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Gal Y Kreitman, Ryan J Elias, David W Jeffery, Gavin L Sacks
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), particularly low molecular weight sulfhydryls like hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and methanethiol (MeSH), are often observed in wines with sulfurous off-aromas. Recent work has shown both H 2 S and MeSH can increase up to a few µM (> 40 µg/L) during anoxic storage, but the identity of the latent sources of these sulfhydryls is still disputed. This review critically evaluates the latent precursors and pathways likely to be responsible for the loss and formation of these sulfhydryls during wine storage based on the existing enology literature as well as studies from food chemistry, geochemistry, biochemistry, and synthetic chemistry...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Philippe Haouzi, Maxime Gueguinou, Takashi Sonobe, Annick Judenherc-Haouzi, Nicole Tubbs, Mohamed Trebak, Joseph Cheung, Frederic Bouillaud
BACKGROUND: Although methylene blue (MB) had long been proposed to counteract the effects of cyanide (CN) intoxication, research on its mechanisms of action and efficacy has been abandoned for decades. Recent studies on the benefits of MB in post-anoxic injuries have prompted us to reexamine the relevance of this historical observation. METHODS: Our study was performed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and on HEK293T epithelial cells. First, the effects and toxicity of MB (0-80 mg/kg) on circulation and metabolism were established in four urethane-anesthetized rats...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Seelawut Damrongsiri
The change in environmental conditions during the transportation of contaminated soil and sediment was expected to affect the transformation of heavy metal fractionation. This study disclosed the serious contamination of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the sewer sediment of an e-waste dismantling community in Thailand which may be caused by flushed contaminated soil and e-waste fragments. Two environmental conditions were simulated to observe the transformation of heavy metal fractionation. The anoxic sewer condition was induced using high substrate and sulfate in a closed container...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yang Liu, Zhichao Zhou, Jie Pan, Brett J Baker, Ji-Dong Gu, Meng Li
Thorarchaeota are a new archaeal phylum within the Asgard superphylum, whose ancestors have been proposed to play possible ecological roles in cellular evolution. However, little is known about the lifestyles of these uncultured archaea. To provide a better resolution of the ecological roles and metabolic capacity of Thorarchaeota, we obtained Thorarchaeota genomes reconstructed from metagenomes of different depth layers in mangrove and mudflat sediments. These genomes from deep anoxic layers suggest the presence of Thorarchaeota with the potential to degrade organic matter, fix inorganic carbon, reduce sulfur/sulfate and produce acetate...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
Anna L Hagstrom, Hak-Lae Lee, Myung-Soo Lee, Hyun-Seok Choe, Joori Jung, Byung-Geon Park, Won-Sik Han, Jong Soo Ko, Jae-Hong Kim, Jaehyuk Kim
Triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) has recently drawn widespread interest for its capacity to harvest low-energy photons and to broaden the absorption spectra of photonic devices such as solar cells. Although conceptually promising, effective integration of TTA-UC materials into practical devices has been difficult due to the diffusive and anoxic conditions required in TTA-UC host media. Of the solid-state host materials investigated, rubbery polymers facilitate the highest TTA-UC efficiencies...
February 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Aurélie Gomes, Matthieu Defaux, Riwanon Michel Lemee, Valérie Lobjois, Bernard Ducommun
Multicellular tumor spheroids models are of increasing interest in preclinical studies and pharmacological evaluation. However, their storage and transport is often a limitation because it requires adapted and expensive procedures. Here, we propose a very simple method to store 3D spheroids, using a procedure based on oxygen absorber-induced anoxia. We report that oxygen absorbers allow generating an anoxic environment for spheroid storage in culture plates. Oxygen absorber-induced anoxia fully and reversibly arrests spheroid growth for 4 days at 37°C and up to 18 days at 4°C...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Victoria S Meadows, Giada N Arney, Edward W Schwieterman, Jacob Lustig-Yaeger, Andrew P Lincowski, Tyler Robinson, Shawn D Domagal-Goldman, Russell Deitrick, Rory K Barnes, David P Fleming, Rodrigo Luger, Peter E Driscoll, Thomas R Quinn, David Crisp
Proxima Centauri b provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the evolution and nature of terrestrial planets orbiting M dwarfs. Although Proxima Cen b orbits within its star's habitable zone, multiple plausible evolutionary paths could have generated different environments that may or may not be habitable. Here, we use 1-D coupled climate-photochemical models to generate self-consistent atmospheres for several evolutionary scenarios, including high-O2, high-CO2, and more Earth-like atmospheres, with both oxic and anoxic compositions...
February 12, 2018: Astrobiology
Balbina J Plotkin, James W Davis, Luigi Strizzi, Peter Lee, Jayme Christoffersen-Cebi, Joan Kacmar, Orlando J Rivero, Norhan Elsayed, Nicholas Zanghi, Brent Ito, Ira M Sigar
The center of tumors, stem cell niches and mucosal surfaces all represent areas of the body that are reported to be anoxic. However, long-term study of anoxic cell physiology is hindered by the lack of a sustainable method permitting cell cultivation in the complete absence of oxygen. A novel methodology was developed that enabled anoxic cell cultivation (17d maximum time tested) and cell passage. In the absence of oxygen, cell morphology is significantly altered. All cells tested exhibited morphologic changes, i...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
Jianbo Liu, Zhiyong Tian, Panyue Zhang, Guanglei Qiu, Yan Wu, Haibo Zhang, Rui Xu, Wei Fang, Jie Ye, Yonghui Song, Guangming Zeng
A lab-scale two-stage Anoxic/Oxic with MBR (AO/AO-MBR) system was operated for 81 days for leachate treatment with different reflux ratio (R). The best system performances were observed with a R value of 150%, and the average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia and total nitrogen were 85.6%, 99.1%, and 77.6%, respectively. The microbial community were monitored and evaluated using high-throughput sequencing. Proteobacteria were dominant in all process. Phylogenetic trees were described at species level, genus Thiopseudomonas, Amaricoccus, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter played significant roles in nitrogen removal...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Hugo Ribeiro, Trelita de Sousa, João P Santos, António G G Sousa, Catarina Teixeira, Maria R Monteiro, Paula Salgado, Ana P Mucha, C Marisa R Almeida, Luís Torgo, Catarina Magalhães
This study investigates the potential of an indigenous estuarine microbial consortium to degrade two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene and fluoranthene, under nitrate-reducing conditions. Two physicochemically diverse sediment samples from the Lima Estuary (Portugal) were spiked individually with 25 mg L-1 of each PAH in laboratory designed microcosms. Sediments without PAHs and autoclaved sediments spiked with PAHs were run in parallel. Destructive sampling at the beginning and after 3, 6, 12, 30 and 63 weeks incubation was performed...
February 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Igor Vassilev, Gideon Gießelmann, Susanne K Schwechheimer, Christoph Wittmann, Bernardino Virdis, Jens O Krömer
Microbial electrochemical technologies (MET) are promising to drive metabolic processes for the production of chemicals of interest. They provide microorganisms with an electrode as an electron sink or an electron source to stabilize their redox and/or energy state. Here, we applied an anode as additional electron sink to enhance the anoxic metabolism of the industrial bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum through an anodic electro-fermentation. In using ferricyanide as extracellular electron carrier, anaerobic growth was enabled and the feedback-deregulated mutant Corynebacterium glutamicum lysC further accumulated L-lysine...
February 10, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Madhuradhar Chegondi, Jun Sasaki, Sayed Naqvi, Wei-Chiang Lin, Andre Raszynski, Balagangadhar R Totapally
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as prognostic tool in various disorders in pediatric and adult patients. In our study we aimed to evaluate heart rate variability indices and their association with neurological outcome in three children with anoxic brain injury following drowning. Three children included in the study were admitted following drowning and required mechanical ventilation and targeted temperature management. All physiologic data, including electrocardiography (ECG) and EEG were collected for a period of 3-5 days after enrollment...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Afrina Mustari, Takuya Kanie, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Manabu Sato, Yasuaki Kokubo, Izumi Nishidate
During surgical treatment for cerebrovascular diseases, cortical hemodynamics are often controlled by bypass graft surgery, temporary occlusion of arteries, and surgical removal of veins. Since the brain is vulnerable to hypoxemia and ischemia, interruption of cerebral blood flow reduces the oxygen supply to tissues and induces irreversible damage to cells and tissues. Monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics and alteration of cellular structure during neurosurgery is thus crucial. Sequential recordings of red-green-blue (RGB) images of in vivo exposed rat brains were made during hyperoxia, normoxia, hypoxia, and anoxia...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Max Weißbach, Paul Thiel, Jörg E Drewes, Konrad Koch
A Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) was performed over five months to investigate the performance and dynamics of nitrogen elimination and nitrous oxide production from digester reject water under real feed-stream conditions. A 93% conversion of ammonium to nitrite could be maintained for adapted seed sludge in the first stage (nitritation). The second stage (nitrous denitritation), inoculated with conventional activated sludge, achieved a conversion of 70% of nitrite to nitrous oxide after only 12 cycles of operation...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Eleanor Raper, Raymond Fisher, David R Anderson, Tom Stephenson, Ana Soares
The Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) requires that coke wastewater is treated to reach an effluent with <50 mg/L total nitrogen (TN). A shortage of alkalinity (3.6 mg as CaCO3/mg NH4+-N) in the wastewater limited nitrification to 45%. Various compounds were tested as a source of additional alkalinity, with optimal results being found for sodium carbonate, which enabled 95% nitrification at 300 mg/L (as CaCO3). Sodium bicarbonate led to incomplete ammonia oxidation (76%) whilst soda ash prevented nitrite oxidation...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Technology
Daniel Hosseinlou, Majid Sartaj, Robert Delatolla
Laboratory bench-scale anoxic/aerobic reactors with complete mix and continuous flow conditions were operated with high strength synthetic wastewater to achieve simultaneous COD and nitrogen removal. High concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen can be found in slaughterhouse, dairy, and food processing wastewaters, and also in some landfill leachates. Therefore, the goal of this study is to find a simple, efficient, reliable, cost effective, and general solution for organic carbon and ammonia removal from streams with high influent concentrations of more than 5,000 mg/L COD and 250 mg/L NH3-N...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Technology
Abooalfazl Azhdarpoor, Leila Abbasi, Mohammad Reza Samaei
Nitrogen and phosphorus are among the potential pollutants of receptive water sources entering into these water sources via sewage, which are not sufficiently treated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of a new two-stage aerobic-anoxic continuous-flow baffled cycling reactor (CFBCR) to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus load from wastewater. Therefore, a double-stage baffled reactor was used in which the second part was integrated with the settling part causing the sludge to be spontaneously returned to the second reservoir...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jingying Zhang, Lin Li, Junxin Liu, Yanjie Wang
The performance of a biofilter for off-gas treatment relies on the activity of microorganisms and adequate O2 and H2O. In present study, a microelectrode was applied to analyze O2 in polyurethane foam cubes (PUFCs) packed in a biofilter for SO2 removal. The O2 distribution varied with the density and water-containing rate (WCR) of PUFCs. The O2 concentration dropped sharply from 10.2 to 0.8mg/L from the surface to the center of a PUFC with 97.20% of WCR. The PUFCs with high WCR presented aerobic-anoxic-aerobic areas...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Yolanda Y Huang, Ana Martínez-Del Campo, Emily P Balskus
The discovery of enzymes responsible for previously unappreciated microbial metabolic pathways furthers our understanding of host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. We recently identified and characterized a new gut microbial glycyl radical enzyme (GRE) responsible for anaerobic metabolism of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (Hyp). Hyp dehydratase (HypD) catalyzes the removal of water from Hyp to generate Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C). This enzyme is encoded in the genomes of a diverse set of gut anaerobes and is prevalent and abundant in healthy human stool metagenomes...
February 6, 2018: Gut Microbes
Masateru Takahashi, Etsuko Takahashi, Luay I Joudeh, Monica Marini, Gobind Das, Mohamed M Elshenawy, Anastassja Akal, Kosuke Sakashita, Intikhab Alam, Muhammad Tehseen, Mohamed A Sobhy, Ulrich Stingl, Jasmeen S Merzaban, Enzo Di Fabrizio, Samir M Hamdan
The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea are remote and unexplored environments characterized by high temperatures, anoxic water, and elevated concentrations of salt and heavy metals. This environment provides a rare system to study the interplay between halophilic and thermophilic adaptation in biologic macromolecules. The present article reports the first DNA polymerase with halophilic and thermophilic features. Biochemical and structural analysis by Raman and circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that the charge distribution on the protein's surface mediates the structural balance between stability for thermal adaptation and flexibility for counteracting the salt-induced rigid and nonfunctional hydrophobic packing...
January 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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