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CYP2E1 AND Mitochondria

Jessica H Hartman, Grover P Miller, Joel N Meyer
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) metabolizes an extensive array of pollutants, drugs, and other small molecules, often resulting in bioactivation to reactive metabolites. Therefore, it is unsurprising that it has been the subject of decades of research publications and reviews. However, while CYP2E1 has historically been studied in the endoplasmic reticulum (erCYP2E1), active CYP2E1 is also present in mitochondria (mtCYP2E1). Relatively few studies have specifically focused on mtCYP2E1, but there is growing interest in this form of the enzyme as a driver in toxicological mechanisms given its activity and location...
2017: Toxicology Research
Jessica H Hartman, Jordan S Kozal, Richard T Di Giulio, Joel N Meyer
Zebrafish are an attractive model organism for toxicology; however, an important consideration in translating between species is xenobiotic metabolism/bioactivation. CYP2E1 metabolizes small hydrophobic molecules, e.g. ethanol, cigarette smoke, and diesel exhaust components. CYP2E1 is thought to only be conserved in mammals, but recent reports identified homologous zebrafish cytochrome P450s. Herein, ex vivo biochemical measurements show that unlike mammals, zebrafish possess a low-affinity 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase (Km ∼0...
September 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Dan Cheng, Wang Xu, Lin Yuan, Xiaobing Zhang
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is considered a serious problem related to public health, due to its unpredictability and acute response. The level of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) generated in liver has long been regarded as a biomarker for the prediction and measurement of DILI. Herein we present two reaction-based fluorescent probes (Naph-ONOO(-) and Rhod-ONOO(-)) for ONOO(-) through a novel and universally applicable mechanism: ONOO(-)-mediated deprotection of α-keto caged fluorophores. Among them, Rhod-ONOO(-) can selectively accumulate and react in mitochondria, one of the main sources of ONOO(-), with a substantial lower nanomolar sensitivity of 43 nM...
July 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Hui Wang, You Song Xu, Miao Lin Wang, Chao Cheng, Rui Bian, Hao Yuan, Yi Wang, Ting Guo, Lin Lin Zhu, Hang Zhou
Several studies have demonstrated that increased apoptosis plays an essential role in neurodegenerative disorders. It has been demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces apoptosis largely through the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the potential protective mechanisms of naringin (Nar), a pummelo peel extract, on LPS-induced PC12 cell apoptosis. Nar pre-conditioning prior to stimulation with LPS for 18 h was a prerequisite for evaluating PC12 cell viability and the protective mechanisms of Nar...
April 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Je-Won Ko, Jin-Young Shin, Jeong-Won Kim, Sung-Hyeuk Park, Na-Rae Shin, In-Chul Lee, In-Sik Shin, Changjong Moon, Sung-Ho Kim, Sung-Hwan Kim, Jong-Choon Kim
Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a degradation product of allicin which is contained in garlic. This study investigated the protective effects of DADS against acetaminophen (AAP)-induced nephrotoxicity and the molecular mechanisms of nephroprotective effects in rats. AAP caused severe nephrotoxicity as evidenced by significant increases in renal tubular cell apoptosis, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, and up-regulation of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the kidney with histopathological alterations...
April 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Elham Ahmadian, Hossein Babaei, Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi, Aziz Eftekhari, Mohammad Ali Eghbal
Purpose: Depression is a public disorder worldwide. Despite the widespread use of venlafaxine in the treatment of depression, it has been associated with the incidence of toxicities. Hence, the goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms of venlafaxine-induced cell death in the model of the freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Methods: Collagenase-perfused rat hepatocytes were treated with venlafaxine and other agents. Cell damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal damage, glutathione (GSH) level were analyzed...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Mitsuhiko Miyamura, Junko Yokota, Toshiji Saibara
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic progressive liver disease characterized by intense liver steatosis accompanied by hepatocyte destruction, inflammation and fibrous, despite little or no history of alcoholic consumption. There are also cases of drug-induced secondary steatohepatitis. Drug-induced steatohepatitis is a relatively rare type of drug-induced liver disease, but close attention to the possible onset of steatohepatitis is needed when drugs with the potential to induce fatty liver are prescribed for long term use...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Gunhyuk Park, Ki Mo Kim, Songie Choi, Dal-Seok Oh
We previously reported the clinical profile of processed Aconitum carmichaelii (AC, Aconibal(®)), which included inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 activity in healthy male adults. CYP2E1 is recognized as the enzyme that initiates the cascade of events leading to acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity. However, no studies have characterized its role in APAP-induced hepatic injury. Here, we investigated the protective effects of AC on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity via mitochondrial dysfunction. AC (5-500 μg/mL) significantly inhibited APAP-induced reduction of glutathione...
March 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yasuhiro Tanaka, Wataru Fujii, Hisako Hori, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Kiyokazu Ozaki
The manifestation of coumarin-induced hepatocellular toxicity may differ and depends on the frequency of administration to rats. A single coumarin dose induces hepatocellular necrosis while repeated doses induce only hepatocyte degeneration. However, the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism of coumarin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Coumarin was administered to male rats as a single dose or for 4 consecutive days, and samples were obtained 4 or 24 h after a single dose or 24 h after the repeated doses...
April 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jessica H Hartman, H Cass Martin, Andres A Caro, Amy R Pearce, Grover P Miller
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) detoxifies or bioactivates many low molecular-weight compounds. Most knowledge about CYP2E1 activity relies on studies of the enzyme localized to endoplasmic reticulum (erCYP2E1); however, CYP2E1 undergoes transport to mitochondria (mtCYP2E1) and becomes metabolically active. We report the first comparison of in vitro steady-state kinetic profiles for erCYP2E1 and mtCYP2E1 oxidation of probe substrate 4-nitrophenol and pollutants styrene and aniline using subcellular fractions from rat liver...
December 2, 2015: Toxicology
Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Seung-Kwon Ha, Youngshim Choi, Mohammed Akbar, Byoung-Joon Song
Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are two pathological conditions that are spreading worldwide. Both conditions are remarkably similar with regard to the pathophysiological mechanism and progression despite different causes. Oxidative stressinduced mitochondrial dysfunction through post-translational protein modifications and/or mitochondrial DNA damage has been a major risk factor in both AFLD and NAFLD development and progression. Cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1), a known important inducer of oxidative radicals in the cells, has been reported to remarkably increase in both AFLD and NAFLD...
2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Xiao-Lu Cao, Jing Du, Ying Zhang, Jing-Ting Yan, Xia-Min Hu
Recent studies showed that hyperglycemia enhanced brain damage when subjected to transient cerebral ischemic stroke. However, the etiologic link between them has been less known. In the present study, based on an experimental rat's model of hyperlipidemia combined with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), we herein showed that hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in considerable increase in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and remarkable decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which associated with an exacerbation on neurological deficit, cerebral infarct and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling-positive cells in the ischemic hemisphere of cerebral I/R rats treated with HFD diet...
October 2015: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Guo-Dong Ma, Yan-Huan Liu, Qing-Lai Zhang, Bao-Guo Zhang, Ning Zhao, Qiu-Ling Wang, Xiao-di Wang
AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-endurance training on the prevention of alcohol-induced acute hepatic injury and on hepatic mitophagy. METHODS: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control group, (2) 12-week exercise training group, (3) 5-day alcohol intake group, and (4) 12-week exercise training plus 5-day alcohol intake group. The rats were examined to determine the following: BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3II), Beclin1 mRNA and protein expressions, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, aconitase and ATP synthase activities, mitochondrial inner membrane potential, NADH/NAD(+) ratio, triglyceride (TG), the number of mtDNA and mitochondrial respiration functions in liver tissue, and serum ALT and AST...
July 2014: Hepatology International
Kalpana Barhwal, Saroj K Das, Ashish Kumar, Sunil K Hota, Ravi B Srivastava
Hypoxia has been reported to cause hippocampal neurodegeneration resulting in learning and memory deficits. In the present study, we investigated the potential of salidroside, a glucoside derivative of tyrosol, in ameliorating hypoxia-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Morris water maze test showed improvement in learning and spatial memory of salidroside-treated hypoxic rats correlating with increased dendritic intersections and arborization. Salidroside administration increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit A (IRA) at Y972, Y1162/63, and Y1146 sites and subsequent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α subunit isoforms pAMPKα1 and pAMPKα2 resulting in mitochondrial biogenesis...
October 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Alexander V Ivanov, Olga A Smirnova, Irina Y Petrushanko, Olga N Ivanova, Inna L Karpenko, Ekaterina Alekseeva, Irina Sominskaya, Alexander A Makarov, Birke Bartosch, Sergey N Kochetkov, Maria G Isaguliants
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accompanied by the induction of oxidative stress, mediated by several virus proteins, the most prominent being the nucleocapsid protein (HCV core). Here, using the truncated forms of HCV core, we have delineated several mechanisms by which it induces the oxidative stress. The N-terminal 36 amino acids of HCV core induced TGF\(\upbeta\)1-dependent expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases 1 and 4, both of which independently contributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 2015: Viruses
Jiangzheng Liu, Xin Wang, Zhengwu Peng, Tao Zhang, Hao Wu, Weihua Yu, Deqing Kong, Ying Liu, Hua Bai, Rui Liu, Xiaodi Zhang, Chunxu Hai
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has become an important liver disease hazard to public and personal health. Oxidative stress is believed to be responsible for the pathological changes in ALD. Previous studies have showed that insulin, a classic regulator of glucose metabolism, has significant anti-oxidative function and plays an important role in maintaining the redox balance. For addressing the effects and mechanisms of insulin pre-administration on ethanol-induced liver oxidative injury, we investigated histopathology, inflammatory factors, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, antioxidant defense system, ethanol metabolic enzymes and lipid disorder in liver of ethanol-exposed mice pretreatment with insulin or not...
2015: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Myung-Sook Choi, Young-Je Kim, Eun-Young Kwon, Jae Young Ryoo, Sang Ryong Kim, Un Ju Jung
The aim of the present study was to identify the genes differentially expressed in the visceral adipose tissue in a well-characterised mouse model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Male C57BL/6J mice (n 20) were fed either HFD (189 % of energy from fat) or low-fat diet (LFD, 42 % of energy from fat) for 16 weeks. HFD-fed mice exhibited obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and adipose collagen accumulation, along with higher levels of plasma leptin, resistin and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, although there were no significant differences in plasma cytokine levels...
March 28, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Jian Jiang, Jacob J Briedé, Danyel G J Jennen, Anke Van Summeren, Karen Saritas-Brauers, Gert Schaart, Jos C S Kleinjans, Theo M C M de Kok
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdosage results in hepatotoxicity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not completely understood. In the current study, we focused on mitochondrial-specific oxidative liver injury induced by APAP exposure. Owning to genetic polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 gene or varying inducibility by xenobiotics, the CYP2E1 mRNA level and protein activity vary extensively among individuals. As CYP2E1 is a known ROS generating enzyme, we chose HepG2 to minimize CYP2E1-induced ROS formation, which will help us better understand the APAP induced mitochondrial-specific hepatotoxicity in a subpopulation with low CYP2E1 activity...
April 16, 2015: Toxicology Letters
Yoshitaka Umezaki, Daisuke Iohara, Makoto Anraku, Yoichi Ishitsuka, Tetsumi Irie, Kaneto Uekama, Fumitoshi Hirayama
Stable hydrophilic C60(OH)10 nanoparticles were prepared from 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and applied to the treatment of an acetaminophen overdose induced liver Injury. C60(OH)10 nanoparticles were produced by cogrinding α-CD, β-CD, γ-CD and HP-β-CD and characterized in terms of solubility, mean particle diameter, ζ-potential and long term dispersibility in water. Hydrophilic C60(OH)10 nanoparticles with particle sizes less than 50 nm were effectively produced by cogrinding HP-β-CD with C60(OH)10 at a molar ratio of 1:3 (C60(OH)10:CD)...
March 2015: Biomaterials
Byoung-Joon Song, Mohammed Akbar, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Kyunghee Byun, Bonghee Lee, Seung Kew Yoon, James P Hardwick
Mitochondria are critically important in providing cellular energy ATP as well as their involvement in anti-oxidant defense, fat oxidation, intermediary metabolism and cell death processes. It is well-established that mitochondrial functions are suppressed when living cells or organisms are exposed to potentially toxic agents including alcohol, high fat diets, smoking and certain drugs or in many pathophysiological states through increased levels of oxidative/nitrative stress. Under elevated nitroxidative stress, cellular macromolecules proteins, DNA, and lipids can undergo different oxidative modifications, leading to disruption of their normal, sometimes critical, physiological functions...
2014: Redox Biology
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