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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820714/epidemiology-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-colombian-municipality
#1
Diego Alejandro Medina-Morales, Manuel E Machado-Duque, Jorge Enrique Machado-Alba
This study describes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis and the pharmacological treatment of this disease in the municipality of Pueblo Rico, Risaralda, between January 2010 and December 2014. An observational study was conducted using information from the clinical records and epidemiological reports of patients diagnosed and confirmed with leishmaniasis of any age and sex, including sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables of the therapy received. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815647/wildlife-disease-ecology-from-the-individual-to-the-population-insights-from-a-long-term-study-of-a-naturally-infected-european-badger-population
#2
Jenni L McDonald, Andrew Robertson, Matthew J Silk
1. Long-term individual-based datasets on host-pathogen systems are a rare and valuable resource for understanding the infectious disease dynamics in wildlife. A study of European badgers (Meles meles) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) at Woodchester Park in Gloucestershire (UK) has produced a unique dataset, facilitating investigation of a diverse range of epidemiological and ecological questions with implications for disease management. 2. Since the 1970s this badger population has been monitored with a systematic mark-recapture regime yielding a dataset of >15,000 captures of >3000 individuals, providing detailed individual life-history, morphometric, genetic, reproductive and disease data...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814667/adrenergic-mediated-increases-in-inhba-drive-caf-phenotype-and-collagens
#3
Archana S Nagaraja, Robert L Dood, Guillermo Armaiz-Pena, Yu Kang, Sherry Y Wu, Julie K Allen, Nicholas B Jennings, Lingegowda S Mangala, Sunila Pradeep, Yasmin Lyons, Monika Haemmerle, Kshipra M Gharpure, Nouara C Sadaoui, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristina Ivan, Ying Wang, Keith Baggerly, Prahlad Ram, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Jinsong Liu, Samuel C Mok, Lorenzo Cohen, Susan K Lutgendorf, Steve W Cole, Anil K Sood
Adrenergic signaling is known to promote tumor growth and metastasis, but the effects on tumor stroma are not well understood. An unbiased bioinformatics approach analyzing tumor samples from patients with known biobehavioral profiles identified a prominent stromal signature associated with cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in those with a high biobehavioral risk profile (high Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score and low social support). In several models of epithelial ovarian cancer, daily restraint stress resulted in significantly increased CAF activation and was abrogated by a nonspecific β-blocker...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813690/deep-coal-mining-and-meningococcal-meningitis-in-england-and-wales-1931-38-ecological-study-with-implications-for-deep-shaft-mining-activities-worldwide
#4
Matthew R Smallman-Raynor, Andrew D Cliff
The hypothesized role of deep coal mining in the development of community-based outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis has gone largely unexplored. Taking the coalfields of Britain as a historical testbed, techniques of linear and binomial logistic regression were used to assess the association between meningococcal meningitis rates and male occupation rates for coal mining in England and Wales during the national epidemic of 1931-32 and in its aftermath. Adjusting for the epidemiological effects of age, residential density, recent changes in the number of families, housing stock and low social class, the analysis yielded evidence of a significant and positive association between coal mining occupation rates and notified levels of meningitis activity in the epidemic period...
August 13, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812707/the-rise-and-fall-of-malaria-under-land-use-change-in-frontier-regions
#5
Andres Baeza, Mauricio Santos-Vega, Andrew P Dobson, Mercedes Pascual
Land-use change is the main force behind ecological and social change in many countries around the globe; it is primarily driven by resource needs and external economic incentives. Concomitantly, transformations of the land are the main drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of malaria. An understanding of malaria population dynamics in transforming landscapes is lacking, despite its relevance for developmental and public health policies. We develop a mathematical model that couples malaria epidemiology with the socio-economic and demographic processes that occur in a landscape undergoing land-use change...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812239/social-status-discrimination-and-minority-individuals-mental-health-a-secondary-analysis-of-us-national-surveys
#6
Celia C Lo, Tyrone C Cheng
OBJECTIVES: Our study measured minority individuals' social status factors and frequency of discrimination experiences, in order to delineate social mechanisms linking race/ethnicity to mental status (specifically, to current mood/anxiety disorder and self-rated mental health). METHODS: In this nationally representative secondary research, our data analyses drew on the cross-sectional "Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys," dating 2001-2003. The sample for the final model numbered 9368 respondents (2016 Asians, 2676 Latinos, 4676 blacks)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804654/histoplasmosis-by-histoplasma-capsulatum-var-duboisii-observed-at-the-laboratory-of-pathological-anatomy-of-lom%C3%A3-in-togo
#7
Tchin Darré, Bayaki Saka, Abas Mouhari-Touré, Améyo Monique Dorkenoo, Koffi Amégbor, Vincent Palokinam Pitche, Gado Napo-Koura
Our study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of African histoplasmosis in Togo through a descriptive and cross-sectional study on histological diagnosed African histoplasmosis in Pathology Department of Lomé from 2002 to 2016 (15 years). A total of 17 cases of African histoplasmosis were diagnosed. The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.8. The annual incidence was 1.1 cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ± 0.4 years. All our patients were of social categories with a low socioeconomic level...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801431/socioeconomic-and-geographical-variation-in-general-practitioner-consultations-for-allergic-rhinitis-in-england-2003-2014-an-observational-study
#8
Daniel Todkill, Paul Loveridge, Alex James Elliot, Roger Morbey, Simon de Lusignan, Obaghe Edeghere, Gillian Smith
OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a global health problem, potentially impacting individuals' sleep, work and social life. We aimed to use a surveillance network of general practitioners (GPs) to describe the epidemiology of AR consultations in England. SETTING: A large GP surveillance network covering approximately 53% of the English population. METHODS: GP consultations for AR across England between 30 December 2002 and 31 December 2014 were analysed...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797526/psychotic-experiences-and-disability-findings-from-the-collaborative-psychiatric-epidemiology-surveys
#9
Hans Oh, Ai Koyanagi, Ian Kelleher, Jordan DeVylder
Psychotic experiences are associated with a number of poor clinical outcomes, including multimorbid psychopathology, suicidal behavior, and poor treatment response. We wished to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and disability, including the following domains: cognition, mobility, self-care, social interaction, role functioning, and days out of role. We used three nationally representative and racially/ethnically diverse samples of the general US adult population: the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL)...
August 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796630/opportunities-and-challenges-for-personal-heat-exposure-research
#10
Evan R Kuras, Molly B Richardson, Miriam M Calkins, Kristie L Ebi, Jeremy J Hess, Kristina W Kintziger, Meredith A Jagger, Ariane Middel, Anna A Scott, June T Spector, Christopher K Uejio, Jennifer K Vanos, Benjamin F Zaitchik, Julia M Gohlke, David M Hondula
BACKGROUND: Environmental heat exposure is a public health concern. The impacts of environmental heat on mortality and morbidity at the population scale are well documented, but little is known about specific exposures that individuals experience. OBJECTIVES: The first objective of this work was to catalyze discussion of the role of personal heat exposure information in research and risk assessment. The second objective was to provide guidance regarding the operationalization of personal heat exposure research methods...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792993/prevalence-risk-factors-and-hepatitis-b-immunization-helping-fill-the-gap-on-hepatitis-b-epidemiology-among-homeless-people-goi%C3%A3-nia-central-brazil
#11
Paulie Marcelly Ribeiro Dos Santos Carvalho, Marcos André de Matos, Regina Maria Bringel Martins, Raquel Silva Pinheiro, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Márcia Maria de Souza, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Sheila Araujo Teles
Data are limited in Brazil on hepatitis B infection among homeless individuals, a marginalized population with high risk of sexually transmissible infections (STI), including hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatitis B epidemiology in homeless persons lodged in a public shelter in Goiânia, Central Brazil. From August 2014 to June 2015, 353 individuals were interviewed and tested for markers of HBV infection. Overall HBV prevalence was 21.8% (95%CI: 17,82-26,41), and 19,5% (95%CI: 15,75-24,0) showed a serological profile of previous HBV vaccination...
August 7, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791217/clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-human-dirofilariasis-in-russia
#12
Larisa Ermakova, Sergey Nagorny, Natalia Pshenichnaya, Yury Ambalov, Kerim Boltachiev
The article presents the results of the prospective study of 266 patients with dirofilariasis who received medical and diagnostic assistance in Rostov Scientific Research Institute of Microbiology and Parasitology in Rostov-on-Don, Russia from 2000 to 2016. We have assessed the features of the dynamics of epidemiology of this infection in several territories of the Russian Federation, depending on the social structure of patients. Immature females of dirofilaria were found most commonly in humans (82.9 ± 2...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783904/five-year-monitoring-of-19-illicit-and-legal-substances-of-abuse-at-the-inlet-of-a-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-barcelona-ne-spain-and-estimation-of-drug-consumption-patterns-and-trends
#13
Nicola Mastroianni, Ester López-García, Cristina Postigo, Damià Barceló, Miren López de Alda
Illicit and legal drugs of abuse, including alcohol, continue to be in the focus of many governmental national and international studies due to the important consequences of their consumption at both individual and social level. Estimation of drug use at the community level from the concentrations of the drugs themselves or their major metabolites measured in wastewater has become an increasingly accepted and extended tool, complementary to the methods traditionally used for this purpose. The present work describes the application of this approach, generally known as wastewater epidemiology, to investigate the latest drug consumption patterns and trends in the European city of Barcelona...
July 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783741/a-possible-association-between-dysphonia-and-sleep-duration-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-surveys-from-2010-to-2012
#14
Jung-Hae Cho, Christian Guilminault, Young-Hoon Joo, Sang-Kyun Jin, Kyung-Do Han, Chan-Soon Park
BACKGROUND: Sleep is important in terms of good general health and appropriate sleep duration has been linked to quality-of-life. Dysphonia may impair communication and social relationships, and is thus also closely related to quality-of-life. No large-scale, cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample representative of the population of an entire country has yet assessed the possible existence of a relationship between sleep duration and dysphonia. METHODS: We investigated a possible association between subjective voice problems and self-reported sleep duration in South Korean subjects using 2010-2012 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780928/comprehensive-assessment-of-complex-technologies-integrating-various-aspects-in-health-technology-assessment
#15
Kristin Bakke Lysdahl, Kati Mozygemba, Jacob Burns, Jan Benedikt Brönneke, James B Chilcott, Sue Ward, Bjørn Hofmann
OBJECTIVES: Despite recent development of health technology assessment (HTA) methods, there are still methodological gaps for the assessment of complex health technologies. The INTEGRATE-HTA guidance for effectiveness, economic, ethical, socio-cultural, and legal aspects, deals with challenges when assessing complex technologies, such as heterogeneous study designs, multiple stakeholder perspectives, and unpredictable outcomes. The objective of this article is to outline this guidance and describe the added value of integrating these assessment aspects...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776115/social-justice-epidemiology-and-health-inequalities
#16
Michael Marmot
A lifetime spent studying how social determinants of health lead to health inequalities has clarified many issues. First is that social stratification is an appropriate topic of study for epidemiologists. To ignore it would be to ignore a major source of variation in health in society. Not only is the social gradient in health appropriate to study but we have made progress both in understanding its causes and what can be done to address them. Post-modern 'critical theory' raises questions about the social construction of science...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774787/predictors-of-mental-health-services-use-across-the-life-course-among-racially-ethnically-diverse-adults
#17
Amy L Byers, Amy X Lai, Craig Nelson, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about key factors associated with use of mental health services across the life course. This study determined key socioeconomic, social support, psychiatric, and medical predictors of services use in younger, middle, and older age. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, MEASUREMENTS: The sample included 3,708 adults with DSM-IV-based mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. Key predictors of mental health services use for each age group were systematically determined by multivariable models, and exploratory analyses examining potential effect modification by race-ethnicity and sex were assessed by interaction terms...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772156/elderly-suicide-in-eskisehir-turkey
#18
Kenan Karbeyaz, Adnan Çelikel, Emrah Emiral, Gülsüm Öztürk Emiral
Old age should be examined separately from other stages of life in terms of ratio, method and motives for suicide. With some variation, epidemiological studies suggest suicides increase with age in virtually every society. This study examines demographic data (age, sex and marital status), and other factors related to 20-years (1997-2016) of completed elder suicides in Eskisehir, Turkey. The 74 cases of those 65 and over were evaluated with regard to method, tool and location of the suicide. Annual distributions illustrate gradual increases in this fatal self-harm over time...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763907/-epidemiological-investigation-of-hospitalized-children-with-burn-injury-in-a-hospital-of-qingdao
#19
X Bian, Z J Zhu, Y Wang
Objective: To investigate epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized children with burn injury in the author's affiliation, so as to provide theoretical basis for developing prevention strategies of children with burn injury. Methods: Medical records of 384 and 596 hospitalized children with burn injury, aged 0 to 12-year-old, were collected respectively from January 2001 to December 2005 and January 2011 to December 2015. Percentage of children with burn injury to total hospitalized patients with burn injury in the same period of time, age, causes of injury, gender, injury month, residence, condition of first aid measures conforming to medical standard, time of admission post injury, burn degree, and operation condition of children with burn injury were analyzed...
July 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761794/newly-incident-cannabis-use-in-the-united-states-2002-2011-a-regional-and-state-level-benchmark
#20
Jacob P Leinweber, Hui G Cheng, Catalina Lopez-Quintero, James C Anthony
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use and cannabis regulatory policies recently re-surfaced as noteworthy global research and social media topics, including claims that Mexicans have been sending cannabis and other drug supplies through a porous border into the United States. These circumstances prompted us to conduct an epidemiological test of whether the states bordering Mexico had exceptionally large cannabis incidence rates for 2002-2011. The resulting range of cannabis incidence rates disclosed here can serve as 2002-2011 benchmark values against which estimates from later years can be compared...
2017: PeerJ
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