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Bovine Leukemia Virus

Cairo H S De Oliveira, José D Barbosa, Karine A Damasceno, Geovanni D Cassali, Carlos Mc Oliveira, Rômulo C Leite, Jenner K P Reis
BACKGROUND: The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas...
October 20, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Silvana Opp, Thomas Fricke, Caitlin Shepard, Dmytro Kovalskyy, Akash Bhattacharya, Frank Herkules, Dmitri N Ivanov, Kim Baek, Jose Valle-Casuso, Felipe Diaz-Griffero
The small molecule 6-(tert-butyl)-4-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H,3H-1,3,5-triazin-2-one (3G11) inhibits HIV-1 replication in the human T cell line MT-2. Here we showed that 3G11 specifically and potently blocks HIV-1 infection. By contrast, 3G11 did not block other retroviruses such as HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac ), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV), B-tropic murine leukemia virus (B-MLV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV)...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Yuka Okuwa, Michiko Miyamato-Hayashi, Takaichi Tanaka, Yuji Hayakawa, Yasuo Inoshima
Various techniques for screening and detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were compared to ascertain a rapid and simple technique for routine examination. The performance of real-time PCR, nested PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays was compared using DNA extracted from whole blood instead of white blood cells (WBCs) of 23 cattle. Real-time PCR, LAMP and nested PCR detected 18, 16 and 11 BLV-positive cattle, respectively. These results suggest that LAMP using DNA from whole blood could enable rapid examination, as isolation of WBCs and electrophoresis is time-consuming and could be useful as a simple, and rapid method for routine screening of BLV...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Satoru Konnai, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Recently, dysfunction of antigen-specific T cells is well documented as T-cell exhaustion and has been defined by the loss of effector functions during chronic infections and cancer in human. The exhausted T cells are characterized phenotypically by the surface expression of immunoinhibitory receptors, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1), lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). However, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the immunoinhibitory receptors in the fields of veterinary medicine...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Omid Nekouei, John VanLeeuwen, Henrik Stryhn, David Kelton, Greg Keefe
Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The economic impacts of the infection have been debated in the literature. The present study was conducted to determine the lifetime effects of BLV infection on longevity and milk production of dairy cows in Canada. The data were aggregated from a combination of two data sets: 1) BLV serum-ELISA test results from Canada-wide surveys of production limiting diseases, which took place between 1998 and 2003 in 8 provinces, and 2) longitudinal production data for all cows in the former study, extracted from the Canadian dairy herd improvement database...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Benoit Van Driessche, Anthony Rodari, Nadège Delacourt, Sylvain Fauquenoy, Caroline Vanhulle, Arsène Burny, Olivier Rohr, Carine Van Lint
Bovine leukemia virus latency is a viral strategy used to escape from the host immune system and contribute to tumor development. However, a highly expressed BLV micro-RNA cluster has been reported, suggesting that the BLV silencing is not complete. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase III to the BLV miRNA cluster both in BLV-latently infected cell lines and in ovine BLV-infected primary cells, through a canonical type 2 RNAPIII promoter. Moreover, by RPC6-knockdown, we showed a direct functional link between RNAPIII transcription and BLV miRNAs expression...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hironobu Murakami, Jumpei Uchiyama, Sae Nikaido, Reiichiro Sato, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Kenji Tsukamoto
Enzootic bovine leukosis is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, which is highly prevalent in several regions of the world and significantly impacts the livestock industry. In BLV infection, the proviral load in the blood reflects disease progression. Although the BLV genome is highly conserved among retroviruses, genetic variation has been reported. However, the relationship between proviral load and genetic variation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the changes in proviral load in BLV-infected cattle in Japan, and then identified and analyzed a BLV strain pvAF967 that had a static proviral load...
August 16, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Ramiro Merlini, Gerónimo Gutiérrez, Irene Alvarez, Juan Pablo Jaworski, Hugo Carignano, Mario Poli, Luc Willems, Karina Trono
In this work, we studied seven groups of pregnant heifers from a consortium of dairy farms heavily infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). ELISA testing showed that the seroprevalence ranges of BLV in heifers between 36.1 and 66.5 %. No significant differences in proviral load were found when comparing heifers with adult cattle. Before their first delivery, more than 9.8 % of heifers show a high proviral load. Because BLV infection can occur during the first two years of life, the rationale of any strategy should be to take action as early as possible after birth...
November 2016: Archives of Virology
María Victoria Nieto Farias, Pamela Anahí Lendez, Maia Marin, Silvina Quintana, Lucía Martínez-Cuesta, María Carolina Ceriani, Guillermina Laura Dolcini
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is widespread mainly in dairy cattle and 5-10% of infected animals will die due to lymphosarcoma; most cattle remain asymptomatic but 30% develop persistent lymphocytosis (PL). BLV transmission depends on infected cell exchange and thus, proviral load is determinant. Understanding the mechanisms which govern the control of viral dissemination will be desirable for the design of effective therapeutic or preventive strategies for BLV. The development of high proviral load (HPL) or low proviral load (LPL) might be associated to genetic factors and humoral immune responses, however cellular responses are not fully described...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Omid Nekouei, Jean Durocher, Greg Keefe
This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs.
July 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Jian-Gang Ma, Wen-Bin Zheng, Dong-Hui Zhou, Si-Yuan Qin, Ming-Yang Yin, Xing-Quan Zhu, Gui-Xue Hu
Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a chronic lymphosarcoma disease of cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). No information is available concerning the epidemiology of BLV infection in yaks (Bos mutus). One thousand five hundred and eighty-four serum samples from 610 black yaks and 974 white yaks from Gansu province, northwest China, were collected between April 2013 and March 2014 and tested for BLV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall BLV seroprevalence in yaks was 21.09% (334/1584), with 24...
2016: BioMed Research International
Rodrigo Puentes, Laureana De Brun, Agustina Algorta, Valeria Da Silva, Florencia Mansilla, Gustavo Sacco, Silvia Llambí, Alejandra V Capozzo
BACKGROUND: Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) produces disorders on the immune system in naturally infected animals, which may counteract the development of immunity after vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate whether healthy and BLV infected cattle elicited similar humoral responses after foot and mouth disease (FMD) immunization. In a field study, 35 Holstein heifers were selected based on their BLV serological status and immunized with a single dose of a commercial bivalent oil-based FMD vaccine...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Cairo H S De Oliveira, Cláudia F Resende, Carlos M C Oliveira, José D Barbosa, Antônio A Fonseca, Rômulo C Leite, Jenner K P Reis
Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available...
July 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Yahia Ismail Khudhair, Saleem Amin Hasso, Nahi Y Yaseen, Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
P Brym, B Bojarojć-Nosowicz, K Oleński, D M Hering, A Ruść, E Kaczmarczyk, S Kamiński
The mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and the processes underlying the phenomenon of differential host response to BLV infection still remain poorly understood. The aim of the study was to screen the entire cattle genome to identify markers and candidate genes that might be involved in host response to bovine leukemia virus infection. A genome-wide association study was performed using Holstein cows naturally infected by BLV. A data set included 43 cows (BLV positive) and 30 cows (BLV negative) genotyped for 54,609 SNP markers (Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip)...
July 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Keith Durkin, Nicolas Rosewick, Maria Artesi, Vincent Hahaut, Philip Griebel, Natasa Arsic, Arsène Burny, Michel Georges, Anne Van den Broeke
BACKGROUND: Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus closely related to the Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1). Cattle are the natural host of BLV where it integrates into B-cells, producing a lifelong infection. Most infected animals remain asymptomatic but following a protracted latency period about 5 % develop an aggressive leukemia/lymphoma, mirroring the disease trajectory of HTLV-1. The mechanisms by which these viruses provoke cellular transformation remain opaque...
2016: Retrovirology
Juan P Jaworski, Natalia G Porta, Geronimo Gutierrez, Romina P Politzki, Irene Álvarez, Roxana Galarza, Alejandro Abdala, Luis Calvinho, Karina G Trono
We explored the relationship between the level of bovine leukemia virus antibodies and provirus load during natural infection. For that purpose, a set of 50 blood and milk paired samples were analyzed for the presence of bovine leukemia virus provirus and antibodies. Additionally, provirus load and antibody titers were measured and the relationship between these variables was investigated. Bovine leukemia provirus was detected in 59% of milk samples and a negative correlation was observed between the level of milk provirus load and milk antibody titers...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Yao-Ting Hsieh, Lori Mullin, Patricia Greenhalgh, Michael Cunningham, Elizabeth Goodrich, Jessica Shea, Eric Youssef, Thierry Burnouf
BACKGROUND: Virus inactivation of plasma products is conducted using stainless-steel vessels. Single-use technology can offer significant benefits over stainless such as operational flexibility, reduced capital infrastructure costs, and increased efficiency by minimizing the time and validation requirements associated with hardware cleaning. This study qualifies a single-use bag system for solvent/detergent (S/D) virus inactivation. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Human plasma and immunoglobulin test materials were S/D-treated in Mobius single-use bags using 1% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP) with 1% Triton X-100 or 1% Tween 80 at 31°C for 4 to 6 hours to evaluate the impact on protein quality...
April 28, 2016: Transfusion
Nicolas A Gillet, Malik Hamaidia, Alix de Brogniez, Gerónimo Gutiérrez, Nathalie Renotte, Michal Reichert, Karina Trono, Luc Willems
Retroviruses are not expected to encode miRNAs because of the potential problem of self-cleavage of their genomic RNAs. This assumption has recently been challenged by experiments showing that bovine leukemia virus (BLV) encodes miRNAs from intragenomic Pol III promoters. The BLV miRNAs are abundantly expressed in B-cell tumors in the absence of significant levels of genomic and subgenomic viral RNAs. Using deep RNA sequencing and functional reporter assays, we show that miRNAs mediate the expression of genes involved in cell signaling, cancer and immunity...
April 2016: PLoS Pathogens
A Stachura, P Brym, B Bojarojć-Nosowicz, E Kaczmarczyk
A single T>C nucleotide polymorphism (rs42686850) of bovine tumor necrosis factor receptor type II gene (TNF-RII) is located within a sequence with allele-specific affinity to bind E2F transcription factors, considered pivotal in the regulation of cell cycle and cell proliferation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of this SNP and BLV infection on the TNF-RII gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We noted that analyzed TNF-RII gene polymorphism influenced the expression of the TNF-RII gene at the mRNA level but only in BLV-positive cows...
2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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