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Tomoya Takabayashi, Mutsuaki Edama, Erika Yokoyama, Chiaki Kanaya, Takuma Inai, Yuta Tokunaga, Masayoshi Kubo
BACKGROUND: Understanding the concept of kinematic coupling is essential when selecting the appropriate therapeutic strategy and grasping mechanisms for the occurrence of injuries. A previous study reported that kinematic coupling between the rearfoot and shank during running and walking were different. However, because foot mobility involves not only the rearfoot but also the midfoot or forefoot, kinematic coupling is likely to occur among the rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot segments...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Jocelyn F Hafer, Katherine A Boyer
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a loss of mobility and altered gait mechanics. Loss of function and mobility may be due to or exacerbated by low levels of physical activity in the aged. The mechanisms linking age-related changes in physiology, altered mobility and gait may be elucidated by examining movement coordination and coordination variability. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of age and habitual physical activity level on segment coordination and coordination variability during gait...
February 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Paulina Duckic, Robert B Hayes
Buildup factors are dimensionless multiplicative factors required by the point kernel method to account for scattered radiation through a shielding material. The accuracy of the point kernel method is strongly affected by the correspondence of analyzed parameters to experimental configurations, which is attempted to be simplified here. The point kernel method has not been found to have widespread practical use for neutron shielding calculations due to the complex neutron transport behavior through shielding materials (i...
March 14, 2018: Health Physics
Yaomin Chen, Haiyan Wei, Yu Liu, Shusen Zheng
Breast cancer is the most common type of malignant cancer in females. An increasing number of studies have revealed that microRNAs (miR), which belong to a class of small non-coding RNAs, serve an important role in a number of human cancer subtypes. In the present study, the role of miR-194 in breast cancer cells and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. The results demonstrated that the serum levels of miR-194 were significantly higher in patients of the poorly differentiated and well-differentiated groups, compared with in healthy adults...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Julius Durr, Ranjith Papareddy, Keiji Nakajima, Jose Gutierrez-Marcos
Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 is considered the best instrument for genome engineering in plants. This methodology is based on the nuclease activity of Cas9 that is guided to specific genome sequences by single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) thus enabling researchers to engineer simple mutations or large chromosomal deletions. Current methodologies for targeted genome editing in plants using CRISPR/Cas9 are however largely inefficient, mostly due to low Cas9 activity, variable sgRNA efficiency and low heritability of genetic lesions...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jolanta Kolodziejek, Christof Jungbauer, Stephan W Aberle, Franz Allerberger, Zoltán Bagó, Jeremy V Camp, Katharina Dimmel, Phebe de Heus, Michael Kolodziejek, Peter Schiefer, Bernhard Seidel, Karin Stiasny, Norbert Nowotny
The results of integrated human and veterinary surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) infections in Austria during the transmission seasons 2015 and 2016 are shown. Altogether WNV nucleic acid was detected in 21 humans, horses, wild birds and mosquito pools. In detail: in four human clinical cases [two cases of West Nile fever (WNF) and two cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND)]; eight blood donors [among 145,541 tested donations], of which three remained asymptomatic and five subsequently developed mild WNF; two horses with WNND, of which one recovered and one had to be euthanized; two wild birds [one goshawk and one falcon, both succumbed to WNND]; and five Culex pipiens mosquito pools...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Maryam Golshani, Melina Ghasemian, Nematollah Gheibi, Saeid Bouzari
Background: L7/L12 is a protective antigen conserved in main Brucella pathogens and is considered as potential vaccine candidate. Outer membrane protein 2b is an immunogen conserved in all Brucella pathogens. Materials and Methods: The purpose of the current study was to in silico design a L7/L12-SOmp2b fusion protein and in vitro production of the chimera. Two possible fusion forms, L7/L12-SOmp2b and SOmp2b-L7/L12, were subjected to in silico modeling and analysis...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Jejo D Koola, Sharon E Davis, Omar Al-Nimri, Sharidan K Parr, Daniel Fabbri, Bradley A Malin, Samuel B Ho, Michael E Matheny
OBJECTIVE: Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS) is a devastating form of acute kidney injury (AKI) in advanced liver disease patients with high morbidity and mortality, but phenotyping algorithms have not yet been developed using large electronic health record (EHR) databases. We evaluated and compared multiple phenotyping methods to achieve an accurate algorithm for HRS identification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national retrospective cohort of patients with cirrhosis and AKI admitted to 124 Veterans Affairs hospitals was assembled from electronic health record data collected from 2005 to 2013...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Xinyu Feng, Xiaojian Zhou, Shuisen Zhou, Jingwen Wang, Wei Hu
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs widely identified in many mosquitoes. They are reported to play important roles in development, differentiation and innate immunity. However, miRNAs in Anopheles sinensis, one of the Chinese malaria mosquitoes, remain largely unknown. METHODS: We investigated the global miRNA expression profile of An. sinensis using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing. Meanwhile, we applied a bioinformatic approach to identify potential miRNAs in An...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Steven Ger Nyanjom, Cyrus Tare, Fred Wamunyokoli, George Fredrick Obiero
Tsetse flies (Glossina) are vectors of African trypanosomiasis. Olfaction plays a critical role in Glossina behavior, including larviposition, feeding, and reproduction. Odorant receptors (ORs) are important in insect chemoreception as they bind volatile odorants and transport them to olfactory receptor neurons to elicit behavioral response. To better understand Glossina chemoreception, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction to examine the expression levels of ORs in female and male Glossina morsitans morsitans Wiedemann, 1850 (Diptera: Glossinidae) antennae and legs...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Jinbo Chen, Uwe Scholz, Ruonan Zhou, Matthias Lange
In order to access and filter content of life-science databases, full text search is a widely applied query interface. But its high flexibility and intuitiveness is paid for with potentially imprecise and incomplete query results. To reduce this drawback, query assistance systems suggest those combinations of keywords with the highest potential to match most of the relevant data records. Widespread approaches are syntactic query corrections that avoid misspelling and support expansion of words by suffixes and prefixes...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Ahsan F Bairam, Mohammed I Rasool, Fatemah A Alherz, Maryam S Abunnaja, Amal A El Daibani, Saud A Gohal, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Yoichi Sakakibara, Masahito Suiko, Ming-Cheh Liu
Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of sulfoconjugation in the metabolism of catecholamines and serotonin. The current study aimed to clarify the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of human SULT1A3 and SULT1A4 genes on the enzymatic characteristics of the sulfation of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and serotonin by SULT1A3 allozymes. Following a comprehensive search of different SULT1A3 and SULT1A4 genotypes, twelve non-synonymous (missense) coding SNPs (cSNPs) of SULT1A3/SULT1A4 were identified...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Nikolaos Tsiantis, Eva Balsa-Canto, Julio R Banga
Motivation: Optimality principles have been used to explain many biological processes and systems. However, the functions being optimized are in general unknown a priori. Here we present an inverse optimal control (IOC) framework for modeling dynamics in systems biology. The objective is to identify the underlying optimality principle from observed time-series data and simultaneously estimate unmeasured time-dependent inputs and time-invariant model parameters. As a special case, we also consider the problem of optimal simultaneous estimation of inputs and parameters from noisy data...
March 7, 2018: Bioinformatics
Nayer Hosseinahli, Mahyar Aghapour, Pascal H G Duijf, Behzad Baradaran
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by interfering with the translation of one or more target mRNAs. The unique miRNA sequences are involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Dysregulation of miRNAs contributes to the pathogenesis of all types of cancer. Notably, the diminished expression of tumor suppressor miRNAs, such as members of the Let-7 and miR-34 family, promotes tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. The past lustrum in particular, has witnessed substantial improvement of miRNA replacement therapy...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Shasha Yang, Sili Wei, Yun Mao, Hanxue Zheng, Juantao Feng, Jihong Cui, Xin Xie, Fulin Chen, Honmgmin Li
BACKGROUND: Safe and effective hemostatic materials are important for reducing mortality resulting from excessive hemorrhage. In this work, new biomaterials with hemostatic effects were created by fusing the gene coding for RADA-16, a self-assembling peptide with the sequence RADARADARADARADA, to the 3'-end of the open reading frame (ORF) encoding elastin-like polypeptides through gene recombination. RESULTS: The fusion proteins, termed 36R, 60R and 96R, were solubly over-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) based on genetic manipulation of the high-efficiency prokaryotic expression vector pET28a (+) and bacterial transformation...
March 7, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Ahmed Youssef Ali Amer, Benjamin Wittevrongel, Marc M Van Hulle
Four novel EEG signal features for discriminating phase-coded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are presented, and their performance in view of target selection in an SSVEP-based brain-computer interfacing (BCI) is assessed. The novel features are based on phase estimation and correlations between target responses. The targets are decoded from the feature scores using the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) classifier, and it is shown that some of the proposed features compete with state-of-the-art classifiers when using short (0...
March 6, 2018: Sensors
Leila Amininejad, Benoit Charloteaux, Emilie Theatre, Claire Liefferinckx, Julia Dmitrieva, Pierre Hayard, Vincianne Muls, Jean-Marc Maisin, Michael Schapira, Jean-Michel Ghislain, Pierre Closset, Mehdi Talib, Marc Abramowicz, Yukihide Momozawa, Valerie Deffontaine, François Crins, Myriam Mni, Latifa Karim, Nadine Cambisano, Sandra Ornemese, Alessandro Zucchi, Charlotte Minsart, Jacques Deviere, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Martine De Vos, Edouard Louis, Severine Vermeire, Andre Van Gossum, Wouter Coppieters, Jean-Claude Twizere, Michel Georges, Denis Franchimont
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A few rare monogenic primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that resembles Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated whether 23 genes associated with 10 of these monogenic disorders contain common, low-frequency or rare variants that increase risk for CD. METHODS: Common and low frequency variants in 1 Mb loci centered on the candidate genes were analyzed using meta-data corresponding to genotypes of approximately 17,000 patients with CD or without CD (controls) in Europe...
February 28, 2018: Gastroenterology
Claire Domenger, Marine Allais, Virginie François, Adrien Léger, Emilie Lecomte, Marie Montus, Laurent Servais, Thomas Voit, Philippe Moullier, Yann Audic, Caroline Le Guiner
Non-coding uridine-rich small nuclear RNAs (UsnRNAs) have emerged in recent years as effective tools for exon skipping for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a degenerative muscular genetic disorder. We recently showed the high capacity of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-U7snRNA vector to restore the reading frame of the DMD mRNA in the muscles of DMD dogs. We are now moving toward a phase I/II clinical trial with an rAAV-U7snRNA-E53, carrying an antisense sequence designed to hybridize exon 53 of the human DMD messenger...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Weiping Lin, Ao Liu, Caihong Weng, Hui Li, Shiwei Sun, Aihuan Song, Hu Zhu
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene plays an important role in the synthesis of flavones, lignin, and other bioactive compounds in living organisms. Inonotus baumii, the only known flavone-producing filamentous fungus, is of great importance in the investigation of flavone metabolic pathways. To study the function of PAL enzyme in I. baumii flavone synthesis, a full-length cDNA of pal gene was cloned from I. baumii using DOP-PCR and RACE-PCR. The 2502-bp PAL coding region encodes an 833 amino acid protein with an approximate MW of 88...
May 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Lauren Clack, Simone Passerini, Aline Wolfensberger, Hugo Sax, Tanja Manser
OBJECTIVE In this study, we sought to establish a comprehensive inventory of infectious risk moments (IRMs), defined as seemingly innocuous yet frequently occurring care manipulations potentially resulting in transfer of pathogens to patients. We also aimed to develop and employ an observational taxonomy to quantify the frequency and nature of IRMs in acute-care settings. DESIGN Prospective observational study and establishment of observational taxonomy. SETTING Intensive care unit, general medical ward, and emergency ward of a university-affiliated hospital...
March 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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