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Social epidemiology

Molly P Jarman, Elliott R Haut, Frank C Curriero, Renan C Castillo
BACKGROUND: Many rural, low income, and historically underrepresented minority communities lack access to trauma center services, including surgical care and injury prevention efforts. Along with features of the built and social environment at injury incident locations, geographic barriers to trauma center services may contribute to injury disparities. This study sought to classify injury event locations based on features of the built and social environment at the injury scene, and to examine patterns in individual patient demographics, injury characteristics, and mortality by location class...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Anna Cassell, Duncan Edwards, Amelia Harshfield, Kirsty Rhodes, James Brimicombe, Rupert Payne, Simon Griffin
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity places a substantial burden on patients and the healthcare system, but few contemporary epidemiological data are available. AIM: To describe the epidemiology of multimorbidity in adults in England, and quantify associations between multimorbidity and health service utilisation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study, undertaken in England. METHOD: The study used a random sample of 403 985 adult patients (aged ≥18 years), who were registered with a general practice on 1 January 2012 and included in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Jorge Osma, Carlos Suso-Ribera, Azucena García-Palacios, Elena Crespo-Delgado, Cristina Robert-Flor, Ana Sánchez-Guerrero, Vanesa Ferreres-Galan, Luisa Pérez-Ayerra, Amparo Malea-Fernández, Mª Ángeles Torres-Alfosea
BACKGROUND: Emotional disorders, which include both anxiety and depressive disorders, are the most prevalent psychological disorders according to recent epidemiological studies. Consequently, public costs associated with their treatment have become a matter of concern for public health systems, which face long waiting lists. Because of their high prevalence in the population, finding an effective treatment for emotional disorders has become a key goal of today's clinical psychology. The Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders might serve the aforementioned purpose, as it can be applied to a variety of disorders simultaneously and it can be easily performed in a group format...
March 12, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate depressive symptoms and their association with sociodemographic factors, stressors and support, including childhood adversity, health status risk and behaviour in Indonesia. METHOD: In a cross-sectional national population survey in 2014-15 in Indonesia, 31442 adults (mean age 37.3 years, SD = 14.9, age range 15-101 years) responded to the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) and various other measures...
March 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Fiona Katherine McCurdie, Joanne Moffatt, Kevin Jones
Kitovu Hospital in Masaka, Uganda, is a leading obstetric fistula repair centre in the country with the highest rates of fistula in the world. In this retrospective case review, the regional incidence and causative factors were studied in patients with vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) who were admitted at Kitovu Hospital. Fistula history included severity (ICIQ score), causes and outcomes of VVF were measured. Women suffered with symptoms of VVF for an average of 4.97 years with an average ICIQ severity score of 7...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Arturo Carpio, Agnès Fleury, Matthew L Romo, Ronaldo Abraham
Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a neglected disease that contributes substantially to neurological morbidity/mortality in lower-income countries and increasingly among high-income countries due to migration. Many advances have been made in understanding NC, but unanswered questions remain Areas covered: This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, immunology, diagnosis, treatment, and eradication of NC. Expert commentary: The global NC prevalence remains unknown and needs proper ascertainment. Further understanding of the pathophysiology of extraparenchymally located cysts is needed to improve management...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
L Underbjerg, T Sikjaer, L Rejnmark
OBJECTIVE: Non-surgical hypoparathyroidism (NS-HypoPT) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) are rare diseases, with a prevalence of 2/100.000 and 1/100.000, respectively. Only few studies on Quality of Life (QoL) among patients with Ns-HypoPT and PHP are available. We aimed to investigate the QoL among patients with Ns-HypoPT and PHP including information about education. DESIGN: A cohort study with patients identified from a previously epidemiological study. PATIENTS: 57 patients with Ns-HypoPT and 30 patients with PHP...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Chunhua Ma
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study are to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older people with hypertension in rural areas of China and to clarify the predictors influencing depressive symptoms in these patients. BACKGROUND: Although many studies have described the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older people, these studies mainly focused on those in urban areas. Few studies explicitly clarify the depressive symptoms of older patients with hypertension in rural China...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ruxana T Sadikot
Recurrent tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a significant problem and is an important indicator of the effectiveness of TB control. Recurrence can occur by relapse or exogenous reinfection. Recurrence of TB is still a major problem in high-burden countries, where there is lack of resources and no special attention is being given to this issue. The rate of recurrence is highly variable and has been estimated to range from 4.9% to 47%. This variability is related to differences in regional epidemiology of recurrence and differences in the definitions used by the TB control programs...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
B Lopes, C Kamau, R Jaspal
There is a considerable gap in epidemiological literature about community mental health showing how psychiatric symptoms are associated with job rank, socioeconomic status, and occupational health. We examine data from 4596 employees collected in the United Kingdom's Psychiatric Morbidity among Adults Living in Private Households Survey. There were 939 workers in managerial jobs, 739 in supervisory jobs and 2918 employees in lower ranking jobs. Of the 4596 workers, 2463 had depressive symptoms and 2133 no depressive symptoms...
March 6, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Francesco Pizzitutti, William Pan, Beth Feingold, Ben Zaitchik, Carlos A Álvarez, Carlos F Mena
Though malaria control initiatives have markedly reduced malaria prevalence in recent decades, global eradication is far from actuality. Recent studies show that environmental and social heterogeneities in low-transmission settings have an increased weight in shaping malaria micro-epidemiology. New integrated and more localized control strategies should be developed and tested. Here we present a set of agent-based models designed to study the influence of local scale human movements on local scale malaria transmission in a typical Amazon environment, where malaria is transmission is low and strongly connected with seasonal riverine flooding...
2018: PloS One
Jemal Abdella Bultum, Niguse Yigzaw, Wubit Demeke, Mekuriaw Alemayehu
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption among patients with HIV/AIDS increases the burden of the disease. HIV/AIDS is an epidemic among Sub-Saharan African countries. Excessive use of alcohol causes a large degree of health problems, social and economic burden in societies. However, the prevalence and associated factors of alcohol use disorder among this group of people has not been studied very well. Therefore, this study sought to assess the magnitude and associated factors of alcohol use disorder among HIV patients attending the antiretroviral (ART) clinic...
2018: PloS One
D B de Castro, M Sadahiro, R C Pinto, B C de Albuquerque, J U Braga
SETTING: Brazil ranks eighteenth worldwide in annual numbers of new tuberculosis (TB) cases. The municipality of Manaus, Amazonas State, has the highest incidence of TB in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of TB epidemiological surveillance, and to describe the spatial distribution pattern of TB incidence in Manaus and its social determinants. DESIGN: An ecological study was performed based on secondary data from TB epidemiological surveillance reports...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Nothando Ngwenya, Dumile Gumede, Maryam Shahmanesh, Nuala McGrath, Alison Grant, Janet Seeley
Following calls for targeted HIV prevention interventions in so-called "hotspots", we explored subjective perceptions of community members in places considered to be high HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission areas and those with low prevalence. Although more people now have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), some areas are still experiencing high HIV transmission rates, presenting a barrier to the elimination of HIV. A rapid qualitative assessment approach was used to access a sample of 230 people who contributed narratives of their experiences and perceptions of transmission, treatment and prevention of HIV and TB in their communities...
March 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Eva M Moya, Silvia M Chavez-Baray, Omar Martínez
The study of tuberculosis (TB) in the U.S.-Mexico border involves the consideration of three key components, which are complex and interrelated: the difficulty tracking and providing appropriate TB care due to the epidemiological and pathological characteristics of TB; the border itself is a geographical and epidemiological area that interweaves two nations, two cultures, two health systems and different laws; and the need for prevention and treatment approaches to TB that involve comprehensive clinical care and prevention while also taking into consideration stigma, social context and knowledge...
July 2017: EHQUIDAD
Clifford J Sussman, James M Harper, Jessica L Stahl, Paul Weigle
In the past 2 decades, there has been substantial increase in availability and use of digital technologies, including the Internet, computer games, smart phones, and social media. Behavioral addiction to use of technologies spawned a body of related research. The recent inclusion of Internet gaming disorder as a condition for further study in the DSM-V invigorated a new wave of researchers, thereby expanding our understanding of these conditions. This article reviews current research, theory, and practice regarding the diagnosis, epidemiology, and neurobiology of Internet and video game addictions...
April 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Julianna M Nemeth, Tiffany L Thomson, Bo Lu, Juan Peng, Valdis Krebs, Nathan J Doogan, Amy K Ferketich, Douglas M Post, Christopher R Browning, Electra D Paskett, Mary E Wewers
INTRODUCTION: The social-contextual model of tobacco control and the potential mechanisms of the maintenance or cessation of smoking behavior among disadvantaged women, including rural residents, have yet to be comprehensively studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between selected individual, interpersonal, workplace, and neighborhood characteristics and smoking status among women in Appalachia, a US region whose residents experience a disproportionate prevalence of tobacco-related health disparities...
March 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Kathryn H Jacobsen
Increased economic interdependence, social integration, and other aspects of globalization are contributing to significant changes in hepatitis A epidemiology. Globally, the incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is decreasing, the age at midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) is increasing, and the proportion of symptomatic cases is increasing as the average age at infection increases. In low-income countries, HAV remains endemic but improved water and sanitation systems are reducing transmission rates among young children...
March 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Catherine M Pirkle, Yan Yan Wu, Maria-Victoria Zunzunegui, José Fernando Gómez
OBJECTIVE: Conceptual models underpinning much epidemiological research on ageing acknowledge that environmental, social and biological systems interact to influence health outcomes. Recursive partitioning is a data-driven approach that allows for concurrent exploration of distinct mixtures, or clusters, of individuals that have a particular outcome. Our aim is to use recursive partitioning to examine risk clusters for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, in order to identify vulnerable populations...
March 1, 2018: BMJ Open
Antoneta Granic, Nuno Mendonça, Tom R Hill, Carol Jagger, Emma J Stevenson, John C Mathers, Avan A Sayer
The population of older adults aged 85 years and over (the very old) is growing rapidly in many societies because of increases in life expectancy and reduced mortality at older ages. In 2016, 27.3 million very old adults were living in the European Union, and in the UK, 2.4% of the population (1.6 million) were aged 85 and over. Very old age is associated with increased risks of malnutrition, multimorbidity, and disability. Diet (nutrition) is a modifiable risk factor for multiple age-related conditions, including sarcopenia and functional decline...
February 27, 2018: Nutrients
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