hervé
BACKGROUND: As a result of the current exponentially growing refugee population from the Middle-East and East Africa (Sudan, Darfur, Eritrea), clinicians (including forensic pathologists) are seeing atypical skin lesions, mainly of a traumatic nature, but in some cases associated with long-standing lesions related to ethnic practices. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case of torture sequelae is presented herein in a patient originally from Darfur (Sudan): cutaneous incisions were made on old scars several times using a knife...
July 17, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720167/recovery-from-dsm-iv-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-who-world-mental-health-surveys
#18
A J Rosellini, H Liu, M V Petukhova, N A Sampson, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, J Alonso, G Borges, R Bruffaerts, E J Bromet, G de Girolamo, P de Jonge, J Fayyad, S Florescu, O Gureje, J M Haro, H Hinkov, E G Karam, N Kawakami, K C Koenen, S Lee, J P Lépine, D Levinson, F Navarro-Mateu, B D Oladeji, S O'Neill, B-E Pennell, M Piazza, J Posada-Villa, K M Scott, D J Stein, Y Torres, M C Viana, A M Zaslavsky, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors. METHODS: The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-course after one randomly-selected trauma, allowing retrospective estimates of PTSD duration. Prior traumas, childhood adversities (CAs), and other lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were examined as predictors using discrete-time person-month survival analysis among the 1575 respondents with lifetime PTSD...
July 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712422/torturing-personification-of-chronic-pain-among-torture-survivors
#19
Noga Tsur, Golan Shahar, Ruth Defrin, Yael Lahav, Karni Ginzburg
BACKGROUND: Consistent with the human tendency to anthropomorphize objects, events, and situations, individuals might ascribe human characteristics to physical symptoms and illnesses. This manuscript presents an examination of chronic pain personification in torture survivors. Specifically, it was hypothesized that torture survivors personify chronic pain as a torturing sensation. It was further hypothesized that PTSD mediates the effect of past torture on torturing pain personification...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709048/intentional-burn-injury-assessment-of-allegations-of-self-infliction
#20
Juliet Cohen, Jo Pettitt, Emily Wilbourn
This study investigates the question of whether there is evidence that suggests the possibility of self-infliction, or self-infliction by proxy, of burn injury among a group of asylum claimants in the UK who have attributed such injuries to torture, and how such evidence might be assessed. The question arose from the observations of doctors at the UK-based charity Freedom from Torture that increasing numbers of individuals from Sri Lanka who described a history of torture had suffered severe and disfiguring burn injuries from heated metal objects, and the suggestion from asylum decision-makers that in some cases such injuries could have been acquired deliberately by self-infliction or self-infliction by proxy rather than by torture as claimed...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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