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Mixed models

Ludovic Telley, Denis Jabaudon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Nature
Godela M Brosnahan, Kaleab Z Abebe, Charity G Moore, Kyongtae T Bae, William E Braun, Arlene B Chapman, Michael F Flessner, Peter C Harris, Marie C Hogan, Ronald D Perrone, Frederic F Rahbari-Oskoui, Theodore I Steinman, Vicente E Torres, The Halt Pkd Investigators
BACKGROUND: The HALT PKD trial in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) showed that intensive control of systolic blood pressure to 95-110 mmHg was associated with a 14% slower rate of kidney volume growth compared to standard control. It is unclear whether this result was due to greater blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by allowing the use of higher drug doses in the low blood pressure arm, or due to the lower blood pressure per se. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of HALT PKD Study A, we categorized participants into high and low dose groups based on the median daily equivalent dose of RAAS blocking drugs used after the initial dose titration period...
March 21, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
Dorien Borms, Ann Cools
This study aimed to provide an age, gender and sport-based normative database for three functional shoulder tests: Y Balance Test - Upper Quarter (YBT-UQ), Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST), and Seated Medicine Ball Throw (SMBT). A second aim was to discuss gender, age and sports differences. Finally, correlation between tests was evaluated. Overhead athletes (106 male, 100 female) between 18 and 50 years old and from three different sports (volleyball, tennis, handball) performed all functional tests...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Sharon Israely, Gerry Leisman, Eli Carmeli
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adaptive responses to error-augmentation force fields, would decrease the trajectory errors in hand-reaching movements in multiple directions in healthy individuals. The study was conducted, as a randomized controlled trial, in 41 healthy subjects. The study group trained on a 3D robotic system, applying error-augmenting forces on the hand during the execution of tasks. The control group carried out the same protocol in null-field conditions. A mixed-model ANOVA was implemented to investigate the interaction between groups and time, and changes in outcome measures within groups...
March 22, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Michael J Duffy, Naoise C Synnott, John Crown
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to discuss mutant p53 as a possible therapeutic target and biomarker for breast cancer. RESULTS: TP53 (p53) is the most frequently mutated gene in invasive breast cancer. Although mutated in 30-35% of all cases, p53 is mutated in approximately 80% of triple-negative (TN) tumors (i.e., tumors negative for ER, PR, and HER2). Because of this high prevalence, mutated p53 is both a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for patients with breast cancer, especially for those with the TN subtype...
March 21, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Alessandro Mauro, Nicola Massarotti, Mohamed Salahudeen, Mario R Romano, Vito Romano, Perumal Nithiarasu
The present work describes the application of the generalised porous medium model to study heat and fluid flow in healthy and glaucomatous eyes of different subject specimens, considering the presence of ocular cavities and porous tissues. The 2D computational model, implemented into the open-source software OpenFOAM, has been verified against benchmark data for mixed convection in domains partially filled with a porous medium. The verified model has been employed to simulate the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring in the anterior section of four patient-specific human eyes, considering the presence of anterior chamber (AC), trabecular meshwork (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC), and collector channels (CC)...
March 22, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Akira Endo, Atsushi Shiraishi, Kiyohide Fushimi, Kiyoshi Murata, Yasuhiro Otomo
BACKGROUND: Although continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) of protease inhibitors and broad antibiotics has been suggested as one of the therapeutic option for patients with acute necrotic pancreatitis (ANP), the effectiveness has not been well-corroborated in clinical studies. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a Japanese national administrative database. Severe acute pancreatitis patients with a poorly enhanced pancreas region (i.e...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Sidharth Arora, Pritam Singh, Richa Rani, Sanjoy Ghosh
Direct measurement of cell biomass is difficult in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) process involving filamentous fungi since the mycelium and the solid substrate are often inseparable. However, respiratory data are rich in information for real-time monitoring of microbial biomass production. In this regard, a correlation was obtained between oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and biomass concentration (X) of Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 1987, during phytase production, in an intermittently mixed novel SSF bioreactor. To obtain the correlation, various models describing sigmoidal growth were tested, namely the logistic, Gompertz, Stannard, and Schnute models...
March 21, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Emily B Wroe, Elizabeth L Dunbar, Noel Kalanga, Luckson Dullie, Chiyembekezo Kachimanga, Andrew Mganga, Michael Herce, Jason Beste, Jonas Rigodon, Lawrence Nazimera, Ryan K McBain
Introduction: Partners In Health and the Malawi Ministry of Health collaborate on comprehensive HIV services in Neno, Malawi, featuring community health workers, interventions addressing social determinants of health and health systems strengthening. We conducted an observational study to describe the HIV care continuum in Neno and to compare facility-level HIV outcomes against health facilities nationally. Methods: We compared facility-level outcomes in Neno (n=13) with all other districts (n=682) from 2013 to 2015 using mixed-effects linear regression modelling...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Yunxia Zhang, Meiling Ge, Qiukui Hao, Birong Dong
The effects of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat models of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been evaluated in multiple studies. However, the results evaluating the effectiveness of iPSCs in animal models of PD are mixed, primarily due to their low statistical power. In the current study, a meta-analysis was performed to describe the treatment effect of unsorted iPSCs on behavioral testing in experimental rat models of PD. Databases searched included PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library from inception to March 2017...
March 2018: Biomedical Reports
Michael Bitterlich, Philipp Franken, Jan Graefe
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) proliferate in soils and are known to affect soil structure. Although their contribution to structure is extensively investigated, the consequences of those processes for soil water extractability and transport has, so far, gained surprisingly little attention. Therefore we asked, whether AMF can affect water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity under exclusion of root ingrowth, in order to minimize plant driven effects. We carried out experiments with tomato inoculated with Rhizoglomus irregulare in a soil substrate with sand and vermiculite that created variation in colonization by mixed pots with wild type (WT) plants and mycorrhiza resistant (RMC) mutants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
James Laurence, Katharina Schmid, Miles Hewstone
This study advances the current literature investigating the relationship between contextual out-group exposure, inter-group attitudes and the role of inter-group contact. Firstly, it introduces the concept of contact-valence into this relationship; that is, whether contact is experienced positively or negatively. Secondly, it presents a comparative analysis of how processes of out-group exposure and frequency of (valenced) contact affect prejudice across both neighbourhoods and workplaces. Applying path analysis modelling to a nationally-representative sample of white British individuals in England, we demonstrate, across both contexts, that increasing out-group exposure is associated with higher rates of both positively- and negatively-valenced contact...
2018: Social Indicators Research
Stephen Dubsky, Jordan Thurgood, Andreas Fouras, Bruce R Thompson, Gregory J Sheard
The beating heart is known to produce pressure and airflow oscillations in the lungs of mammals. This phenomenon is often disregarded as detailed measurement of its effects in the lung have hitherto not been possible. Previous studies have attempted to measure the effect of these oscillations on gas mixing. However, the results have proven inconclusive, due to the lack of a direct measurement tool capable of flow measurement throughout the entire bronchial tree. Here we present the first detailed measurement of cardiogenic oscillations, using synchrotron-based dynamic lung imaging of live mechanically ventilated mice...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zaneta M Thayer, Meredith A Wilson, Andrew W Kim, Adrian V Jaeggi
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress is commonly associated with variation in Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning in offspring. However, the strength or consistency of this response has never been empirically evaluated across vertebrate species. Here we meta-analyzed 114 results from 39 studies across 14 vertebrate species using Bayesian phylogenetic mixed-effects models. We found a positive overall effect of prenatal stress on offspring glucocorticoids (d' = 0.43) though the 95% Highest Posterior Density Interval overlapped with 0 (-0...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yared Assefa, Paul Carter, Mark Hinds, Gaurav Bhalla, Ryan Schon, Mark Jeschke, Steve Paszkiewicz, Stephen Smith, Ignacio A Ciampitti
Concurrent to yield, maize (Zea Mays L.) plant density has significantly increased over the years. Unlike yield, however, the rate of change in plant density and its contribution to maize yield gain are rarely reported. The main objectives of this study were to examine the trend in the agronomic optimum plant density (AOPD) and quantify the contribution of plant density to yield gain. Maize hybrid by seeding rate trials were conducted from 1987-2016 across North America (187,662 data points). Mixed model, response surface, and simple linear regression analyses were applied on the meta-data...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tatiana A Karakasheva, George A Dominguez, Ayumi Hashimoto, Eric W Lin, Christopher Chiu, Kate Sasser, Jae W Lee, Gregory L Beatty, Dmitry I Gabrilovich, Anil K Rustgi
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a population of immature immune cells with several protumorigenic functions. CD38 is a transmembrane receptor-ectoenzyme expressed by MDSCs in murine models of esophageal cancer. We hypothesized that CD38 could be expressed on MDSCs in human colorectal cancer (CRC), which might allow for a new perspective on therapeutic targeting of human MDSCs with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies in this cancer. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 41 CRC patients and 8 healthy donors, followed by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) separation...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Victoria Briggs, Ivonne Solis-Trapala, Allan Wailloo, Keith McCulloch, Mark Lambie, Fergus Caskey, James Fotheringham, Simon Davies, Martin Wilkie
BACKGROUND: High-quality peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion pathways are essential for optimal access to the therapy. Dialysis outcomes are influenced by a range of patient and center-related factors, and there is a need to better understand these so that catheter insertion pathways can be better matched to individual circumstances. OBJECTIVES: To examine how patient- and center-related factors influence the choice of catheter insertion pathways for a PD patient, and the impact of such factors and pathways on patient outcomes, and specifically, to compare the occurrence of and recovery from PD catheter-related adverse events and mortality in individuals who had surgical catheter insertion with those who had medical catheter insertion, and evaluate health economics...
March 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Robert J Hancox, Ian D Pavord, Malcolm R Sears
Eosinophilic inflammation and airway remodelling are characteristic features of asthma, but the association between them is unclear. We assessed associations between blood eosinophils and lung function decline in a population-based cohort of young adults.We used linear mixed models to analyse associations between blood eosinophils and spirometry at 21, 26, 32, and 38 years adjusting for sex, smoking, asthma, and spirometry at age 18. We further analysed associations between mean eosinophil counts and changes in spirometry from ages 21 to 38 years...
March 21, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Elena Boldo, Adela Castelló, Nuria Aragonés, Pilar Amiano, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Vicente Martín, Marcela Guevara, Carmen Urtiaga, Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Guillermo Fernández-Tardón, Victor Moreno, Marta Solans, Rosanna Peiró, Rocio Capelo, Inés Gómez-Acebo, Jesús Castilla, Antonio José Molina, Xavier Castells, Jone M Altzibar, Virginia Lope, Manolis Kogevinas, Isabelle Romieu, Marina Pollán
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relationship of the risk of breast cancer (BC) to meat intake, preference regarding degree of cooking ('doneness') and cooking methods, using data from a population-based case-control study (MCC-Spain). STUDY DESIGN: 1006 Histologically confirmed incident BC cases and 1370 controls were recruited in 10 Spanish provinces. Participants were 23-85 years old. They answered an epidemiological survey and a food frequency questionnaire. BC risk was assessed overall, by menopausal status and by pathological subtypes, using logistic and multinomial regression mixed models adjusted for known confounding factors and including province as a random effects term...
April 2018: Maturitas
Wendy Moyle, Cindy Jones, Jenny Murfield, Lukman Thalib, Elizabeth Beattie, David Shum, Siobhan O'Dwyer, M Cindy Mervin, Brian Draper
OBJECTIVES: The robotic seal, PARO, has been used as an alternative to animal-assisted therapies with residents with dementia in long-term care, yet understanding of its efficacy is limited by a paucity of research. We explored the effects of PARO on motor activity and sleep patterns, as measured by a wearable triaxial accelerometer. STUDY DESIGN: Cluster-randomised controlled trial, involving 28 facilities in Queensland, Australia. Nine facilities were randomised to the PARO group (individual, non-facilitated, 15-min sessions three afternoons per week for 10 weeks), 10 to a plush toy (PARO with robotic features disabled) and nine to usual care...
April 2018: Maturitas
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