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Bovine Leukemia Virus

Hirotaka Sato, Sonoko Watanuki, Hironobu Murakami, Reiichiro Sato, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Yoko Aida
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to the human T cell leukemia virus. Since BLV infection mostly occurs via cell-to-cell transmission, BLV infectivity is generally measured by culturing BLV-infected cells with reporter cells that form syncytia upon BLV infection. However, this method is time-consuming and requires skill. To visualize the infectivity of BLV, we developed a new assay called the luminescence syncytium induction assay (LuSIA) that is based on a new reporter cell line designated CC81-BLU3G...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Virology
Hugo A Carignano, Dana L Roldan, María J Beribe, María A Raschia, Ariel Amadio, Juan P Nani, Gerónimo Gutierrez, Irene Alvarez, Karina Trono, Mario A Poli, Marcos M Miretti
BACKGROUND: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is omnipresent in dairy herds causing direct economic losses due to trade restrictions and lymphosarcoma-related deaths. Milk production drops and increase in the culling rate are also relevant and usually neglected. The BLV provirus persists throughout a lifetime and an inter-individual variation is observed in the level of infection (LI) in vivo. High LI is strongly correlated with disease progression and BLV transmission among herd mates...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Aiganym T Zhumabek, Laura S Abeuova, Nurzhan S Mukhametzhanov, Herman B Scholthof, Yerlan M Ramankulov, Shuga A Manabayeva
Plants offer a unique combination of advantages for the production of valuable recombinant proteins in a relatively short time. For instance, a variety of diagnostic tests have been developed that use recombinant antigens expressed in plants. The envelope glycoprotein gp51 encoded by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is one of the essential subunits for viral infectivity. It was indicated that the recombinant gp51 (rgp51) of BLV сan be used as an synthetic alternative antigen useful in the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
James S Lawson, Brian Salmons, Wendy K Glenn
Background: Although the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), human papilloma viruses (HPVs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Shailja Katoch, Shweta Dohru, Mandeep Sharma, Vikram Vashist, Rajesh Chahota, Prasenjit Dhar, Aneesh Thakur, Subhash Verma
Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan...
December 2017: Veterinary World
Hirohisa Mekata, Mari Yamamoto, Yumi Kirino, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Satoru Konnai, Yoichiro Horii, Junzo Norimine
The European Community's (EC) Key, which is also called Bendixen's Key, is a well-established bovine leukemia virus (BLV) diagnostic method that classifies cattle according to the absolute lymphocyte count and age. The EC Key was originally designed for dairy cattle and is not necessarily suitable for Japanese Black (JB) beef cattle. This study revealed the lymphocyte counts in the BLV-free and -infected JB cattle were significantly lower than those in the Holstein cattle. Therefore, applying the EC Key to JB cattle could result in a large number of undetected BLV-infected cattle...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Aneta Pluta, Lorraine M Albritton, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak, Jacek Kuźmak
BACKGROUND: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus infecting bovine B cells and causing enzootic bovine leucosis. The SU or surface subunit, gp51, of its envelope glycoprotein is involved in receptor recognition and virion attachment. It contains the major neutralizing and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes found in naturally infected animals. In this study, we aimed to determine global variation and conservation within gp51 in the context of developing an effective global BLV vaccine...
January 8, 2018: Retrovirology
Alessa Kuczewski, Karin Orsel, Herman W Barkema, David F Kelton, Wendy A Hutchins, Frank J U M van der Meer
Although Canadian dairy herds have been infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) for years, recent research has put new emphasis on the potential negative effects of this infection. Consequently, BLV control is becoming more favorable; however, BLV control cannot be successful without identifying infected animals. Bovicheck BLV (Biovet, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada) is currently the only assay licensed by the Canadian Centre for Veterinary Biologics. The first goal of this study was, therefore, to determine the reproducibility of the Bovicheck BLV assay for serum samples derived from Canadian cattle...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Meng Wang, Yun Wang, Abdul Rasheed Baloch, Yangyang Pan, Fang Xu, Lili Tian, Qiaoying Zeng
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a member of the genus Deltaretrovirus of the family Retroviridae and cause a chronic lymphosarcoma, which is extensive in cattle. In yaks (Bos grunniens), the distribution, strains and genetic characteristics of BLV have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate BLV infections in domestic yaks and determine the genetic variability of BLV circulating in a region of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, China. Blood samples were collected from 798 yaks, which were from different farms from Gansu, Qinghai and Sichuan provinces surrounding the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau...
March 2018: Archives of Virology
Delia M Pinto-Santini, Carolyn R Stenbak, Maxine L Linial
BACKGROUND: Foamy viruses (FV) are ancient complex retroviruses that differ from orthoretroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) and comprise a distinct subfamily of retroviruses, the Spumaretrovirinae. FV are ubiquitous in their natural hosts, which include cows, cats, and nonhuman primates (NHP). FV are transmitted mainly through saliva and appear nonpathogenic by themselves, but they may increase morbidity of other pathogens in coinfections...
December 2, 2017: Retrovirology
Radhwane Saidi, Amina Bessas, Idir Bitam, Yaşar Ergün, Veysel Soydal Ataseven
This study was performed to investigate the presence of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in dromedary camels (Camelus dromaderius) kept in mixed herds with sheep and goats in Algeria, since the prevalence of BHV-1, BVDV, and BLV infections among dromedary camels in Algeria is unknown. Totally, 111 camel sera were collected from two provinces (Laghouat and Ghardaia) in Algeria. The sera were analyzed for BHV-1 specific antibodies, BVDV specific antibodies and BVDV antigen using the ELISA, and BLV nucleic acid using PCR...
November 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Asami Nishimori, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Masashi Nagano, Junko Kohara, Nana Kitano, Toshihiko Takahashi, Motoshi Tajima, Hirohisa Mekata, Yoichiro Horii, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Enzootic bovine leukemia is caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). BLV is transmitted vertically or horizontally through the transfer of infected cells via direct contact, through milk, insect bites and contaminated iatrogenic procedures. However, we lacked direct evidence of intrauterine infection. The purpose of this study was to confirm intrauterine BLV infection in two pregnant dams with high viral load by cesarean delivery. BLV was detected in cord and placental blood, and the BLV in the newborns showed 100% nucleotide identity with the BLV-env sequence from the dams...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Meripet Polat, Shin-Nosuke Takeshima, Yoko Aida
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), an oncogenic member of the Deltaretrovirus genus, is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I and II). BLV infects cattle worldwide and causes important economic losses. In this review, we provide a summary of available information about commonly used diagnostic approaches for the detection of BLV infection, including both serological and viral genome-based methods. We also outline genotyping methods used for the phylogenetic analysis of BLV, including PCR restriction length polymorphism and modern DNA sequencing-based methods...
November 2, 2017: Virology Journal
James S Lawson, Wendy K Glenn
BACKGROUND: Multiple oncogenic viruses including, mouse mammary tumor virus, bovine leukemia virus, human papilloma virus, and Epstein Barr virus, have been identified as separate infectious pathogens in human breast cancer. Here we demonstrate that these four viruses may be present in normal and benign breast tissues 1 to 11 years before the development of same virus breast cancer in the same patients. METHODS: We combined the data we developed during investigations of the individual four oncogenic viruses and breast cancer...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Zoltan S Gyimesi, Roy B Burns, Sheryl Coutermarsh-Ott, Chris A Schiller, Rita McManamon
A 13-yr-old male addax (Addax nasomaculatus) presented with locally extensive alopecia, slight erythema, and skin thickening on the medial aspect of the left rear leg between the stifle and tarsus. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed after histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of representative skin-punch biopsies. No treatment was elected, and the addax was euthanized 3 yr later because of poor body condition, chronic dental disease, and confirmed spread of lymphoma to other cutaneous locations...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Zhibin Liang, Yang Zhang, Jie Song, Hui Zhang, Suzhen Zhang, Yue Li, Juan Tan, Wentao Qiao
BACKGROUND: Human BST2 (hBST2, also called Tetherin) is a host restriction factor that blocks the release of various enveloped viruses. BST2s from different mammals also possess antiviral activity. Bovine BST2s (bBST2s), bBST2A1 and bBST2A2, reduce production of cell-free bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). However, the effect of bBST2 on other retroviruses remains unstudied. RESULTS: Here, we studied the antiviral activity of wildtype and mutant bBST2A1 proteins on retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), prototypic foamy virus (PFV), bovine foamy virus (BFV) and bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV)...
September 6, 2017: Virology Journal
Meredith C Frie, Kelly R B Sporer, Oscar J Benitez, Joseph C Wallace, Casey J Droscha, Paul C Bartlett, Paul M Coussens
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that is highly prevalent in US dairy herds: over 83% are BLV infected and the within-herd infection rate can be almost 50% on average. While BLV is known to cause lymphosarcomas, only 5% or fewer infected cattle will develop lymphoma; this low prevalence of cancer has historically not been a concern to dairy producers. However, more recent research has found that BLV(+) cows without lymphoma produce less milk and have shorter lifespans than uninfected herdmates. It has been hypothesized that BLV infection interferes with normal immune function in infected cattle, and this could lead to reduced dairy production...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Takumi Hayashi, Hirohisa Mekata, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Yumi Kirino, Shuya Mitoma, Kazuyuki Honkawa, Yoichiro Horii, Junzo Norimine
The bovine MHC (BoLA) class II DRB3 alleles are associated with polyclonal expansion of lymphocytes caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle. To examine whether the DRB3*0902 allele, one of the resistance-associated alleles, is associated with the proviral load, we measured BLV proviral load of BLV-infected cattle and clarified their DRB3 alleles. Fifty-seven animals with DRB3*0902 were identified out of 835 BLV-infected cattle and had significantly lower proviral load (P<0.000001) compared with the rest of the infected animals, in both Japanese Black and Holstein cattle...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Roghaiyeh Safari, Malik Hamaidia, Alix de Brogniez, Nicolas Gillet, Luc Willems
The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus inducing an asymptomatic and persistent infection in ruminants and leading in a minority of cases to the accumulation of B-lymphocytes (lymphocytosis, leukemia or lymphoma). Although the mechanisms of oncogenesis are still largely unknown, there is clear experimental evidence showing that BLV infection drastically modifies the pattern of gene expression of the host cell. This alteration of the transcriptome in infected B-lymphocytes results first, from a direct activity of viral proteins (i...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
Hironobu Murakami, Shotaro Asano, Jumpei Uchiyama, Reiichiro Sato, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Kenji Tsukamoto
The nonstructural G4 gene of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been thought to function in virus replication. However, the discovery of the AS1 gene on the antisense strand of the G4 gene has affected this interpretation. In this study, we investigated the function of G4 in virus production independent of the AS1 gene using a reverse genetic approach, and briefly examined the association of the G4 protein with Tax, which is also a nonstructural protein that promotes virus replication. First, we constructed a mutant molecular clone of BLV with a nonsense mutation in G4 that had a minimal effect on the AS1 gene...
July 6, 2017: Virus Research
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