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Haris I Sair, Yousef Hannawi, Shanshan Li, Joshua Kornbluth, Athena Demertzi, Carol Di Perri, Russell Chabanne, Betty Jean, Habib Benali, Vincent Perlbarg, James Pekar, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Damien Galanaud, Lionel Velly, Louis Puybasset, Steven Laureys, Brian Caffo, Robert D Stevens
Purpose To assess whether early brain functional connectivity is associated with functional recovery 1 year after cardiac arrest (CA). Materials and Methods Enrolled in this prospective multicenter cohort were 46 patients who were comatose after CA. Principal outcome was cerebral performance category at 12 months, with favorable outcome (FO) defined as cerebral performance category 1 or 2. All participants underwent multiparametric structural and functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging less than 4 weeks after CA...
October 18, 2017: Radiology
Jacob E Munro, Önder Kimyon, Deborah J Rich, Joanna Koenig, Sihui Tang, Adrian Low, Matthew Lee, Mike Manefield, Nicholas V Coleman
1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) is a problematic groundwater pollutant. Factors influencing the distribution and activities of DCA-degrading bacteria are not well-understood, which has hampered their application for bioremediation. Here, we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to investigate the distribution of putative DCA-dehalogenating bacteria at a DCA-impacted site in Sydney (Australia). The dehalogenase genes dhlA, tceA and bvcA were detected in all groundwater samples (n = 15), while vcrA was found in 11/15 samples...
October 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Yao-Dong Chen, Yu Zhang, Tian-Xiu Dong, Yu-Tong Xu, Wei Zhang, Ting-Ting An, Peng-Fei Liu, Xiu-Hua Yang
Malignant gliomas are a group of aggressive neoplasms among human cancers. The curative effects of current treatments are finite for improving the prognosis of patients. Hyperthermia (HT) is an effective treatment for cancers; however, the effects of HT with different temperatures in treatment of MG and relevant mechanisms remain unclear. MTT assay and Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining were used for investigating the proliferation and apoptosis of C6 cells, respectively. Western blotting was applied to detect the expression of proteins...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
A Sharma
Evolution of homochirality requires an initial enantiomeric excess (EE) between right and left-handed biomolecules. We show that magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of sun's ultraviolet C light by oxygen in Archaean earth's anoxic atmosphere followed by chirally selective damage of biomolecules due to circular dichroism (CD) can generate EE of correct handedness. Our calculation of EE uses published data for CD of biomolecules and accepted magnitude for Archaean earth's magnetic field. Independent of atmospheric oxygen concentration calculated EE has the same sign for all pyrimidine nucleosides which is opposite to that for amino-acids...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Markus Schmitt, Paul R Erickson, Kristopher McNeill
Excited triplet state chromophoric dissolved organic matter (3CDOM*) is a short-lived mixture of excited state species that plays important roles in aquatic photochemical processes. Unlike the study of triplet states of well-defined molecules, which are amenable to transient absorbance spectroscopy, the study of 3CDOM* is hampered by it being a complex mixture and its low average intersystem crossing quantum yield (ΦISC). This study is an alternative approach to investigating 3CDOM* using transient absorption laser spectroscopy...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Dimin Fan, Ying Lan, Paul G Tratnyek, Richard L Johnson, Jan Filip, Denis Michael O'Carroll, Ariel Nunez Garcia, Abinash Agrawal
Iron-based materials used in water treatment and groundwater remediation-especially micro- and nano-sized zerovalent iron (nZVI)-can be more effective when modified with lower-valent forms of sulfur (i.e., "sulfidated"). Controlled sulfidation for this purpose (using sulfide, dithionite, etc.) is the main topic of this review, but insights are derived by comparison with related and comparatively well-characterized processes such as corrosion of iron in sulfidic waters and abiotic natural attenuation by iron sulfide minerals...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Rachel Wood, Douglas H Erwin
Environmental fluctuations in redox may reinforce rather than hinder evolutionary transitions, such that variability in near-surface oceanic oxygenation can promote morphological evolution and novelty. Modern, low-oxygen regions are heterogeneous and dynamic habitats that support low diversity and are inhabited by opportunistic and non-skeletal metazoans. We note that several major radiation episodes follow protracted or repeating intervals (>1 million years) of persistent and dynamic shallow marine redox (oceanic anoxic events)...
October 16, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
S Collins, R Singh, A Rivas, A Palmer, D Horne, A Manderson, J Roygard, A Matthews
Intensive agricultural activities are generally associated with nitrogen leaching from agricultural soils, and this nitrogen has the potential to percolate and contaminate groundwater and surface waters. We assessed surface water and groundwater interactions, and nitrogen leaching and its potential attenuation in shallow groundwater in the lower Rangitikei River catchment (832km(2)), New Zealand. We combined regional- and local-scale field surveys and experiments, nutrient budget modelling, and hydraulic and geochemical methods, to gain an insight into leaching, transformation and transport of nitrogen via groundwaters to the river in the study area...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
E Panousi, D Mamais, C Noutsopoulos, K Mpertoli, C Kantzavelou, E Nyktari, I Kavallari, M Nasioka, A Kaldis
The objective of this work is to evaluate biological groundwater treatment systems that will achieve hexavalent chromium removal from groundwater at hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) groundwater concentrations in the 0 - 200 μg/L range under anoxic conditions. The effect of type of organic substrate added as feed to the groundwater treatment system (milk, sugar, cheese whey), the effect of different concentrations of COD added in the feed (100, 150, 200 mg/L) and the effect of different hydraulic residence time (1...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Technology
Trenton L Place, Frederick E Domann, Adam J Case
Molecular oxygen is one of the most important variables in modern cell culture systems. Fluctuations in its concentration can affect cell growth, differentiation, signaling, and free radical production. In order to maintain culture viability, experimental validity, and reproducibility, it is imperative that oxygen levels be consistently maintained within physiological "normoxic" limits. Use of the term normoxia, however, is not consistent among scientists who experiment in cell culture. It is typically used to describe the atmospheric conditions of a standard incubator, not the true microenvironment to which the cells are exposed...
October 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Lisa K Oberding, Lisa M Gieg
Paraffinic n-alkanes (> C17) that are solid at ambient temperature comprise a large fraction of many crude oils. The comparatively low water solubility and reactivity of these long-chain alkanes can lead to their persistence in the environment following fuel spills, and pose serious problems for crude oil recovery operations by clogging oil production wells. However, the degradation of waxy paraffins under the anoxic conditions characterizing contaminated groundwater environments and deep subsurface energy reservoirs is poorly understood...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mehdi Ghasemi, Firas Kaddouh, Anindita Deb, Margaret A Owegi
Anoxic brain injury can manifest with various abnormal movements. We describe acute chorea in a young patient with anoxic brain injury due to chlordiazepoxide toxicity who had delayed radiographic lesions in bilateral globus pallidus. Although brain MRI 8days after the anoxic event was unremarkable, repeat brain MRI 15days after the event showed T2 hyperintensities and enhancement within the bilateral globus pallidi. It is possible that MRI brain findings of bilateral basal ganglia lesions may appear later than onset of chorea in anoxic brain injury...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Imaging
Ali Ebrahimi, Dani Or
Changes in soil hydration status affect microbial community dynamics and shape key biogeochemical processes. Evidence suggests that local anoxic conditions may persist and support anaerobic microbial activity in soil aggregates (or in similar hot spots) long after the bulk soil becomes aerated. To facilitate systematic studies of interactions among environmental factors with biogeochemical emissions of CO2 , N2 O and CH4 from soil aggregates, we remolded silt soil aggregates to different sizes and incorporated carbon at different configurations (core, mixed, no addition)...
October 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
Martin W Hahn, Ulrike Koll, Gerlinde Karbon, Johanna Schmidt, Elke Lang
The bacterial strain MWH-K35W1(T) was isolated from a permanently anoxic water layer of a meromictic lake located in the Austrian Salzkammergut area. The basically chemo-organoheterotrophic strain was isolated and maintained under aerobic conditions. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and the glutamine synthetase gene (glnA) of the strain suggested an affiliation to the genus Polynucleobacter and the cryptic species complex PnecC. Strain MWH-K35W1(T) shares with the type strains of the six free-living species of the genus Polynucleobacter affiliated with this species complex 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sepehr S Mohammadi, Arjan Pol, Theo van Alen, Mike S M Jetten, Huub J M Op den Camp
The Solfatara volcano near Naples (Italy), the origin of the recently discovered verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV was shown to contain ammonium ([Formula: see text]) at concentrations ranging from 1 to 28 mM. Ammonia (NH3) can be converted to toxic hydroxylamine (NH2OH) by the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), the first enzyme of the methane (CH4) oxidation pathway. Methanotrophs rapidly detoxify the intermediate NH2OH. Here, we show that strain SolV performs ammonium oxidation to nitrite at a rate of 48...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lijie Zhou, Biao Ye, Siqing Xia
This study assessed membrane biofouling and its gel layer of anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR) for megacity municipal wastewater treatment during plum rain season, which was continuous rainy weather, in Yangtze River Delta, China. A laboratory-scale A/O-MBR was operated to treat the municipal wastewater from Quyang wastewater treatment plant, which located at the typical megacity of Shanghai in Yangtze River Delta, from April to July accompanying with plum rain season. As reactor performance showed, CODCr, NH4(+)-N, TN, TP of the influent gradually decreased during plum rain season, and inhibited pollutant removal due to organic carbon shortage...
October 5, 2017: Water Research
Carolina Cruz Viggi, Bruna Matturro, Emanuela Frascadore, Susanna Insogna, Alessio Mezzi, Saulius Kaciulis, Angela Sherry, Obioma K Mejeha, Ian M Head, Eleni Vaiopoulou, Korneel Rabaey, Simona Rossetti, Federico Aulenta
Marine sediments represent an important sink for a number of anthropogenic organic contaminants, including petroleum hydrocarbons following an accidental oil spill. Degradation of these compounds largely depends on the activity of sedimentary microbial communities linked to biogeochemical cycles, in which abundant elements such as iron and sulfur are shuttled between their oxidized and reduced forms. Here we show that introduction of a small electrically conductive graphite rod ("the electrochemical snorkel") into an oil-contaminated River Tyne (UK) sediment, so as to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic contaminated sediment and the oxygenated overlying water, has a large impact on the rate of metabolic reactions taking place in the bulk sediment...
October 3, 2017: Water Research
Marisol Belmonte, Chia-Fang Hsieh, José Luis Campos, Lorna Guerrero, Ramón Méndez, Anuska Mosquera-Corral, Gladys Vidal
The effect of free ammonia (NH3 or FA), free nitrous acid (HNO2 or FNA), and total alkalinity (TA) on the performance of a partial nitrification (PN) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating anaerobically pretreated pig slurry was studied. The SBR was operated under alternating oxic/anoxic (O/A) conditions and was fed during anoxic phases. This strategy allowed using organic matter to partially remove nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) generated during oxic phases. The desired NH4(+) to NO2(-) ratio of 1...
2017: BioMed Research International
Cecilia Perin, Roberto Meroni, Vincenzo Rega, Giacomo Braghetto, Cesare Giuseppe Cerri
Introduction  Tracheostomy weaning in patients who suffered a severe acquired brain injury is often a challenge and decannulation failures are not uncommon. Objective  Our study objective is to describe the decannulation failure rate in patients undergoing rehabilitation following a severe acquired brain injury (sABI); to describe the factors associated with a successful tube weaning. Methods  We conduct a retrospective analysis of charts, consecutively retrieved considering a 3-year window. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), cause of hospitalization (stroke, trauma, cardiac arrest), date of the pathological event, gap between the index event and the first day of hospitalization, duration of Neurorehabilitation Ward hospitalization, comorbidities, chest morphological alteration, kind of tracheostomy tube used (overall dimension, cap, fenestration), SpO2, presentation and quantification of pulmonary secretion, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), respiratory frequency and pattern, cardiac frequency, presence of spontaneous cough, cough strength, and blood gas analysis...
October 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Alexandra Pontefract, Ting F Zhu, Virginia K Walker, Holli Hepburn, Clarissa Lui, Maria T Zuber, Gary Ruvkun, Christopher E Carr
Life can persist under severe osmotic stress and low water activity in hypersaline environments. On Mars, evidence for the past presence of saline bodies of water is prevalent and resulted in the widespread deposition of sulfate and chloride salts. Here we investigate Spotted Lake (British Columbia, Canada), a hypersaline lake with extreme (>3 M) levels of sulfate salts as an exemplar of the conditions thought to be associated with ancient Mars. We provide the first characterization of microbial structure in Spotted Lake sediments through metagenomic sequencing, and report a bacteria-dominated community with abundant Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, as well as diverse extremophiles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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