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Global conflict and recovery

Frederick M Burkle, Adam L Kushner, Christos Giannou, Mary A Paterson, Sherry M Wren, Gilbert Burnham
Since 1945, the reason for humanitarian crises and the way in which the world responds to them has dramatically changed every 10 to 15 years or less. Planning, response, and recovery for these tragic events have often been ad hoc, inconsistent, and insufficient, largely because of the complexity of global humanitarian demands and their corresponding response system capabilities. This historical perspective chronicles the transformation of war and armed conflicts from the Cold War to today, emphasizing the impact these events have had on humanitarian professionals and their struggle to adapt to increasing humanitarian, operational, and political challenges...
April 30, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Thor Hanson
The activities involved in preparing for, executing, and recovering from armed conflict are globally pervasive and consequential, with significant impacts on natural systems. Effects on biodiversity are predominantly negative, produced by direct and indirect battlefield impacts, as well as the general breakdown of social, economic, and governance systems during wartime. Certain conservation opportunities do occur, however, particularly on lands set aside for training exercises, buffer zones, and peace parks...
April 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Andrew T Boyd, Susan T Cookson, Mark Anderson, Oleg O Bilukha, Muireann Brennan, Thomas Handzel, Colleen Hardy, Farah Husain, Barbara Lopes Cardozo, Carlos Navarro Colorado, Cyrus Shahpar, Leisel Talley, Michael Toole, Michael Gerber
Humanitarian emergencies, including complex emergencies associated with fragile states or areas of conflict, affect millions of persons worldwide. Such emergencies threaten global health security and have complicated but predictable effects on public health. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Response and Recovery Branch (ERRB) (Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health) contributes to public health emergency responses by providing epidemiologic support for humanitarian health interventions...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Haibo Du, Jie Liu, Mai-He Li, Ulf Büntgen, Yue Yang, Lei Wang, Zhengfang Wu, Hong S He
Treeline responses to environmental changes describe an important phenomenon in global change research. Often conflicting results and generally too short observations are, however, still challenging our understanding of climate-induced treeline dynamics. Here, we use a state-of-the-art dendroecological approach to reconstruct long-term changes in the position of the alpine treeline in relation to air temperature at two sides in the Changbai Mountains in northeast China. Over the past 160 years, the treeline increased by around 80 m, a process that can be divided into three phases of different rates and drives...
March 2018: Global Change Biology
Holly Williams, Elizabeth Downes
PURPOSE: The effects of climate change are far-reaching and multifactorial, with potential impacts on food security and conflict. Large population movements, whether from the aftermath of natural disasters or resulting from conflict, can precipitate the need for humanitarian response in what can become complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs). Nurses need to be prepared to respond to affected communities in need, whether the emergency is domestic or global. The purpose of the article is to describe a novel course for nursing students interested in practice within the confines of CHEs and natural disasters...
November 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Wen Dong, Gopal N Gupta, Robert H Blackwell, Jitao Wu, Chalairat Suk-Ouichai, Arpeet Shah, Sarah E Capodice, Marcus L Quek, Elvis Caraballo Antonio, Diego Aguilar Palacios, Erick M Remer, Jianbo Li, Joseph Zabell, Sudhir Isharwal, Steven C Campbell
BACKGROUND: Tumor enucleation (TE) optimizes parenchymal preservation and could yield better function than standard partial nephrectomy (SPN), although data on this are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To compare functional outcomes for TE and SPN strategies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients managed with partial nephrectomy (PN) with necessary data for analysis of preservation of ipsilateral parenchymal mass (IPM) and global glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from two centers were included...
October 2017: European Urology Focus
Oliver Smith, Sarah A Palmer, Alan J Clapham, Pamela Rose, Yuan Liu, Jun Wang, Robin G Allaby
The recovery of ancient RNA from archeological material could enable the direct study of microevolutionary processes. Small RNAs are a rich source of information because their small size is compatible with biomolecular preservation, and their roles in gene regulation make them likely foci of evolutionary change. We present here the small RNA fraction from a sample of archeological barley generated using high-throughput sequencing that has previously been associated with localized adaptation to drought. Its microRNA profile is broadly similar to 19 globally distributed modern barley samples with the exception of three microRNAs (miRNA159, miRNA319, and miR396), all of which are known to have variable expression under stress conditions...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Per Kristian Hyldmo, MaryBeth Horodyski, Bryan P Conrad, Sindre Aslaksen, Jo Røislien, Mark Prasarn, Glenn R Rechtine, Eldar Søreide
OBJECTIVE: Prehospital personnel who lack advanced airway management training must rely on basic techniques when transporting unconscious trauma patients. The supine position is associated with a loss of airway patency when compared to lateral recumbent positions. Thus, an inherent conflict exists between securing an open airway using the recovery position and maintaining spinal immobilization in the supine position. The lateral trauma position is a novel technique that aims to combine airway management with spinal precautions...
November 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Airam Rodríguez, Nick D Holmes, Peter G Ryan, Kerry-Jayne Wilson, Lucie Faulquier, Yovana Murillo, André F Raine, Jay F Penniman, Verónica Neves, Beneharo Rodríguez, Juan J Negro, André Chiaradia, Peter Dann, Tracy Anderson, Benjamin Metzger, Masaki Shirai, Lorna Deppe, Jennifer Wheeler, Peter Hodum, Catia Gouveia, Vanda Carmo, Gilberto P Carreira, Luis Delgado-Alburqueque, Carlos Guerra-Correa, François-Xavier Couzi, Marc Travers, Matthieu Le Corre
Artificial lights at night cause high mortality of seabirds, one of the most endangered groups of birds globally. Fledglings of burrow-nesting seabirds, and to a lesser extent adults, are attracted to and then grounded (i.e., forced to land) by lights when they fly at night. We reviewed the current state of knowledge of seabird attraction to light to identify information gaps and propose measures to address the problem. Although species in families such as Alcidae and Anatidae can be grounded by artificial light, the most affected seabirds are petrels and shearwaters (Procellariiformes)...
October 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Peter Pickkers, Marlies Ostermann, Michael Joannidis, Alexander Zarbock, Eric Hoste, Rinaldo Bellomo, John Prowle, Michael Darmon, Joseph V Bonventre, Lui Forni, Sean M Bagshaw, Miet Schetz
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in the critically ill. Current standard of care mainly relies on identification of patients at risk, haemodynamic optimization, avoidance of nephrotoxicity and the use of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in established AKI. The detection of early biomarkers of renal tissue damage is a recent development that allows amending the late and insensitive diagnosis with current AKI criteria. Increasing evidence suggests that the consequences of an episode of AKI extend long beyond the acute hospitalization...
September 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
Beth L Rubenstein, Lindsay Stark
Little is known about the patterns and mechanisms by which humanitarian emergencies may exacerbate violence against children. In this article, we propose using the ecological framework to examine the impact of humanitarian emergencies on interpersonal violence against children. We consider the literature that supports this framework and suggest future directions for research to fill identified gaps in the framework. The relationship between humanitarian emergencies and violence against children depends on risk factors at multiple levels, including a breakdown of child protection systems, displacement, threats to livelihoods, changing gender roles, changing household composition, overcrowded living conditions, early marriage, exposure to conflict or other emergency events, and alcohol abuse...
March 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Lei Tong, Yang Xie, Hongbo Yu
Experiments on the adult visual cortex of cats, ferrets and monkeys have revealed organized spatial relationships between multiple feature maps which can also be reproduced by the Kohonen and elastic net self-organization models. However, attempts to apply these models to simulate the temporal kinetics of monocular deprivation (MD) during the critical period, and their effects on the spatial arrangement of feature maps, have led to conflicting results. In this study, we performed MD and chronic imaging in the ferret visual cortex during the critical period of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
Amber Knight, Jason Wasiak, Jacqueline Salway, Lisa O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Hands are the most commonly burnt body part given humans' innate response to guard their face from injury, and are known to have detrimental functional and psychological consequences. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the impact of hand burns on long-term health status and global functioning. The objective of this study was to identify patient and clinical characteristics that predict health status and hand function of people at 12-24 months after hand burn. METHODS: The Burns Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) and the Brief Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (Brief MHQ) were administered to community-dwelling adults who were between one and two years after admission to a statewide burns service for burns including one or both hands...
February 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Katherine Kentoffio, John D Kraemer, Thomas Griffiths, Avi Kenny, Rajesh Panjabi, G Andrew Sechler, Stephen Selinsky, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: Despite a growing global emphasis on universal healthcare, access to basic primary care for remote populations in post-conflict countries remains a challenge. To better understand health sector recovery in post-conflict Liberia, this paper seeks to evaluate changes in utilization of health services among rural populations across a 5-year time span. METHODS: We assessed trends in healthcare utilization among the national rural population using the Liberian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) from 2007 and 2013...
September 7, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Ian M Head, Neil D Gray
This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e...
September 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Anne Scheinberg, Jelena Nesić, Rachel Savain, Pietro Luppi, Portia Sinnott, Flaviu Petean, Flaviu Pop
The European Union hosts some of the world's most developed waste management systems and an ambitious policy commitment to the circular economy. The existence of informal recycling and re-use activities in Europe has been vigorously denied until quite recently, and remains a very challenging subject for the European solid waste management sector, as well as for European government and private institutions. In countries ranging from Malta to Macedonia and from France to Turkey, informal recyclers excluded from legal recycling niches increasingly collide with formalised and controlled European Union approaches to urban waste management, packaging recovery schemes, formal re-use enterprises, and extended producer responsibility systems...
September 2016: Waste Management & Research
Andrea Marotta, Roberto Delle Chiaie, Alfredo Spagna, Laura Bernabei, Martina Sciarretta, Javier Roca, Massimo Biondi, Maria Casagrande
Difficulty attending is a common deficit of euthymic bipolar patients. However, it is not known whether this is a global attentional deficit or relates to a specific attentional network. According to the attention network approach, attention is best understood in terms of three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct networks-alerting, orienting, and executive control. In this study, we explored whether and which of the three attentional networks are altered in euthymic Bipolar Disorder (BD). A sample of euthymic BD patients and age-matched healthy controls completed the Attention Network Test for Interactions and Vigilance (ANTI-V) that provided not only a measure of orienting, executive, and alerting networks, but also an independent measure of vigilance (tonic alerting)...
September 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
K W Maas, M A Cuesta, M I van Berge Henegouwen, J Roig, L Bonavina, C Rosman, S S Gisbertz, S S A Y Biere, D L van der Peet, J H Klinkenbijl, M W Hollmann, E S de Lange, H J Bonjer
BACKGROUND: The minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) is widely being implemented for esophageal cancer in order to reduce morbidity and improve quality of life. Non-randomized studies investigating the mid-term quality of life after MIE show conflicting results at 1-year follow-up. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine whether MIE has a continuing better mid-term 1-year quality of life than open esophagectomy (OE) indicating both a faster recovery and less procedure-related symptoms...
August 2015: World Journal of Surgery
Andrea Segré
Each year, about one trillion USD worth of food sales is lost or wasted. In addition to its economic impacts, food wastage has significant societal costs that are born indirectly by taxpayers. Should damage costs associated with food wastage be accounted for, this global wastage appears much higher. In fact, the monetization of environmental costs such as the impact of greenhouse gases, land erosion, water use and pollinators loss amnounts to another trillion USD. Furthermore, a valuation of social costs, such as health effects of pesticides, loss of livelihoods and conflicts over natural resources adds another trillion USD...
October 2014: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Márcio Soares
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Caring for the families is one of the major tasks of the global care of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). In the context of a terminally ill patient or a patient in whom the recovery from the acute illness is unlikely, dealing with and caring for their family members becomes even more important as the patient will not be awake in most of situations. Family members have specific needs and present with high incidence of symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety and related disorders during the ICU of their beloved one, which can even persist late after the patient's death...
December 2007: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
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