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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214440/achieving-short-cut-nitrification-and-denitrification-in-modified-intermittently-aerated-constructed-wetland
#1
Jie Hou, Ling Xia, Tao Ma, Yiqing Zhang, Yiyong Zhou, Xugang He
This study aim to enhance nitrogen removal performance via shifting nitrogen removal pathway from nitrate to nitrite pathway. It was demonstrated that nitrite pathway was successfully and stably achieved in CWs by using modified intermittent aeration control with aeration 20min/non-aeration 100min and reducing DO concentration during aeration, nitrite in the effluent could accumulate to over 70% of the total oxidized nitrogen. Q-PCR analysis showed that nitrifying microbial communities were optimized under the alternating anoxic and aerobic conditions, ammonia oxidizing bacteria increased from 7...
February 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213708/removal-mechanisms-for-extremely-high-level-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics-in-pharmaceutical-wastewater-treatment-plants
#2
Xinyan Guo, Zheng Yan, Yi Zhang, Xiangji Kong, Deyang Kong, Zhengjun Shan, Na Wang
Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) receive industrial effluents from the plant that contain extremely high levels of antibiotics and are regarded as one of the major sources of antibiotics in the environment. Two PWWTPs have been selected in Zhejiang Province, China, to assess the removal mechanisms of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs). PWWTP A uses activated sludge with biocarriers in a moving bed biofilm reactor in anoxic and aerobic units, and PWWTP B uses biological units under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212306/metabolic-effects-of-berries-with-structurally-diverse-anthocyanins
#3
John Overall, Sierra A Bonney, Mickey Wilson, Arnold Beermann, Mary H Grace, Debora Esposito, Mary Ann Lila, Slavko Komarnytsky
Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content) on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212019/complete-nutrient-removal-coupled-to-nitrous-oxide-production-as-a-bioenergy-source-by-denitrifying-polyphosphate-accumulating-organisms
#4
Han Gao, Miaomiao Liu, James S Griffin, Longcheng Xu, Da Xiang, Yaniv D Scherson, Wen-Tso Liu, George F Wells
Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) is a promising emerging bioprocess for wastewater treatment that enables direct energy recovery from nitrogen (N) in three steps: (1) ammonium oxidation to nitrite; (2) denitrification of nitrite to nitrous oxide (N2O); and (3) N2O conversion to N2 with energy generation. However, CANDO does not currently target phosphorus (P) removal. Here, we demonstrate that denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organism (PAO) enrichment cultures are capable of catalyzing simultaneous biological N and P removal coupled to N2O generation in a 2nd generation CANDO process, CANDO+P...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211847/syntrophic-linkage-between-predatory-carpediemonas-and-specific-prokaryotic-populations
#5
Emmo Hamann, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Dietmar Riedel, Sten Littmann, Soeren Ahmerkamp, Jianwei Chen, Philipp F Hach, Marc Strous
Most anoxic environments are populated by small (<10 μm) heterotrophic eukaryotes that prey on different microbial community members. How predatory eukaryotes engage in beneficial interactions with other microbes has rarely been investigated so far. Here, we studied an example of such an interaction by cultivating the anerobic marine flagellate, Carpediemonas frisia sp. nov. (supergroup Excavata), with parts of its naturally associated microbiome. This microbiome consisted of so far uncultivated members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Nanoarchaeota...
February 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211189/influence-of-oxygen-availability-on-the-activities-of-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea
#6
Wei Qin, Kelley A Meinhardt, James W Moffett, Allan H Devol, E Virginia Armbrust, Anitra E Ingalls, David A Stahl
Recent studies point to the importance of oxygen (O2 ) in controlling the distribution and activity of marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), one of the most abundant prokaryotes in the ocean. The AOA are associated with regions of low O2 tension in oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), and O2 availability is suggested to influence their production of the ozone-depleting greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O). We show that marine AOA available in pure culture sustain high ammonia oxidation activity at low μM O2 concentrations, characteristic of suboxic regions of OMZs (<10 µM O2 ), and that atmospheric concentrations of O2 may inhibit the growth of some environmental populations...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209580/white-matter-tract-pathology-in-pediatric-anoxic-brain-injury-from-drowning
#7
M Ishaque, J H Manning, M D Woolsey, C G Franklin, F S Salinas, P T Fox
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although drowning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in young children, the neuropathologic consequences have not been fully determined. The purpose of this article was to quantitatively characterize white matter microstructural abnormalities in pediatric anoxic brain injury from nonfatal drowning and investigate the correlation with motor function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole-brain T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging datasets were acquired in 11 children with chronic anoxic brain injury and 11 age- and sex-matched neurotypical controls (4-12 years of age)...
February 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205388/hydrogen-or-formate-alternative-key-players-in-methanogenic-degradation
#8
REVIEW
Bernhard Schink, Dominik Montag, Anja Keller, Nicolai Müller
Hydrogen and formate are important electron carriers in methanogenic degradation in anoxic environments such as sediments, sewage sludge digestors, and biogas reactors. Especially in the terminal steps of methanogenesis, they determine the energy budgets of secondary (syntrophically) fermenting bacteria and their methanogenic partners. The literature provides considerable data on hydrogen pool sizes in such habitats, but little data exist for formate concentrations due to technical difficulties in formate determination at low concentration...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205101/microbial-community-compositions-in-different-functional-zones-of-carrousel-oxidation-ditch-system-for-domestic-wastewater-treatment
#9
Dong Xu, Sitong Liu, Qian Chen, Jinren Ni
The microbial community diversity in anaerobic-, anoxic- and oxic-biological zones of a conventional Carrousel oxidation ditch system for domestic wastewater treatment was systematically investigated. The monitored results of the activated sludge sampled from six full-scale WWTPs indicated that Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae were dominant phyla, and Nitrospira was the most abundant and ubiquitous genus across the three biological zones...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202304/effect-of-mg-ca-molar-ratios-on-characteristics-of-anaerobic-anoxic-denitrifying-dephosphatation
#10
W-D Tian, C Ma, Y Lin, Z-L Ran
In this study, the effect of three Mg/Ca molar ratios (5.0, 3.8 and 1.7) on denitrifying phosphate removal performance, biomass morphology, and Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) were examined. Results showed that when the influent Mg/Ca molar ratio was 3.8, the anaerobic-anoxic EBPR performed complete phosphate removal. The microbial bacterial population was a mixed culture comprised of 81±3% DPAO and 13±2% denitrifying glycogen accumulating organisms (DGAO). A higher influent Mg/Ca molar ratio (5...
January 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199864/oxidation-of-trichloroethylene-by-the-hydroxyl-radicals-produced-from-oxygenation-of-reduced-nontronite
#11
Xixiang Liu, Songhu Yuan, Man Tong, Deng Liu
Reduction by Fe(II)-bearing silicate minerals has been proposed as an important mechanism for the attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) in anoxic subsurfaces. The redox condition of subsurface often changes from anoxic to oxic due to natural processes and human activities, but little is known about the transformation of CHCs induced by Fe(II)-bearing silicate minerals under oxic conditions. This study reveals that trichloroethylene (TCE) can be efficiently oxidized during the oxygenation of reduced nontronite at pH 7...
February 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198664/microbial-fouling-and-corrosion-of-carbon-steel-in-deep-anoxic-alkaline-groundwater
#12
Pauliina Rajala, Malin Bomberg, Mikko Vepsäläinen, Leena Carpén
Understanding the corrosion of carbon steel materials of low and intermediate level radioactive waste under repository conditions is crucial to ensure the safe storage of radioactive contaminated materials. The waste will be in contact with the concrete of repository silos and storage containers, and eventually with groundwater. In this study, the corrosion of carbon steel under repository conditions as well as the microbial community forming biofilm on the carbon steel samples, consisting of bacteria, archaea, and fungi, was studied over a period of three years in a groundwater environment with and without inserted concrete...
February 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198083/syntrophobacteraceae-affiliated-species-are-major-propionate-degrading-sulfate-reducers-in-paddy-soil
#13
Pengfei Liu, Ralf Conrad
Methane is an important greenhouse gas and propionate is next to acetate the main intermediate (average 23%) of the carbon flow to CH4 in paddy fields. Sulfate (e.g., gypsum) application can reduce CH4 emissions up to 70%. However, the effect of gypsum application on propionate degradation and the microbial communities involved are not well understood. Therefore, we studied propionate-dependent sulfate reduction in anoxic microcosms of paddy soils from Italy and the Philippines, combining 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrB) gene profiling and co-occurrence network analysis...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194215/accidental-ingestion-of-e-cigarette-liquid-nicotine-in-a-15-month-old-child-an-infant-mortality-case-of-nicotine-intoxication
#14
An Deok Seo, Dong Chan Kim, Hee Joon Yu, Min Jae Kang
Electronic cigarettes are novel tobacco products that are frequently used these days. The cartridge contains liquid nicotine and accidental poisoning, even with a small oral dose, endangers children. We present here a mortality case of a 15-month-old child who ingested liquid nicotine mistaking it for cold medicine. When the emergency medical technicians arrived, she was found to have pulseless electrical activity. Spontaneous circulation was restored after approximately 40 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192725/high-throughput-sequencing-based-microbial-characterization-of-size-fractionated-biomass-in-an-anoxic-anammox-reactor-for-low-strength-wastewater-at-low-temperatures
#15
Wenru Liu, Dianhai Yang, Wenjing Chen, Xiao Gu
The microbial characterization of three size-fractionated sludge obtained from a suspended-growth anoxic anammox reactor treating low-strength wastewater at low temperatures were investigated by using high-throughput sequencing. Particularly, the spatial variability in relative abundance of microorganisms involved in nitrogen metabolism were analyzed in detail. Results showed that population segregation did occur in the reactor. It was found, for the first time, that the genus Nitrotoga was enriched only in large granules (>400μm)...
January 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192347/predicting-n2o-emissions-from-nitrifying-and-denitrifying-biofilms-a-modeling-study
#16
Fabrizio Sabba, Cristian Picioreanu, Joshua P Boltz, Robert Nerenberg
Wastewater treatment plants can be significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. While our understanding of N2O emissions from suspended-growth processes has advanced significantly, less is known about emissions from biofilm processes. Biofilms may behave differently due to their substrate gradients and microbial stratification. In this study, we used mathematical modeling to explore the mechanisms of N2O emissions from nitrifying and denitrifying biofilms. Our ammonia-oxidizing bacteria biofilm model suggests that N2O emissions from biofilm can be significantly greater than from suspended-growth systems...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190796/growth-and-grazing-kinetics-of-the-facultative-anaerobic-nanoflagellate-suigetsumonas-clinomigrationis
#17
Ryuji Kondo, Takahiko Okamura
The functional and numerical responses of the facultative anaerobic heterotrophic nanoflagellate, Suigetsumonas clinomigrationis NIES-3647 to prey density were examined under oxic and anoxic conditions. S. clinomigrationis grew at temperatures between 10 and 30°C and in the salinity range of 3.9-36.9 psu. The maximum specific growth and ingestion rates of S. clinomigrationis were lower under anoxic conditions than under oxic conditions. Half-saturation constants for the growth of S. clinomigrationis were within or greater than the range of bacterial densities in the water column of Lake Suigetsu, suggesting that its growth rate is limited by bacterial prey densities in natural environments...
February 11, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188105/microbial-community-composition-and-function-in-a-pilot-scale-anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic-combined-process-for-the-treatment-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-wastewater
#18
Longyi Lv, Weiguang Li, Chuandong Wu, Liqiang Meng, Wen Qin
Biodegradation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater was investigated in a pilot-scale anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic combined process, which was composed of an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor, a hydrolysis acidification (HA) reactor and a biological contact oxidation (BCO) reactor. In stable stage, the average values of COD and color in the combined process effluent were 45.7mgL(-1) and 13 times, respectively. Excellent linear relations (R(2)>0.915) were achieved between color and UV254 at three color levels...
January 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187811/determinants-of-prognosis-in-neurocatastrophes
#19
K Sharma, R D Stevens
A neurocatastrophe or severe brain injury (SBI) is a central nervous system insult associated with a high likelihood of death or severe disability. While many etiologic processes may lead to SBI, the most common and best-studied clinical paradigms are traumatic brain injury and anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following cardiac arrest. Clinical phenotypes following SBI include acute and chronic disorders of consciousness as well as a range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. A fundamental task for medical teams working in the acute phase is to estimate SBI recovery probabilities with the highest degree of accuracy possible...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181800/vanadium-geochemistry-of-oil-sands-fluid-petroleum-coke
#20
Jake A Nesbitt, Matthew B J Lindsay
Vanadium has previously been linked to elevated toxicity of leachates derived from oil sands petroleum coke. However, geochemical controls on V mobility within coke deposits remain poorly constrained. Detailed examinations of porewater and solid-phase V geochemistry were therefore performed on oil sands fluid petroleum coke deposits in Alberta, Canada. Sample collection focused on both active and reclaimed deposits, which contained more than 3 × 10(7) m(3) of fluid petroleum coke. Dissolved V concentrations were highest (up to 3...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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