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Bovine Leukemia Virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920800/cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-with-lymph-node-metastasis-in-an-adult-addax-addax-nasomaculatus
#1
Zoltan S Gyimesi, Roy B Burns, Sheryl Coutermarsh-Ott, Chris A Schiller, Rita McManamon
A 13-yr-old male addax (Addax nasomaculatus) presented with locally extensive alopecia, slight erythema, and skin thickening on the medial aspect of the left rear leg between the stifle and tarsus. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed after histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of representative skin-punch biopsies. No treatment was elected, and the addax was euthanized 3 yr later because of poor body condition, chronic dental disease, and confirmed spread of lymphoma to other cutaneous locations...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877726/the-effect-of-bovine-bst2a1-on-the-release-and-cell-to-cell-transmission-of-retroviruses
#2
Zhibin Liang, Yang Zhang, Jie Song, Hui Zhang, Suzhen Zhang, Yue Li, Juan Tan, Wentao Qiao
BACKGROUND: Human BST2 (hBST2, also called Tetherin) is a host restriction factor that blocks the release of various enveloped viruses. BST2s from different mammals also possess antiviral activity. Bovine BST2s (bBST2s), bBST2A1 and bBST2A2, reduce production of cell-free bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). However, the effect of bBST2 on other retroviruses remains unstudied. RESULTS: Here, we studied the antiviral activity of wildtype and mutant bBST2A1 proteins on retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), prototypic foamy virus (PFV), bovine foamy virus (BFV) and bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV)...
September 6, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770217/dairy-cows-naturally-infected-with-bovine-leukemia-virus-exhibit-abnormal-b-and-t-cell-phenotypes-after-primary-and-secondary-exposures-to-keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin
#3
Meredith C Frie, Kelly R B Sporer, Oscar J Benitez, Joseph C Wallace, Casey J Droscha, Paul C Bartlett, Paul M Coussens
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that is highly prevalent in US dairy herds: over 83% are BLV infected and the within-herd infection rate can be almost 50% on average. While BLV is known to cause lymphosarcomas, only 5% or fewer infected cattle will develop lymphoma; this low prevalence of cancer has historically not been a concern to dairy producers. However, more recent research has found that BLV(+) cows without lymphoma produce less milk and have shorter lifespans than uninfected herdmates. It has been hypothesized that BLV infection interferes with normal immune function in infected cattle, and this could lead to reduced dairy production...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757522/cattle-with-the-bola-class-ii-drb3-0902-allele-have-significantly-lower-bovine-leukemia-proviral-loads
#4
Takumi Hayashi, Hirohisa Mekata, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Yumi Kirino, Shuya Mitoma, Kazuyuki Honkawa, Yoichiro Horii, Junzo Norimine
The bovine MHC (BoLA) class II DRB3 alleles are associated with polyclonal expansion of lymphocytes caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle. To examine whether the DRB3*0902 allele, one of the resistance-associated alleles, is associated with the proviral load, we measured BLV proviral load of BLV-infected cattle and clarified their DRB3 alleles. Fifty-seven animals with DRB3*0902 were identified out of 835 BLV-infected cattle and had significantly lower proviral load (P<0.000001) compared with the rest of the infected animals, in both Japanese Black and Holstein cattle...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753440/cis-drivers-and-trans-drivers-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-oncogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Roghaiyeh Safari, Malik Hamaidia, Alix de Brogniez, Nicolas Gillet, Luc Willems
The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus inducing an asymptomatic and persistent infection in ruminants and leading in a minority of cases to the accumulation of B-lymphocytes (lymphocytosis, leukemia or lymphoma). Although the mechanisms of oncogenesis are still largely unknown, there is clear experimental evidence showing that BLV infection drastically modifies the pattern of gene expression of the host cell. This alteration of the transcriptome in infected B-lymphocytes results first, from a direct activity of viral proteins (i...
July 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690069/bovine-leukemia-virus-g4-enhances-virus-production
#6
Hironobu Murakami, Shotaro Asano, Jumpei Uchiyama, Reiichiro Sato, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Kenji Tsukamoto
The nonstructural G4 gene of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been thought to function in virus replication. However, the discovery of the AS1 gene on the antisense strand of the G4 gene has affected this interpretation. In this study, we investigated the function of G4 in virus production independent of the AS1 gene using a reverse genetic approach, and briefly examined the association of the G4 protein with Tax, which is also a nonstructural protein that promotes virus replication. First, we constructed a mutant molecular clone of BLV with a nonsense mutation in G4 that had a minimal effect on the AS1 gene...
July 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689233/detection-and-genotyping-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-in-mexican-cattle
#7
Nayely Heinecke, Jorge Tórtora, Humberto A Martínez, Víctor D González-Fernández, Hugo Ramírez
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was detected and genotyped in a population of 201 dairy cattle from central Mexico. Using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) kit, 118 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive and BLV antibody-positive samples were identified; the concordance between tests was substantial. A phylogenetic study of 27 partial sequences of the env gene gp30 was performed. Four mutations were detected involving the PXXP motif in the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane protein...
July 8, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659325/identification-of-an-atypical-enzootic-bovine-leukosis-in-japan-by-using-a-novel-classification-of-bovine-leukemia-based-on-immunophenotypic-analysis
#8
Asami Nishimori, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Shinya Goto, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Ayako Nakahara, Yuzumi Chiba, Masaho Ikeda, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Bovine leukemia is classified into two types: enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) and sporadic bovine leukosis (SBL). EBL is caused by infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which induces persistent lymphocytosis and B-cell lymphoma in cattle after a long latent period. Although it has been demonstrated that BLV-associated lymphoma occurs predominantly in adult cattle of >3 to 5 years, suspicious cases of EBL onset in juvenile cattle were recently reported in Japan. To investigate the current status of bovine leukemia in Japan, we performed immunophenotypic analysis of samples from 50 cattle that were clinically diagnosed as having bovine leukemia...
September 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643392/retroviruses-and-microtubule-associated-motor-proteins
#9
REVIEW
Gloria Arriagada
Retroviruses are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. After reverse transcription, the viral DNA contained in the preintegration complex is delivered to the nucleus of the host cell, where it integrates. Before reaching the nucleus, the incoming particle and the preintegration complex must travel throughout the cytoplasm. Likewise, the newly synthesized viral proteins and viral particles must transit the cytoplasm during exit. The cytoplasm is a crowded environment, and simple diffusion is difficult...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640828/bovine-leukemia-virus-linked-to-breast-cancer-in-australian-women-and-identified-before-breast-cancer-development
#10
Gertrude C Buehring, HuaMin Shen, Daniel A Schwartz, James S Lawson
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a common virus of cattle globally, was believed for decades not to infect humans. More recent techniques (in situ PCR and DNA sequencing) enabled detection of BLV in human breast tissue, and determination of its significant association with breast cancer in a US population. Using similar techniques to study 96 Australian women, we report here detection of retrotranscribed BLV DNA in breast tissue of 40/50(80%) of women with breast cancer versus 19/46(41%) of women with no history of breast cancer, indicating an age-adjusted odds ratio and confidence interval of 4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638381/anti-bovine-programmed-death-1-rat-bovine-chimeric-antibody-for-immunotherapy-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-infection-in-cattle
#11
Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Shinya Goto, Chie Nakajima, Junko Kohara, Satoshi Ogasawara, Yukinari Kato, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat-bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568505/bola-drb3-gene-polymorphisms-influence-bovine-leukaemia-virus-infection-levels-in-holstein-and-holstein%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-jersey-crossbreed-dairy-cattle
#12
H A Carignano, M J Beribe, M E Caffaro, A Amadio, J P Nani, G Gutierrez, I Alvarez, K Trono, M M Miretti, M A Poli
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infections, causing persistent lymphocytosis and lethal lymphosarcoma in cattle, have reached high endemicity on dairy farms. We observed extensive inter-individual variation in the level of infection (LI) by assessing differences in proviral load in peripheral blood. This phenotypic variation appears to be determined by host genetics variants, especially those located in the BoLA-DRB3 MHCII molecule. We performed an association study using sequencing-based typed BOLA-DRB3 alleles from over 800 Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows considering LI in vivo and accounting for filial relationships...
August 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493491/high-doses-of-recombinant-mannan-binding-lectin-inhibit-the-binding-of-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-virus-with-cells-expressing-dc-sign
#13
Lei Yu, Shiqiang Shang, Ran Tao, Caiyun Wang, Li Zhang, Hao Peng, Yinghu Chen
The pandemic influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus continues to be a threat to human health. Low doses of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) (<1 μg/mL) were shown not to protect against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. However, the effect of high doses of MBL has not been investigated. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) has been proposed as an alternative receptor for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. In this study, we examined the expression of DC-SIGN on DCs as well as on acute monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1...
July 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445479/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antivirus-activity-of-an-anti-programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-rat-bovine-chimeric-antibody-against-bovine-leukemia-virus-infection
#14
Asami Nishimori, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naoya Maekawa, Ryoyo Ikebuchi, Shinya Goto, Yamato Sajiki, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Junko Kohara, Satoshi Ogasawara, Yukinari Kato, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Programmed death-1 (PD-1), an immunoinhibitory receptor on T cells, is known to be involved in immune evasion through its binding to PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in many chronic diseases. We previously found that PD-L1 expression was upregulated in cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and that an antibody that blocked the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction reactivated T-cell function in vitro. Therefore, this study assessed its antivirus activities in vivo. First, we inoculated the anti-bovine PD-L1 rat monoclonal antibody 4G12 into a BLV-infected cow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436273/proteome-analysis-of-sheep-b-lymphocytes-in-the-course-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-induced-leukemia
#15
Michal Reichert
Presented are the results of a study of the expression pattern of different proteins in the course of bovine leukemia virus-induced leukemia in experimental sheep and I discuss how the obtained data may be useful in gaining a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, diagnosis, and for the selection of possible therapeutic targets. In cattle, the disease is characterized by life-long persistent lymphocytosis leading to leukemia/lymphoma in about 5% of infected animals. In sheep, as opposed to cattle, the course of the disease is always fatal and clinical symptoms usually occur within a three-year period after infection...
July 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393187/generation-and-characterization-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-guinea-pig-fetal-fibroblasts
#16
Yuehong Wu, Ouyang Li, Chengwen He, Yong Li, Min Li, Xiaoming Liu Liu, Yujiong Wang, Yulong He
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) represent an important tool to develop disease‑modeling assays, drug testing assays and cell‑based replacement therapies. The application of iPS in these fields requires the development of suitable animal models. Of the suitable species, guinea pigs are particularly important and offer significant advantages. Successful iPS generation has been accomplished in a number of species; however, it has not been reported in the guinea pig. The present study successfully generated iPS from guinea pigs (giPS) using single polycistronic virus transduction with mouse octamer‑binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), sex determining region Y‑box 2 (Sox2), Kruppel‑like factor 4 and c‑Myc...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381128/bovine-leukemia-virus-seroprevalence-among-cattle-presented-for-slaughter-in-the-united-states
#17
Fernando V Bauermann, Julia F Ridpath, David A Dargatz
Infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) results in economic loss because of reduced productivity, especially reduced milk production, and early culling. In the United States, studies in 1996, 1999, and 2007 showed BLV infection to be widespread, especially in dairy herds. We updated information herein on BLV seroprevalence in the United States, using samples submitted for testing and found negative for antibodies for Brucella by the Kentucky Eastern Regional Federal Brucellosis Laboratory. From October 2014 through August 2015, 2,000 samples from all regions of the contiguous United States were selected and tested for BLV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376881/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-bovine-mhc-region-of-japanese-black-cattle-are-associated-with-bovine-leukemia-virus-proviral-load
#18
Shin-Nosuke Takeshima, Shinji Sasaki, Polat Meripet, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Yoko Aida
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma that has spread worldwide and causes serious problems for the cattle industry. The BLV proviral load, which represents the BLV genome integrated into host genome, is a useful index for estimating disease progression and transmission risk. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle. The study examined 93 cattle with a high proviral load and 266 with a low proviral load...
April 4, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365518/immunological-implications-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-infection
#19
M G Blagitz, F N Souza, C F Batista, L F F Azevedo, E M R Sanchez, S A Diniz, M X Silva, J P Haddad, A M M P Della Libera
This study examined neutrophil and monocyte functions and the blood lymphocyte profile of naturally BLV-infected cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis (PL). The percentage of neutrophils and monocytes that phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus was lower in BLV-infected dairy cows, particularly those with PL. The relative percentage of CD44(+) monocytes and neutrophils and CD11b expression by neutrophils was also lower in BLV-infected dairy cows with PL. A correlation between the percentage of CD11b(+) neutrophils and that produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found...
March 24, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357670/quantification-of-cell-turnover-in-the-bovine-leukemia-virus-model
#20
Alix de Brogniez, Pierre-Yves Barez, Alexandre Carpentier, Geronimo Gutierrez, Michal Reichert, Karina Trono, Luc Willems
In a perspective of a comparative virology approach, characterization of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) model may be helpful to better understand infection by the related human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In this paper, we first provide detailed protocols to inoculate cloned BLV proviruses into sheep or cattle. We also describe methods to quantify apoptosis ex vivo and cell turnover in vivo.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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