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Mary L Garcia-Cazarin, Rachel J Mandal, Rachel Grana, Kay L Wanke, Helen I Meissner
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the focus and comprehensiveness of domains measured in e-cigarette research. METHODS: A portfolio analysis of National Institutes of Health grants focusing on e-cigarette research and funded between the fiscal years 2007 and 2015 was conducted. Grant proposals were retrieved using a government database and coded using the Host-Agent-Vector-Environment (HAVE) model as a framework to characterise the measures proposed...
January 13, 2018: Tobacco Control
Tianying Zhang, Jiangtao Huang, Yongqing Yi, Xueying Zhang, Juan J Loor, Yanhong Cao, Huaiping Shi, Jun Luo
Akt serine/threonine kinase acts as a central mediator in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, regulating a series of biological processes. In lipid metabolism, Akt activation regulates a series of gene expressions, including genes related to intracellular fatty acid synthesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of Akt in dairy goat mammary lipid metabolism have not been elaborated. In this study, the coding sequences of goat Akt1 gene were cloned and analyzed. Gene expression of Akt1 in different lactation stages was also investigated...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xingquan Zhai, Wei Xu
This study was aimed to explore the biological functions of long non-coding RNA activated by transforming growth factor-beta (lncRNA-ATB) in bladder cancer cells. For the expressions of lncRNA-ATB, miR-126 and KRAS, T24 cells were transfected with their specific vectors/shRNA or mimic/inhibitor. Then, cell viability, migration, invasion and apoptosis, as well as the protein levels of apoptosis-related factors and PI3K/AKT and mTOR signal pathways were measured, respectively. Further, the relationships of lncRNA-ATB and miR-126 or miR-126 and KRAS were analyzed by dual-luciferase report assay...
January 10, 2018: Oncology Research
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Renan Bressianini do Amaral, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Filipe Martins Santos, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
The present work aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of Bartonella in mammals and ectoparasites in Pantanal wetland, Brazil. For this purpose, 31 Nasua nasua, 78 Cerdocyon thous, 7 Leopardus pardalis, 110 wild rodents, 30 marsupials, and 42 dogs were sampled. DNA samples were submitted to a quantitative real-time PCR assay (qPCR). Positive samples in qPCR were submitted to conventional PCR assays targeting other five protein-coding genes. Thirty-five wild rodents and three Polygenis (P.) bohlsi bohlsi flea pools showed positive results in qPCR for Bartonella spp...
January 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Lichao Zhang, Liang Kong
Gene recombination is a key process to produce hereditary differences. Recombination spot identification plays an important role in revealing genome evolution and promoting DNA function study. However, traditional experiments are not good at identifying recombination spot with huge amounts of DNA sequences springed up by sequencing. At present, some machine learning methods have been proposed to speed up this identification process. However, the correlations between nucleotides pairs at different positions along DNA sequence is often ignored, which reflects the important sequence order information...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Chun-Chi Chen, Xiaoning Qian, Byung-Jun Yoon
BACKGROUND: Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a new class of small non-coding RNAs that are known to be associated with RNA silencing. The piRNAs play an important role in protecting the genome from invasive transposons in the germline. Recent studies have shown that piRNAs are linked to the genome stability and a variety of human cancers. Due to their clinical importance, there is a pressing need for effective computational methods that can be used for computational identification of piRNAs...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Tayebeh Soheili, Amandine Durand, Fernando E Sepulveda, Julie Rivière, Chantal Lagresle-Peyrou, Hanem Sadek, Geneviève de Saint Basile, Samia Martin, Fulvio Mavilio, Marina Cavazzana, Isabelle André-Schmutz
Patients with mutations in the UNC13D gene (coding for Munc13-4 protein) suffer from familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3 (FHL3), a life-threatening immune and hyperinflammatory disorder. The only curative treatment is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, although the posttreatment survival rate is not satisfactory. Here, we demonstrate the curative potential of UNC13D gene correction of HSCs in a murine model of FHL3. We generated a self-inactivating lentiviral vector, used it to complement HSCs from Unc13d-deficient (Jinx) mice, and transplanted the cells back into the irradiated Jinx recipients...
December 26, 2017: Blood Advances
Bahram Baghban Kohnehrouz, Afsaneh Talischian, Alireza Dehnad, Shahnoush Nayeri
Background: Avimers are originally types of artificial proteins with multiple binding sites for specific binding to certain antigens. Various radioisotopes and nanoparticles link these molecules, which are widely used in early detection in tissue imaging, treatment and study on carcinogenesis. Among these, c-Met antagonist avimer (C426 avimer), with ability to bind the c-Met receptor of tyrosine kinase (RTK) is an attractive candidate for targeted cancer therapy. In this study, a novel traceable C426 avimer gene was designed and introduced by adding the 12nt tracer binding site encoded four specific amino acid residues at the C-terminal region of C426 avimer coding sequence...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
Peter G Foster, Tatiane Marques Porangaba de Oliveira, Eduardo S Bergo, Jan E Conn, Denise Cristina Sant'Ana, Sandra Sayuri Nagaki, Silvio Nihei, Carlos Einicker Lamas, Christian González, Caio Cesar Moreira, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
Malaria is a vector-borne disease that is a great burden on the poorest and most marginalized communities of the tropical and subtropical world. Approximately 41 species of Anopheline mosquitoes can effectively spread species of Plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria. Proposing a natural classification for the subfamily Anophelinae has been a continuous effort, addressed using both morphology and DNA sequence data. The monophyly of the genus Anopheles, and phylogenetic placement of the genus Bironella, subgenera Kerteszia, Lophopodomyia and Stethomyia within the subfamily Anophelinae, remain in question...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Claudio De Liberato, Raffaele Frontoso, Adele Magliano, Alessandro Montemaggiori, Gian Luca Autorino, Marcello Sala, Andrew Bosworth, Maria Teresa Scicluna
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, is caused by a tibovirus (CCHFV) transmitted in particular by the Hyalomma genus of the Ixodidae family that can remain attached to the host for up to 26days, which in case of migratory birds allows long distance carriage. Although CCHF in domestic ruminants is usually subclinical, they may become reservoirs and act as sentinels for the introduction and/or circulation of CCHFV. In this study, possible CCHFV introduction and circulation in Italy were monitored by tick sampling on migratory birds and by a serosurvey conducted on sheep...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Caroline Fenlon, Luke O'Grady, Michael L Doherty, John Dunnion
Modelling of binary and categorical events is a commonly used tool to simulate epidemiological processes in veterinary research. Logistic and multinomial regression, naïve Bayes, decision trees and support vector machines are popular data mining techniques used to predict the probabilities of events with two or more outcomes. Thorough evaluation of a predictive model is important to validate its ability for use in decision-support or broader simulation modelling. Measures of discrimination, such as sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristics, are commonly used to evaluate how well the model can distinguish between the possible outcomes...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Wang Yan, Zhao-Ying Chen, Jia-Qi Chen, Hui-Min Chen
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (lncRNA NEAT1) was found to be closely related to the pathological changes in brain and nervous system. However, the role of NEAT1 and its potential mechanism in Parkinson's disease (PD) largely remain uncharacterized. METHODS: In this study, PD mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP. The numbers of TH + neurons, NEAT1 expression and the level of PINK1, LC3-II, LC3-I protein were assessed in PD mice...
December 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yao Huang, Jie Zhu, Wenshuai Li, Ziqiang Zhang, Panpan Xiong, Hong Wang, Jun Zhang
Early detection of gastric cancer (GC) is crucial to improve the therapeutic effect and prolong the survival of patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-protein-coding RNAs that function as repressors of diverse genes. We aimed to identify a microRNA panel in the serum of patients to predict GC non-invasively with high accuracy and sensitivity. Using six types of classifiers, we selected three markers (miR‑21-5p, miR-22-3p and miR-29c-3p) from a published miRNA profiling study (GSE23739) which was treated as a training set...
December 19, 2017: Oncology Reports
James L Bodnar, Sergio Fitch, Allison Rosati, Jianmin Zhong
Although nonpathogenic bacterial endosymbionts have been shown to contribute to their arthropod host's fitness by supplying them with essential vitamins and amino acids, little is known about the nutritional basis for the symbiotic relationship of endosymbionts in ticks. Our lab has previously reported that Rickettsia species phylotype G021 in Ixodes pacificus carries all five genes for de novo folate synthesis, and that these genes are monophyletic with homologs from other Rickettsia species. In this study, the rickettsial folate synthesis folA gene, coding for dihydrofolate reductase, was PCR amplified, cloned into an expression vector, and overexpressed in E...
December 24, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Javier Torres-Torronteras, Raquel Cabrera-Pérez, Ferran Vila-Julia, Carlo Viscomi, Yolanda Cámara, Michio Hirano, Massimo Zeviani, Ramon Marti
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is caused by mutations in TYMP, the gene encoding the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP). TP dysfunction results in systemic accumulation of the noxious TP substrates thymidine and deoxyuridine. Gene therapy using either a lentiviral vector or adeno-associated vector (AAV) has proven to be a feasible strategy, as both vectors restore biochemical homeostasis in a murine model of the disease. Here we show that the effect of an AAV containing the TYMP coding sequence transcriptionally targeted to the liver persists at long term in mice...
December 28, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
Cigdem Alkan, Vahideh Moin Vaziri, Nazli Ayhan, Mehdi Badakhshan, Laurence Bichaud, Nourina Rahbarian, Ezat-Aldin Javadian, Bulent Alten, Xavier de Lamballerie, Remi N Charrel
Phlebotomine sandflies are vectors of phleboviruses that cause sandfly fever or meningitis with significant implications for public health. Although several strains of these viruses had been isolated in Iran in the late 1970's, there was no recent data about the present situation at the outset of this study. Entomological investigations performed in 2009 and 2011 in Iran collected 4,770 sandflies from 10 different regions. Based on morphological identification, they were sorted into 315 pools according to species, sex, trapping station and date of capture...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rong Zeng, Rui Zhang, Xitao Song, Leng Ni, Zhichao Lai, Changwei Liu, Wei Ye
The potential effect of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury in endothelial cells was tested. We show that forced-expression of MALAT1 using a lentiviral vector ("LV-MALAT1") significantly attenuated H2O2-induced death and apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Conversely, knocking down of MALAT1 by targeted siRNA exacerbated H2O2-induced HUVEC injury. For the mechanism study, we show that LV-MALAT1 induced Keap1 downregulation, leading to nuclear-factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) stabilization and activation...
December 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mehdi Golchin, Masoud Moghadaszadeh, Hadi Tavakkoli, Reza Ghanbarpour, Siavoush Dastmalchi
Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory tract disease and is considered a serious community health problem. Influenza viruses possess multiple conserved epitopes which are used for designing universal vaccines. To this aim, the gene coding for N-terminal part of M2e (SLLTEVET) and HA2 (GLFGAIAGF), was synthesized, linked by a (Gly4Ser)4 peptide linker, and cloned into pGS-21a vector. Afterwards, the construct was transferred into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells to produce the designed antigenic protein called M2e-HA2...
December 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jamil Ahmad, Khan Muhammad, Sung Wook Baik
Efficient retrieval of relevant medical cases using semantically similar medical images from large scale repositories can assist medical experts in timely decision making and diagnosis. However, the ever-increasing volume of images hinder performance of image retrieval systems. Recently, features from deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have yielded state-of-the-art performance in image retrieval. Further, locality sensitive hashing based approaches have become popular for their ability to allow efficient retrieval in large scale datasets...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
Michelle E McClements, Robert E MacLaren
The use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for gene therapy treatments of inherited disorders has accelerated over the past decade with multiple clinical trials ongoing in varying tissue types and new ones initiating every year. These vectors are exhibiting low-immunogenicity across the clinical trials in addition to showing evidence of efficacy, making it clear they are the current standard vector for any potential gene therapy treatment. However, AAV vectors do have a limitation in their packaging capacity, being capable of holding no more than ~5kb of DNA and in a therapeutic transgene scenario, this length of DNA would need to include genetic control elements in addition to the gene coding sequence (CDS) of interest...
December 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
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