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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340418/enantioselective-reductive-transformation-of-climbazole-a-concept-towards-quantitative-biodegradation-assessment-in-anaerobic-biological-treatment-processes
#1
Monica Brienza, Serge Chiron
An efficient chiral method-based using liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry analytical method has been validated for the determination of climbazole (CBZ) enantiomers in wastewater and sludge with quantification limits below the 1 ng/L and 2 ng/g range, respectively. On the basis of this newly developed analytical method, the stereochemistry of CBZ was investigated over time in sludge biotic and sterile batch experiments under anoxic dark and light conditions and during wastewater biological treatment by subsurface flow constructed wetlands...
March 21, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338965/burrowers-from-the-past-mitochondrial-signatures-of-ordovician-bivalve-infaunalization
#2
Federico Plazzi, Guglielmo Puccio, Marco Passamonti
Bivalves and gastropods are the two largest classes of extant molluscs. Despite sharing a huge number of features, they do not share a key ecological one: gastropods are essentially epibenthic, while most bivalves are infaunal. However, this is not the ancestral bivalve condition; Cambrian forms were surface crawlers and only during the Ordovician a fundamental infaunalization process took place, leading to bivalves as we currently know them. This major ecological shift is linked to the exposure to a different redox environoments (hypoxic or anoxic) and with the Lower Devonian oxygenation event...
March 9, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334877/iron-mediates-catalysis-of-nucleic-acid-processing-enzymes-support-for-fe-ii-as-a-cofactor-before-the-great-oxidation-event
#3
C Denise Okafor, Kathryn A Lanier, Anton S Petrov, Shreyas S Athavale, Jessica C Bowman, Nicholas V Hud, Loren Dean Williams
Life originated in an anoxic, Fe2+-rich environment. We hypothesize that on early Earth, Fe2+ was a ubiquitous cofactor for nucleic acids, with roles in RNA folding and catalysis as well as in processing of nucleic acids by protein enzymes. In this model, Mg2+ replaced Fe2+ as the primary cofactor for nucleic acids in parallel with known metal substitutions of metalloproteins, driven by the Great Oxidation Event. To test predictions of this model, we assay the ability of nucleic acid processing enzymes, including a DNA polymerase, an RNA polymerase and a DNA ligase, to use Fe2+ in place of Mg2+ as a cofactor during catalysis...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334656/lipid-profiling-in-sewage-sludge
#4
Fenfen Zhu, Xuemin Wu, Luyao Zhao, Xiaohui Liu, Juanjuan Qi, Xueying Wang, Jiawei Wang
High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks...
March 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334391/sediment-anoxia-limits-microbial-driven-seagrass-carbon-remineralization-under-warming-conditions
#5
Stacey M Trevathan-Tackett, Justin R Seymour, Daniel A Nielsen, Peter I Macreadie, Thomas C Jeffries, Jonathan Sanderman, Jeff Baldock, Johanna M Howes, Andrew D L Steven, Peter Ralph
Seagrass ecosystems are significant carbon sinks, and their resident microbial communities ultimately determine the quantity and quality of carbon sequestered. However, environmental perturbations have been predicted to affect microbial-driven seagrass decomposition and subsequent carbon sequestration. Utilizing techniques including 16S-rDNA sequencing, solid-state NMR and microsensor profiling, we tested the hypothesis that elevated seawater temperatures and eutrophication enhance the microbial decomposition of seagrass leaf detritus and rhizome/root tissues...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333063/occurrence-and-elimination-of-antibiotics-in-three-sewage-treatment-plants-with-different-treatment-technologies-in-urumqi-and-shihezi-xinjiang
#6
Jiang Liu, Jianjiang Lu, Yanbin Tong, Chao Li
Fourteen antibiotics, including five quinolones (QNs), five sulfonamides (SAs), and four tetracyclines (TCs), were selected to investigate their occurrence and elimination in three sewage treatment plants (STPs) by employing different treatment technologies in Urumqi (two STPs) and Shihezi (one STP), China. The STP in Shihezi was chosen as representative to investigate the distribution of antibiotics in a sludge-sewage system. Results showed that the concentrations of most detected antibiotics ranged from tens to hundreds of nanograms per liter in influent samples and under 100 ng L(-1) in effluent samples...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330483/predictors-of-hospital-and-one-year-mortality-in-intensive-care-patients-with-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-population-based-study
#7
Anne-Mari Kantanen, Reetta Kälviäinen, Ilkka Parviainen, Marika Ala-Peijari, Tom Bäcklund, Juha Koskenkari, Ruut Laitio, Matti Reinikainen
BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine predictors of hospital and 1-year mortality in patients with intensive care unit (ICU)-treated refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in a population-based study. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium (FICC) database of adult patients (16 years of age or older) with ICU-treated RSE in Finland during a 3-year period (2010-2012). The database consists of admissions to all 20 Finnish hospitals treating RSE in the ICU...
March 23, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324835/flexible-biological-arsenite-oxidation-utilizing-nox-and-o2-as-alternative-electron-acceptors
#8
Jie Wang, Junfeng Wan, Zihao Wu, Hongli Li, Haisong Li, Christophe Dagot, Yan Wang
The feasibility of flexible microbial arsenite (As(III)) oxidation coupled with the reduction of different electron acceptors was investigated. The results indicated the acclimated microorganisms could oxidize As(III) with oxygen, nitrate and nitrite as the alternative electron acceptors. A series of batch tests were conducted to measure the kinetic parameters of As(III) oxidation and to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions including pH and temperature on the activity of biological As(III) oxidation dependent on different electron acceptors...
March 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323720/neuroprognostication-after-cardiac-arrest-in-the-light-of-targeted-temperature-management
#9
Mauro Oddo, Hans Friberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delayed awakening after targeted temperature management (TTM) and sedation is frequent among cardiac arrest patients. Differentiating between prolonged coma and irreversible cerebral damage can be challenging, therefore the utilization of a multimodal approach is recommended by international guidelines. Here, we discuss indications and advantages/disadvantages of available modalities for coma prognostication and describe new tools to improve our accuracy for outcome prediction...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323671/codeine-and-opioid-metabolism-implications-and-alternatives-for-pediatric-pain-management
#10
Vidya Chidambaran, Senthilkumar Sadhasivam, Mohamed Mahmoud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Use of perioperative opioids for surgical pain management of children presents clinical challenges because of concerns of serious adverse effects including life-threatening respiratory depression. This is especially true for children with history of obstructive sleep apnea. This review will explore current knowledge of clinically relevant factors and genetic polymorphisms that affect opioid metabolism and postoperative outcomes in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Within the past several years, an increasing number of case reports have illustrated clinically important respiratory depression, anoxic brain injuries and even death among children receiving appropriate weight-based dosages of codeine and other opioids for analgesia at home setting particularly following tonsillectomy...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322329/an-expanded-multi-scale-monte-carlo-simulation-method-for-personalized-radiobiological-effect-estimation-in-radiotherapy-a-feasibility-study
#11
Ying Zhang, Yuanming Feng, Wei Wang, Chengwen Yang, Ping Wang
A novel and versatile "bottom-up" approach is developed to estimate the radiobiological effect of clinic radiotherapy. The model consists of multi-scale Monte Carlo simulations from organ to cell levels. At cellular level, accumulated damages are computed using a spectrum-based accumulation algorithm and predefined cellular damage database. The damage repair mechanism is modeled by an expanded reaction-rate two-lesion kinetic model, which were calibrated through replicating a radiobiological experiment. Multi-scale modeling is then performed on a lung cancer patient under conventional fractionated irradiation...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320070/dexpramipexole-improves-bioenergetics-and-outcome-in-experimental-stroke
#12
Mirko Muzzi, Elisabetta Gerace, Daniela Buonvicino, Elisabetta Coppi, Francesco Resta, Laura Formentini, Riccardo Zecchi, Laura Tigli, Daniele Guasti, Martina Ferri, Emidio Camaioni, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Guido Mannaioni, Daniele Bani, Anna M Pugliese, Alberto Chiarugi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dexpramipexole, a drug recently tested in ALS patients able to bind F1Fo ATP synthase and increase mitochondrial ATP production, on experimental ischemic brain injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of dexpramipexole on bioenergetics, Ca(2+) fluxes, electrophysiological functions and death were evaluated in primary neural cultures and hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The drug's impact on infarct volumes and neurological functions was also evaluated in mice subjected to proximal or distal MCAo...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318559/screening-level-risk-assessment-applied-to-dredging-of-polluted-sediments-from-guanabara-bay-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#13
Ana Elisa F Silveira, Juliana R Nascimento, Elisamara Sabadini-Santos, Edison D Bidone
Guanabara Bay is characterized by predominant eutrophication and anoxic sediments with a mixture of pollutants. The risk prognosis associated with the dumping of its dredged sediments into the open ocean was addressed by our algorithm. Our algorithm could prioritize areas, characterize major processes related to dredging, measure the potential risk of sediments, and predict the effects of sediment mixing. The estimated risk of dredged sediment was >10-fold than that of ocean sediments. Among metals, mercury represented 50-90% of the total risk...
March 16, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316044/changes-and-relations-of-photosynthesis-and-iron-cycling-in-anoxic-paddy-soil-amended-with-high-concentrations-of-sulfate
#14
Qin Chen, Rong Jia, Dong Qu, Ming Li
Sulfate contamination is an increasingly serious environmental problem related to microbial reduction processes in anoxic paddy soil. This study revealed the changes and interrelations of ferric iron [Fe(III)] reduction, ferrous iron [Fe(II)] oxidation, and oxygenic photosynthesis in an anoxic paddy soil (Fe-accumuli-Stagnic Anthrosols) amended with a range of high sulfate concentrations. Soil slurries mixed with 0 (control), 50, 100, 200, and 400 mmol kg(-1) Na2SO4 were incubated anaerobically under dark and light conditions...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315600/elucidation-of-microbial-nitrogen-transformation-mechanisms-in-activated-sludge-by-comprehensive-evaluation-of-nitrogen-transformation-activity
#15
Xueyu Zhang, Shaokui Zheng, Jian Sun, Xuze Xiao
Using prepared nitrifying sludge, anaerobic ammonia oxidization (anammox) sludge and two heterotrophic ammonia oxidization bacterial (AOB) species as inocula, this study elucidated the effect of oxygen conditions, assay media, and selective metabolic inhibitors on various microbial nitrogen (N)-transformation activities including aerobic chemolithotrophic ammonia and nitrite oxidization, aerobic heterotrophic ammonia oxidization, anammox, and aerobic and anoxic denitrification. The oxygen conditions and assay media effectively differentiated among almost all ammonia removal pathways except for separating aerobic chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidization from aerobic heterotrophic ammonia oxidization...
March 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314726/global-distribution-patterns-and-pangenomic-diversity-of-the-candidate-phylum-latescibacteria-ws3
#16
Ibrahim F Farag, Noha H Youssef, Mostafa S Elshahed
We investigated the global distribution patterns and pangenomic diversity of the candidate phylum "Latescibacteria" (WS3) in 16S rRNA gene as well as metagenomic datasets. We document distinct distribution patterns for various "Latescibacteria" orders in 16S rRNA gene datasets, with prevalence of orders sediment_1 in terrestrial, PBSIII_9 in groundwater and temperate freshwater, and GN03 in pelagic marine, saline-hypersaline, and wastewater habitats. Using a fragment recruitment approach, we identified 68.9 Mb of "Latescibacteria"-affiliated contigs in publicly available metagenomic datasets comprising 73,079 proteins...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301612/anoxia-stimulates-microbially-catalyzed-metal-release-from-animas-river-sediments
#17
Casey M Saup, Kenneth H Williams, Lucía Rodríguez-Freire, José M Cerrato, Michael D Johnston, Michael J Wilkins
The Gold King Mine spill in August 2015 released 11 million liters of metal-rich mine waste to the Animas River watershed, an area that has been previously exposed to historical mining activity spanning more than a century. Although adsorption onto fluvial sediments was responsible for rapid immobilization of a significant fraction of the spill-associated metals, patterns of longer-term mobility are poorly constrained. Metals associated with river sediments collected downstream of the Gold King Mine in August 2015 exhibited distinct presence and abundance patterns linked to location and mineralogy...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301571/modulation-of-behaviour-and-virulence-of-a-high-alginate-expressing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strain-from-cystic-fibrosis-by-oral-commensal-bacterium-streptococcus-anginosus
#18
Richard D Waite, Muhammad R Qureshi, Robert A Whiley
Cystic fibrosis (CF) airways harbour complex and dynamic polymicrobial communities that include many oral bacteria. Despite increased knowledge of CF airway microbiomes the interaction between established CF pathogens and other resident microbes and resulting impact on disease progression is poorly understood. Previous studies have demonstrated that oral commensal streptococci of the Anginosus group (AGS) can establish chronic pulmonary infections and become numerically dominant in CF sputa indicating that they play an important role in CF microbiome dynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299401/sodium-lauryl-ether-sulfate-sles-degradation-by-nitrate-reducing-bacteria
#19
Ana M S Paulo, Rozelin Aydin, Mauricio R Dimitrov, Harm Vreeling, Ana J Cavaleiro, Pedro A García-Encina, Alfons J M Stams, Caroline M Plugge
The surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) is widely used in the composition of detergents and frequently ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). While aerobic SLES degradation is well studied, little is known about the fate of this compound in anoxic environments, such as denitrification tanks of WWTPs, nor about the bacteria involved in the anoxic biodegradation. Here, we used SLES as sole carbon and energy source, at concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 mg L(-1), to enrich and isolate nitrate-reducing bacteria from activated sludge of a WWTP with the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) concept...
March 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298843/ictal-asystole-a-rare-cardiac-manifestation-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-treated-with-epilepsy-surgery
#20
Shreyas Hasmukh Ravat, Amit Ashok Bhatti, Mansi Viraj Shah, Dattatraya P Muzumdar, Sangeeta Hasmukh Ravat
Seizures are associated with fascinatingly varied cardiac and autonomic manifestations, of which ictal tachycardia is common, and asystole and bradycardia are rare. Ictal asystole (IA), an often unsought autonomic phenomenon, occurs most commonly with temporal followed by frontal lobe seizures. Prolonged IA may lead to cerebral anoxic ischemia. As the mysteries of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy are unraveled, it is quite possible that the key to it lays within these seizure-induced cardiac rhythm abnormalities...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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