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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733024/ecohealth-research-in-africa-where-from-where-to
#1
EDITORIAL
Robert Bergquist, Norbert W Brattig, Moses J Chimbari, Jakob Zinsstag, Jürg Utzinger
Epidemiological mapping and risk profiling build on the idea that diseases are tied to social-ecological systems that govern the distribution and abundance of transmissible pathogens, vectors and hosts. This is the heart of the emerging field of ecohealth, which examines how biological, cultural, demographic, economic, physical, political and social environments change can affect the health and wellbeing of humans, animals and ecosystems and the services they provide. This paper is an overview of a special issue of Acta Tropica, whose 15 publications reflect a geographically and epidemiologically diverse landscape of ecohealth in Africa...
July 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729711/an-ecological-and-digital-epidemiology-analysis-on-the-role-of-human-behavior-on-the-2014-chikungunya-outbreak-in-martinique
#2
Benjamin Roche, Béatrice Gaillard, Lucas Léger, Renélise Pélagie-Moutenda, Thomas Sochacki, Bernard Cazelles, Martine Ledrans, Alain Blateau, Didier Fontenille, Manuel Etienne, Frédéric Simard, Marcel Salathé, André Yébakima
Understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of endemic infections is of critical importance for a deeper understanding of pathogen transmission, and for the design of more efficient public health strategies. However, very few studies in this domain have focused on emerging infections, generating a gap of knowledge that hampers epidemiological response planning. Here, we analyze the case of a Chikungunya outbreak that occurred in Martinique in 2014. Using time series estimates from a network of sentinel practitioners covering the entire island, we first analyze the spatio-temporal dynamics and show that the largest city has served as the epicenter of this epidemic...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728857/-rosacea-new-data-for-better-care
#3
B Cribier
In the last 10 years, numerous studies have been published that throw new light on rosacea, in all areas of the disease. This overview summarises all the key developments, based on the indexed bibliography appearing in Medline between 2007 and 2017. Recent epidemiological data show that the prevalence of the disease is doubtless greater than estimated hitherto (more than 10% of adults in some countries) and that we should not overlook rosacea in subjects with skin phototypes V or VI, a condition that exists on all continents...
July 17, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727786/is-there-a-relationship-between-geographic-distance-and-uptake-of-hiv-testing-services-a-representative-population-based-study-of-chinese-adults-in-guangzhou-china
#4
Wen Chen, Fangjing Zhou, Brian J Hall, Joseph D Tucker, Carl Latkin, Andre M N Renzaho, Li Ling
Achieving high coverage of HIV testing services is critical in many health systems, especially where HIV testing services remain centralized and inconvenient for many. As a result, planning the optimal spatial distribution of HIV testing sites is increasingly important. We aimed to assess the relationship between geographic distance and uptake of HIV testing services among the general population in Guangzhou, China. Utilizing spatial epidemiological methods and stratified household random sampling, we studied 666 adults aged 18-59...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724246/health-consequences-of-electric-lighting-practices-in-the-modern-world-a-report-on-the-national-toxicology-program-s-workshop-on-shift-work-at-night-artificial-light-at-night-and-circadian-disruption
#5
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, David E Blask, Andrew N Coogan, Mariana G Figueiro, Michael R Gorman, Janet E Hall, Johnni Hansen, Randy J Nelson, Satchidananda Panda, Michael H Smolensky, Richard G Stevens, Fred W Turek, Roel Vermeulen, Tania Carreón, Claire C Caruso, Christina C Lawson, Kristina A Thayer, Michael J Twery, Andrew D Ewens, Sanford C Garner, Pamela J Schwingl, Windy A Boyd
The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724007/-mal-nutrition-and-the-new-epidemiological-trend-in-a-context-of-development-and-inequalities
#6
Nathália Paula de Souza, Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira, Annick Fontbonne, Fernanda Cristina de Lima Pinto, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa Cesse
The current context of intense social, economic and political transformations has contributed to changes in the health profile of the population and generated discussions about the impact of these changes on the reorganization of society. At the present moment, the increase in non-communicable illnesses and diseases raises major concerns about the paradox of malnutrition and obesity. Based on an in-depth reading and interpretation of texts, documents and databases, this article discusses issues related to nutrition, considering the dimensions of shortages and excesses, the evolution of nutrition over time, and the connection with the new epidemiological trend...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723368/definition-of-success-after-surgery-for-female-stress-incontinence-or-voiding-dysfunction-an-attempt-at-standardization
#7
REVIEW
Maude E Carmel, Donna Y Deng, Tamsin J Greenwell, Philippe E Zimmern
CONTEXT: There is currently no standardized definition of success for surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and voiding dysfunction (VD) in women. OBJECTIVE: To review the use of outcome measures (OMs) and definitions of success in the literature on SUI and VD surgery in women in an attempt to provide recommendations for future publications. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A PubMed search of all English language full-text articles on SUI and VD surgery in women published between 2010 and 2015 was performed...
August 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719659/dengue-prediction-by-the-web-tweets-are-a-useful-tool-for-estimating-and-forecasting-dengue-at-country-and-city-level
#8
Cecilia de Almeida Marques-Toledo, Carolin Marlen Degener, Livia Vinhal, Giovanini Coelho, Wagner Meira, Claudia Torres Codeço, Mauro Martins Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are a leading threat to public health. Accurate and timely monitoring of disease risk and progress can reduce their impact. Mentioning a disease in social networks is correlated with physician visits by patients, and can be used to estimate disease activity. Dengue is the fastest growing mosquito-borne viral disease, with an estimated annual incidence of 390 million infections, of which 96 million manifest clinically. Dengue burden is likely to increase in the future owing to trends toward increased urbanization, scarce water supplies and, possibly, environmental change...
July 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718716/estimating-the-number-of-adults-with-severe-and-persistent-mental-illness-who-have-complex-multi-agency-needs
#9
Harvey Whiteford, Bill Buckingham, Meredith Harris, Sandra Diminic, Emily Stockings, Louisa Degenhardt
OBJECTIVE: A population health approach to mental health service planning requires estimates that align interventions with the needs of people with mental illness. The primary objective was to estimate the number of people in Australia living with severe and persistent mental illness who have complex, multi-agency needs. The secondary objective was to describe the possible service needs of individuals with severe mental illness. METHODS: We disaggregated the estimated 12-month prevalence of adults with severe mental illness into needs-based sub-groups, using multiple data sources...
August 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716256/post-stroke-depression-in-ghana-characteristics-and-correlates
#10
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Carolyn Jenkins, Arti Singh, Mayowa Owolabi, Akin Ojagbemi, Nathaniel Adusei, Raelle Saulson, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: Poststroke depression (PSD) is prevalent and is an important determinant of functional recovery, quality of life and mortality after stroke. Scanty data on the nature of PSD among stroke survivors in sub-Saharan Africa prompted this study. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and predictors of depression in a convenience sample of Ghanaian stroke survivors. METHODS: We evaluated consecutive stroke survivors encountered at a comprehensive neurology clinic in a tertiary medical center in Ghana...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715062/gestational-weight-gain-historical-evolution-of-a-contested-health-outcome
#11
Edmond D Shenassa, Celena Kinsey, Marian Moser Jones, Jenifer Fahey
The history of research on gestational weight gain (GWG) in the United States and United Kingdom provides a context for current clinical practice. We trace the evolution of research on GWG in scientific literature from the 19th century to the present and examine its implications for contemporary clinical and public health practice. Obstetricians, beginning in the late 1800s, recommended dieting during pregnancy in order to limit GWG to 20 lb or less, driven by a belief that excessive weight gain was a cause of toxemia...
July 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714184/research-review-what-have-we-learned-about-adolescent-substance-use
#12
REVIEW
Kevin M Gray, Lindsay M Squeglia
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical biological, psychological, and social developmental stage involving heightened risk for substance use and associated adverse consequences. This review, synthesizing emerging findings on this complex topic, is intended to inform research and clinical care focused on adolescents. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted using PubMed, yielding a cross-section of observational and interventional studies focused on adolescent substance use...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711838/depressive-symptoms-and-correlates-among-village-doctors-in-china
#13
Ling-Xi Gu, Jie Chu, Zhen-Biao Qi, Cun-Xian Jia
BACKGROUND: Village doctors are primary care physicians at the grass root-level of rural medical and health institutions in China. Their depression can increase medical errors and affect quality of medical care services. This study aims to examine depressive symptoms and their correlates among Chinese village doctors. METHODS: A total of 616 village doctors were recruited from Zoucheng County of Shandong province. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI) and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ) were used to measure depressive symptoms in the last week, social support and coping styles, respectively...
July 4, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710271/novel-alphacoronaviruses-and-paramyxoviruses-co-circulate-with-type-1-and-sars-related-betacoronaviruses-in-synanthropic-bats-in-luxembourg
#14
Maude Pauly, Jacques B Pir, Catherine Loesch, Aurélie Sausy, Chantal J Snoeck, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller
Several infectious disease outbreaks with high mortality in humans have been attributed to viruses that are thought to have evolved from bat viruses. In this study from Luxembourg, the genetic diversity and epidemiology of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses shed by the bat species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis emarginatus was evaluated. Faeces collection (n= 624) was performed longitudinally in a mixed-species colony in 2015 and 2016. In addition, faeces (n= 254) were collected cross-sectionally from six Myotis emarginatus colonies in 2016...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709821/the-mandarin-version-of-the-kiddie-schedule-for-affective-disorders-and-schizophrenia-epidemiological-version-for-dsm-5-a-psychometric-study
#15
Yi-Lung Chen, Lih-Jong Shen, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Changes of diagnostic coverage and criteria for psychiatric disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) published in 2013 cause a need for updating the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological version (K-SADS-E). This study examined the preliminary psychometric properties, including inter-rater reliability, and convergent and divergent validity of the modified K-SADS-E for DSM-5...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709487/factors-affecting-applicability-of-home-based-interventional-model-for-active-case-finding-among-household-contacts-of-index-cases-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-kashmir
#16
Ghulam Hassan Khatana, Muneer Masoodi, Mariya Amin
BACKGROUND: There are various biological, behavioural and social determinants associated with the epidemiology of pulmonary tuberculosis (P-TB) which have been extensively described in literature. Present study was conducted to know the influence of such factors on the "home-based interventional model" for active case finding among household contacts of index P-TB cases. METHODS: In a quasi-randomized controlled interventional study, the "home-based interventional model" for active case finding was applied to index P-TB cases and their household contacts of interventional group of study subjects...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709290/stochastic-dynamics-for-reinfection-by-transmitted-diseases
#17
Alessandro S Barros, Suani T R Pinho
The use of stochastic models to study the dynamics of infectious diseases is an important tool to understand the epidemiological process. For several directly transmitted diseases, reinfection is a relevant process, which can be expressed by endogenous reactivation of the pathogen or by exogenous reinfection due to direct contact with an infected individual (with smaller reinfection rate σβ than infection rate β). In this paper, we examine the stochastic susceptible, infected, recovered, infected (SIRI) model simulating the endogenous reactivation by a spontaneous reaction, while exogenous reinfection by a catalytic reaction...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700580/infant-viewing-of-social-scenes-is-under-genetic-control-and-is-atypical-in-autism
#18
John N Constantino, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Claire Weichselbaum, Natasha Marrus, Alyzeh Haider, Anne L Glowinski, Scott Gillespie, Cheryl Klaiman, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
Long before infants reach, crawl or walk, they explore the world by looking: they look to learn and to engage, giving preferential attention to social stimuli, including faces, face-like stimuli and biological motion. This capacity-social visual engagement-shapes typical infant development from birth and is pathognomonically impaired in children affected by autism. Here we show that variation in viewing of social scenes, including levels of preferential attention and the timing, direction and targeting of individual eye movements, is strongly influenced by genetic factors, with effects directly traceable to the active seeking of social information...
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699541/randomised-controlled-trials-and-changing-public-health-practice
#19
EDITORIAL
Anne Cockcroft
One reason for doing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is that experiments can be convincing. Early epidemiological experimenters, such as Jenner and the smallpox vaccine and Snow and his famous Broad Street pump handle, already knew the answer they were demonstrating; they used the experiments as knowledge translation devices to convince others.More sophisticated modern experiments include cluster randomised controlled trials (CRCTs) for experiments in the public health setting. The knowledge translation value remains: RCTs and CRCTs can potentially stimulate changes of practice among stakeholders...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697921/new-frameworks-for-understanding-sudden-unexpected-deaths-in-infancy-sudi-in-socially-vulnerable-families
#20
REVIEW
Rebecca Shipstone, Jeanine Young, Lauren Kearney
THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES: Sociological frameworks may enhance understanding of the complex and multidimensional nature of disadvantage, which is prevalent among families who experience Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI). PHENOMENA ADDRESSED: SUDI is the largest category of postneonatal death and largely associated with the social determinants of health. The highly successful 'Back to Sleep' campaign has resulted in a more than 85% decrease in SUDI. However, social inequalities have accompanied this decrease, and the burden of SUDI now lies with the most disadvantaged and socially vulnerable families...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
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