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Social epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160719/geographical-proximity-and-depressive-symptoms-among-adult-child-caregivers-social-support-as-a-moderator
#1
Mengting Li, Weiyu Mao, Iris Chi, Vivian W Q Lou
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether geographical proximity is a predictor of depressive symptoms, and whether family and friend support can moderate the relationship between geographical proximity and depressive symptoms. METHOD: A survey of 557 adult child primary caregivers was conducted in Shanghai, China in 2013. Geographical proximity was measured as a categorical variable: coresidence, short distance (less than 30 minutes' travel time), and long distance (more than 30 minutes' travel time)...
November 21, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160441/psychosocial-hearing-disadvantage-and-associated-factors-among-construction-workers-in-mato-grosso-brazil
#2
Andréia Cristina Munzlinger Dos Santos, Ageo Mário Cândido da Silva, Gabriela Coelho Pereira de Luccia, Clóvis Botelho, Delma Regina Della Riva
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and to analyze the factors associated with self-reported hearing handicap by construction workers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 866 construction and heavy construction workers. Participants responded to an epidemiological survey subdivided in: identification data, sociodemographic data; lifestyle; work environment characteristics; occupational exposure factors; hearing protection measures; and hearing handicap inventory to quantify the psychosocial consequences of work-related hearing loss...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159867/computing-sleep-deficiency
#3
Thomas C Erren, J Valerie Groß, Philip Lewis
Sleep deficiency is a major public health concern. Since epidemiological studies play an important role in public health evaluations, this theoretical paper pursues answers to the question: 'How can we compute sleep deficiency as informative measures of exposures or doses in observational research?' Starting from the social jetlag concept and based on the chronodisruption rationale, we illustrate and discuss five approaches (one established and four untested, each with unique strengths and limitations) to quantify sleep deficiency by focusing on the timing and duration of sleep...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158689/assessment-of-chronic-pain-and-access-to-pain-therapy-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#4
Rosaria Del Giorno, Paolo Frumento, Giustino Varrassi, Antonella Paladini, Stefano Coaccioli
Background: Chronic pain (CP) has been shown as an important public health problem, and several studies emphasize the need to strengthen the health care and social systems to reduce its marginalization. This study aimed to: evaluate the epidemiology of CP in the general population in an Italian area; and assess the awareness of a specific law, unanimously approved in Parliament, which provides citizens the right to access pain management (Italian Law 38/2010). Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study carried out during the spring of 2014 at Narni, Umbria, Italy...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155800/nicotinic-receptors-mediate-stress-nicotine-detrimental-interplay-via-dopamine-cells-activity
#5
C Morel, S P Fernandez, F Pantouli, F J Meye, F Marti, S Tolu, S Parnaudeau, H Marie, F Tronche, U Maskos, M Moretti, C Gotti, M-H Han, A Bailey, M Mameli, J Barik, P Faure
Epidemiological studies report strong association between mood disorders and tobacco addiction. This high comorbidity requires adequate treatment but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We demonstrate that nicotine exposure, independent of drug withdrawal effects, increases stress sensitivity, a major risk factor in mood disorders. Nicotine and stress concur to induce long-lasting cellular adaptations within the dopamine (DA) system. This interplay is underpinned by marked remodeling of nicotinic systems, causing increased ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons' activity and stress-related behaviors, such as social aversion...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153626/the-association-between-paternal-and-adolescent-depressive-symptoms-evidence-from-two-population-based-cohorts
#6
Gemma Lewis, Martha Neary, Ela Polek, Eirini Flouri, Glyn Lewis
BACKGROUND: Incidence of depression increases markedly around age 13 years, and nearly three-quarters of adults report that their mental health problems started in adolescence. Although maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression, evidence about the association between paternal and adolescent depression is inconclusive, and many studies have methodological limitations. We aimed to assess the association between paternal and adolescent depressive symptoms in two large population-based cohort studies...
November 13, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153557/cardiovascular-risk-and-obesity-in-sleep-apnea-syndrome-assessed-with-the-stop-bang-questionnaire
#7
María Teófila Vicente-Herrero, Luisa Capdevila García, María Del Carmen Bellido Cambrón, María Victoria Ramírez Iñiguez de la Torre, Silvia Lladosa Marco
INTRODUCTION: Sleep disorders include a number of different processes, of which the most prevalent is the sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Prevalence of SAHS has increased worldwide, and has a significant social and health impact because of the increased cardiometabolic risk attributed to obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 1110 workers from public service companies in the Spanish Mediterranean area (Balearic Islands and Valencian Community) was conducted between January and December 2015...
November 15, 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152194/seasonal-variation-in-daily-patterns-of-social-contacts-in-the-european-badger-meles-meles
#8
Matthew J Silk, Nicola Weber, Lucy C Steward, Richard J Delahay, Darren P Croft, David J Hodgson, Mike Boots, Robbie A McDonald
Social interactions among hosts influence the persistence and spread of infectious pathogens. Daily and seasonal variation in the frequency and type of social interactions will play an important role in disease epidemiology and, alongside other factors, may have an influence on wider disease dynamics by causing seasonal forcing of infection, especially if the seasonal variation experienced by a population is considerable. We explored temporal variation in within-group contacts in a high-density population of European badgers Meles meles naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151168/strengthening-validity-in-studies-of-pelvic-floor-disorders-through-qualitative-research-an-example-from-ethiopia
#9
Astrid Blystad, Guri Rortveit, Janne Lillelid Gjerde, Mulu Muleta, Karen Marie Moland
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: This formative qualitative follow-up study addresses validity concerns in the Dabat Incontinence and Prolapse (DABINCOP) study, which aimed to determine the prevalence of pelvic floor disorders in north-west Ethiopia. A pilot study using a questionnaire validated by pelvic exam showed severe underreporting of clinically relevant pelvic organ prolapse (POP). The objective of the follow-up study was to explore the reasons behind the underreporting and to gather information to strengthen the sensitivity and local relevance of the questionnaire to be employed in the main study...
November 18, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151096/jumping-frenchmen-miryachit-and-latah-culture-specific-hyperstartle-plus-syndromes
#10
Douglas J Lanska
In the late 19th century, jumping (French Canadians in Maine, USA), miryachit (Siberia), and latah (Southeast Asia) were among a group of similar disorders described around the world, each of which manifests as an exaggerated startle response with additional late-response features that were felt by some to overlap with hysteria or tics. The later features following the exaggerated startle reaction variably include mimesis (e.g., echopraxia, echolalia) and automatic obedience. These reaction patterns tended to persist indefinitely in affected individuals...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151087/ganser-syndrome
#11
Sebastian Dieguez
Ganser's syndrome is a rare and controversial condition, whose main and most striking feature is the production of approximate answers (or near misses) to very simple questions. For instance, asked how many legs a horse has, Ganser patients will reply "5", and answers to plain arithmetic questions will likewise be wrong, but only slightly off the mark (e.g., 2 + 2 = 3). This symptom was originally described by Sigbert Ganser in 1897 in prisoners on remand and labeled Vorbeigehen ("to pass by"), although the term Vorbeireden ("to talk beside the point") is also frequently used...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150094/-geriatric-assessment-and-prognostic-scores-in-older-cancer-patient-additional-support-to-the-therapeutic-decision
#12
REVIEW
Frédéric Pamoukdjian, Evelyne Liuu, Philippe Caillet, Mathilde Gisselbrecht, Stéphane Herbaud, Pascaline Boudou-Rouquette, Laurent Zelek, Elena Paillaud
Cancer is a disease of the elderly as demonstrated by the epidemiological evolution of Western countries. Indeed, two third of cancers newly diagnosed occur over 65 years. However, older cancer patients have been often excluded from clinical trials in oncology and the extrapolation of cancer treatments in this population remains difficult in practice. Scientific societies recommend that a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) be performed in patients aged 70 and over and selected using screening tools for frailty such as the G8 index...
November 14, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142003/disparities-in-environmental-exposures-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-diabetes-risk-in-vulnerable-populations
#13
Daniel Ruiz, Marisol Becerra, Jyotsna S Jagai, Kerry Ard, Robert M Sargis
Burgeoning epidemiological, animal, and cellular data link environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to metabolic dysfunction. Disproportionate exposure to diabetes-associated EDCs may be an underappreciated contributor to disparities in metabolic disease risk. The burden of diabetes is not uniformly borne by American society; rather, this disease disproportionately affects certain populations, including African Americans, Latinos, and low-income individuals. The purpose of this study was to review the evidence linking unequal exposures to EDCs with racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic diabetes disparities in the U...
November 15, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137973/exposure-to-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-and-child-behavior-current-findings-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Ann M Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Kim N Dietrich, Joseph M Braun, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are recognized neurotoxicants, but the extent to which PBDEs influence various domains of behavior in children is not fully understood. As such, we reviewed epidemiologic studies published to date to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on PBDEs' potential role in behavioral development. We identified 19 epidemiologic studies reporting on associations of prenatal and childhood concentrations of PBDEs with behaviors assessed in children from 1 to 12years, including executive function, attention, externalizing and internalizing behaviors, adaptive skills, and social behaviors/Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)...
November 11, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137859/dynamics-and-control-of-infections-on-social-networks-of-population-types
#15
Brian G Williams, Christopher Dye
Random mixing in host populations has been a convenient simplifying assumption in the study of epidemics, but neglects important differences in contact rates within and between population groups. For HIV/AIDS, the assumption of random mixing is inappropriate for epidemics that are concentrated in groups of people at high risk, including female sex workers (FSW) and their male clients (MCF), injecting drug users (IDU) and men who have sex with men (MSM). To find out who transmits infection to whom and how that affects the spread and containment of infection remains a major empirical challenge in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS...
October 26, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137173/psychiatric-disorders-differently-correlate-with-physical-self-rated-health-across-ethnic-groups
#16
Shervin Assari
In this study, we compared 10 ethnic groups for associations between psychiatric disorders and physical self-rated health (SRH) in the United States. Data came from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003. The study included 7587 non-Latino White, 4746 African American, 1442 Mexican, 1106 other Hispanic, 656 other Asian, 600 Chinese, 577 Cuban, 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, and 495 Puerto Rican individuals. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to measure psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and binge eating disorders...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132081/the-relationship-between-physical-and-mental-health-a-mediation-analysis
#17
Julius Ohrnberger, Eleonora Fichera, Matt Sutton
There is a strong link between mental health and physical health, but little is known about the pathways from one to the other. We analyse the direct and indirect effects of past mental health on present physical health and past physical health on present mental health using lifestyle choices and social capital in a mediation framework. We use data on 10,693 individuals aged 50 years and over from six waves (2002-2012) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Mental health is measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES) and physical health by the Activities of Daily Living (ADL)...
November 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131528/the-design-of-a-social-cost-benefit-analysis-of-preventive-interventions-for-toxoplasmosis-an-example-of-the-one-health%C3%A2-approach
#18
A W M Suijkerbuijk, P F van Gils, A A Bonačić Marinović, T L Feenstra, L M Kortbeek, M-J J Mangen, M Opsteegh, G A de Wit, J W B van der Giessen
Toxoplasma gondii infections cause a large disease burden in the Netherlands, with an estimated health loss of 1,900 Disability Adjusted Life Years and a cost-of-illness estimated at €44 million annually. Infections in humans occur via exposure to oocysts in the environment and after eating undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, leading to asymptomatic or mild symptoms, but potentially leading to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. Infection in pregnant women can lead to stillbirth and disorders in newborns...
November 12, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131414/oral-health-related-quality-of-life-measured-using-the-five-item-version-of-the-oral-health-impact-profile-in-relation-to-socio-economic-status-a-population-survey-in-sweden
#19
Ulla Wide, Magnus Hakeberg
Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is an important patient-reported outcome measure in dental research. This study was conducted to analyse the association between OHRQoL, as measured using the five-item version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-5), and different socio-economic indices. A national survey of randomly selected adult individuals in Sweden (n = 3,500) was performed using telephone interviews. The questions asked for the purpose of this study were defined by the items of the OHIP-5, just as questions were asked regarding socio-economic variables, including education, income, and economic resources...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130063/stress-self-regulation-and-context-evidence-from-the-health-and-retirement-survey
#20
Briana Mezuk, Scott Ratliff, Jeannie B Concha, Cleopatra M Abdou, Jane Rafferty, Hedwig Lee, James S Jackson
Health-related behaviors, such as smoking, alcohol use, exercise, and diet, are major determinants of physical health and health disparities. However, a growing body of experimental research in humans and animals also suggests these behaviors can impact the ways our bodies respond to stress, such that they modulate (that is, serve as a means to self-regulate or cope with) the deleterious impact of stressful experiences on mental health. A handful of epidemiologic studies have investigated the intersection between stress and health behaviors on health disparities (both mental and physical), with mixed results...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
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