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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409713/persistent-complex-bereavement-disorder-and-culture-early-and-prolonged-grief-in-nepali-widows
#1
Jane Kim, Wietse A Tol, Abina Shrestha, Hari Maya Kafle, Rajin Rayamajhi, Nagendra P Luitel, Lily Thapa, Pamela J Surkan
OBJECTIVE: Persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), has not been well studied in socioculturally diverse populations. Thus, this qualitative study examined (a) how widows in Nepal understand grief, (b) whether a local construct of PCBD exists, and (c) its comparability with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), terminology. METHODS: Using an adapted Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework, semistructured interviews with 25 widows and 12 key informants, as well as three focus-group discussions (n = 20), were conducted between October 2014 and April 2015...
2017: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388456/women-s-experiences-of-labour-and-birth-when-having-a-termination-of-pregnancy-for-fetal-abnormality-in-the-second-trimester-of-pregnancy-a-qualitative-meta-synthesis
#2
Kay Jones, Kathleen Baird, Jenny Fenwick
OBJECTIVE: to explore women's experiences of labour and birth in the context of a termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality in the second trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: meta-synthesis of 10 qualitative studies which included the experiences of 581 women. Data analysis was informed by van Manen's four lifeworld existentials (lived body, lived space, lived time and lived human relationships) and focused only on women's experiences of their labour and birth when terminating a pregnancy in the second trimester for fetal abnormality...
March 28, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383979/revenge-versus-rapport-interrogation-terrorism-and-torture
#3
Laurence Alison, Emily Alison
This review begins with the historical context of harsh interrogation methods that have been used repeatedly since the Second World War. This is despite the legal, ethical and moral sanctions against them and the lack of evidence for their efficacy. Revenge-motivated interrogations (Carlsmith & Sood, 2009) regularly occur in high conflict, high uncertainty situations and where there is dehumanization of the enemy. These methods are diametrically opposed to the humanization process required for adopting rapport-based methods-for which there is an increasing corpus of studies evidencing their efficacy...
April 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350563/predicting-the-mental-health-and-functioning-of-torture-survivors
#4
Suzan J Song, Andrew Subica, Charles Kaplan, Wietse Tol, Joop de Jong
The psychological effects of war represent a growing public health concern as more refugees and asylum seekers migrate across borders. This study investigates whether sociodemographic, premigration and postmigration, and psychosocial factors predict adverse psychiatric symptoms in refugees and asylum seekers exposed to torture (N = 278). Hierarchical linear regressions revealed that female sex, older age, and unstable housing predicted greater severity of anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320355/severe-war-related-trauma-and-personality-pathology-a-case-control-study
#5
Jasna Munjiza, Dolores Britvic, Maja Radman, Mike J Crawford
BACKGROUND: Exposure to war-related trauma has long been recognised to have an adverse effect on mental health. We attempted to investigate whether people who have clinically significant personality-related problems 15 years after a war are more likely to have been exposed to severe war-related trauma than those who do not have significant personality difficulties. METHODS: A case -control study was conducted in southern Croatia, fifteen years after the 1991-1995 war...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319694/sexual-trauma-is-more-strongly-associated-with-tonic-immobility-than-other-types-of-trauma-a-population-based-study
#6
Juliana Kalaf, Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho, Liliane Maria Pereira Vilete, Mariana Pires Luz, William Berger, Mauro Mendlowicz, Eliane Volchan, Sergio Baxter Andreoli, Maria Inês Quintana, Jair de Jesus Mari, Ivan Figueira
BACKGROUND: Tonic immobility is an involuntary motor and vocal inhibition reaction, considered the last-ditch response of the defensive cascade model. It is elicited in context of inescapable threat and perception of entrapment. Our aim was to investigate the association between different traumatic events and peritraumatic tonic immobility (PTI) in a representative sample of the general population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of general population from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo with 3231 victims of traumatic events aged 15-75 years who completed the Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314568/health-workers-and-the-weaponisation-of-health-care-in-syria-a-preliminary-inquiry-for-the-lancet-american-university-of-beirut-commission-on-syria
#7
Fouad M Fouad, Annie Sparrow, Ahmad Tarakji, Mohamad Alameddine, Fadi El-Jardali, Adam P Coutts, Nour El Arnaout, Lama Bou Karroum, Mohammed Jawad, Sophie Roborgh, Aula Abbara, Fadi Alhalabi, Ibrahim AlMasri, Samer Jabbour
The conflict in Syria presents new and unprecedented challenges that undermine the principles and practice of medical neutrality in armed conflict. With direct and repeated targeting of health workers, health facilities, and ambulances, Syria has become the most dangerous place on earth for health-care providers. The weaponisation of health care-a strategy of using people's need for health care as a weapon against them by violently depriving them of it-has translated into hundreds of health workers killed, hundreds more incarcerated or tortured, and hundreds of health facilities deliberately and systematically attacked...
March 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299970/human-rights-and-correctional-health-policy-a-view-from-europe
#8
Mary Rogan
Purpose Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized. Design/methodology/approach The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture. Findings The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of "risk...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265252/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-resulting-from-torture-and-other-traumatic-events-among-syrian-kurdish-refugees-in-kurdistan-region-iraq
#9
Hawkar Ibrahim, Chiya Q Hassan
Political violence is known to cause psychological distress. There is a large body of empirical studies drawing correlations between war trauma, torture, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are few studies on the effects of war-related trauma among Syrian refugees after events following the 'Arab Spring' uprisings between 2010 and 2012. This study examines the association of PTSD symptoms with torture and other traumatic events among Syrian Kurdish refugees living in Kurdistan Region, Iraq...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252433/medical-and-legal-issues-of-the-decisions-rendered-by-the-european-court-of-human-rights
#10
B Chakhvadze, G Chakhvadze
The European Convention on Human rights is a document that protects human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals, and the European Court of Human Rights and its case-law makes a convention a powerful instrument to meet the new challenges of modernity and protect the principles of rule of law and democracy. This is important, particularly for young democracies, including Georgia. The more that Georgia is a party to this convention. Article 3 of the convention deals with torture, inhuman and degrading treatment, while article 8 deals with private life, home and correspondence...
January 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221237/ptsd-orientation-to-pain-and-pain-perception-in-ex-prisoners-of-war-who-underwent-torture
#11
Noga Tsur, Ruth Defrin, Karni Ginzburg
OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that torture survivors often suffer long-term chronic pain and increased pain perception. However, it is unclear whether the actual experience of torture, or rather the subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), explains these pain problems. Furthermore, while catastrophic and fearful orientations to pain have been suggested to play a significant role in the association between trauma and pain, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study examined whether chronic pain and pain perception among torture survivors are associated with torture experience or PTSD and whether catastrophic and fearful orientations mediate or moderate these associations...
February 17, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168686/signs-of-fungal-infection-in-dead-mimic-the-chronic-torture
#12
Akhilesh K Pathak, Vaishaki Y Shukla
The cases of battered woman syndrome (BWS) are very common in India. The majority of the women suffer battering by their family members especially in-laws. The injuries occurring each time indicate their being battered, but on being questioned about these happenings, a mismatched history being given by them is the major indication of BWS. In many of the cases, the injuries present over the body either in healing stages or in association with skin diseases may mislead the forensic pathologists and investigating agencies...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146384/respiratory-health-in-migrant-populations-a-crisis-overlooked
#13
Fernando Holguin, M Anas Moughrabieh, Victoria Ojeda, Sanjay R Patel, Paula Peyrani, Miguel Pinedo, Juan C Celedón, Ivor S Douglas, Dona J Upson, Jesse Roman
The crisis in the Middle East has raised awareness about the challenges encountered by migrant populations, in particular, health-care access and delivery. Similar challenges are encountered by migrant populations around the world, including those entering the United States as refugees and/or survivors of torture as well as Mexicans and other Latin Americans crossing the border. During the 2016 International American Thoracic Society Meeting held in San Francisco, California, a group of researchers and health-care providers discussed these challenges at a minisymposium devoted to the respiratory health of migrants...
February 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064088/asylum-seekers-alleging-torture-in-their-countries-evaluation-of-a-french-center
#14
Renaud Clément, David Lebossé, Lucia Barrios, Olivier Rodat
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 6-year period, 570 survivors gave consent to this study and were examined by forensic medical doctors in academic French hospital. They evaluated with the aim of cataloguing the physical evidence of torture. Sociological data, declared violence (single physical altercation, repeated physical violence less than one year or more than one year, incarceration not more than one week or more than 1 week), and method of violence (blows by blunt object, crushing, burns, electrical shocks, attempted drowning, smothering, incision, or gunshot) were studied...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058094/shane-o-mara-s-why-torture-doesn-t-work-the-neuroscience-of-interrogation
#15
Moheb Costandi
Waterboarding, sleep deprivation, and solitary confinement were some of the tactics outlined and authorized in a series of Bush Administration secret legal documents, known as the "torture memos," which were made public in 2009. Shane O'Mara's new book casts morality aside to examine whether torture produces reliable information. He reviews existing research in psychology and neuroscience to highlight the impact of torture methods on brain function.
November 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056884/secondary-psychotic-features-in-refugees-diagnosed-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Mette Nygaard, Charlotte Sonne, Jessica Carlsson
BACKGROUND: A substantial amount of refugees (10-30%) suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In Denmark there are different facilities specialised in psychiatric treatment of trauma-affected refugees. A previously published case report from such a facility in Denmark shows that some patients suffer from secondary psychotic symptoms alongside their PTSD. The aim of this study was to illustrate the characteristics and estimate the prevalence of psychotic features in a clinical population of trauma-affected refugees with PTSD...
January 5, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006958/positive-and-negative-themes-found-in-superhero-films
#17
Matthew Bauer, Andrew Georgeson, Caitlin McNamara, Bryan Wakefield, Tonya S King, Robert P Olympia
Superhero films have become incredibly popular. The objective of this study was to determine the positive and negative themes found in a select number of superhero films. A total of 30 superhero films were analyzed. The average numbers of positive and negative themes were 19.4 and 29.5 mean events per hour for all included films, respectively. The most common positive themes were "assisting others/protecting the public," "positive relationships with family/friends," and "teamwork/collaboration." The most common negative themes were "acts of violence/fighting," "use of guns/knives/lethal weapons," and "bullying/intimidation/torture...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991610/response-to-nursing-care-at-the-time-of-death-a-bathing-and-honoring-practice-%C3%A2
#18
Lauren Reveri
I am a nurse in a bone marrow transplantation unit at the University of Florida Health Shands Hospital in Gainesville. We are a high-risk center in the sense that we care for transplant patients who have been denied at other centers. Our patients are very sick with resistant disease and often with multiple comorbidities as well. These sad facts translate into long, torturous, brave battles that end in death. The nursing staff, patients, and families become very close over many months of fighting together. We witness waves of death of these people we have grown to love...
January 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989268/the-factor-structure-of-complex-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-traumatized-refugees
#19
Angela Nickerson, Marylene Cloitre, Richard A Bryant, Ulrich Schnyder, Naser Morina, Matthis Schick
BACKGROUND: The construct of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) has attracted much research attention in previous years, however it has not been systematically evaluated in individuals exposed to persecution and displacement. Given that CPTSD has been proposed as a diagnostic category in the ICD-11, it is important that it be examined in refugee groups. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we proposed to test, for the first time, the factor structure of CPTSD proposed for the ICD-11 in a sample of resettled treatment-seeking refugees...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974971/the-psychological-wellbeing-of-iranian-journalists-a-descriptive-study
#20
Anthony Feinstein, Saul Feinstein, Maziar Behari, Bennis Pavisian
OBJECTIVE: Iran ranks 173 out of 180 countries on an index of press freedom. The purpose of the study was to assess the psychological wellbeing of Iranian journalists and document the stressors encountered in their work. DESIGN: A secure website was established and participants were given their unique identifying number and password to access the site. SETTING: Newsrooms in Iran and the diaspora. PARTICIPANTS: Responses were received from 114 journalists (76%) of whom 65...
December 2016: JRSM Open
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