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Bovine Leukemia Virus

Claudia M Lützelschwab, Agustina Forletti, Rosana Cepeda, Eduardo N Esteban, Omar Confalonieri, Silvina E Gutiérrez
High proviral load (HPL) profile in bovine leukemia virus infected animals poses increased risk of transmission, and development of HPL or low proviral load (LPL) profile may be attributed to host genetics. Genetic resistance and susceptibility has been mapped to the Major Histocompatibility Complex class II DRB3 gene (BoLA DRB3). The aim of this work was to determine the effect of Mycobacterium bovis infection on certain virological and host immunological parameters of BLV experimental infection. Twenty-six Argentinian Holstein calves carrying the resistance-associated marker allele BoLA DRB3*0902, susceptibility-associated marker allele BoLA DRB3*1501, or neutral BoLA DRB3 alleles, exposed to M...
September 9, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Meredith C Frie, Kelly R Sporer, Joseph C Wallace, Roger K Maes, Lorraine M Sordillo, Paul C Bartlett, Paul M Coussens
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that is widely distributed across US dairy herds: over 83% of herds are BLV-infected and within-herd infection rates can approach 50%. BLV infection reduces both animal longevity and milk production and can interfere with normal immune health. With such a high prevalence of BLV infection in dairy herds, it is essential to understand the circumstances by which BLV negatively affects the immune system of infected cattle. To address this question, BLV- and BLV+ adult, lactating Holstein dairy cows were vaccinated with Bovi-Shield GOLD(®) FP(®) 5 L5 HB and their immune response to vaccination was measured over the course of 28days...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Nicolas A Gillet, Luc Willems
Controversy exists regarding the association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and breast cancer. PCR-based experimental evidence indicates that BLV DNA is present in breast tissue and that as many as 37% of cancer cases may be attributable to viral exposure. Since this association might have major consequences for human health, we evaluated 51 whole genomes of breast cancer samples for the presence of BLV DNA. Among 32 billion sequencing reads retrieved from the NCBI database of genotype and phenotype, none mapped on different strains of the BLV genome...
November 4, 2016: Retrovirology
P Brym, S Kamiński
The aim of the present study was to examine gene expression changes in response to bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, in an effort to determine genes that take a part in molecular events leading to persistent lymphocytosis (PL), and to better define genes involved in host response to BLV infection. Using bovine 70-mer oligonucleotide spotted microarrays (BLOPlus) and qRT-PCR validation, we studied global gene expression profiles in blood cells in vivo of 12 naturally BLV-infected Polish Holstein cows, and 12 BLV non-infected controls of the same breed and reared in herds with high BLV seroprevalence...
November 3, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Meripet Polat, Hla Hla Moe, Takeshi Shimogiri, Kyaw Kyaw Moe, Shin-Nosuke Takeshima, Yoko Aida
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide and affects both health status and productivity. However, no studies have examined the distribution of BLV in Myanmar, and the genetic characteristics of Myanmar BLV strains are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect BLV infection in Myanmar and examine genetic variability. Blood samples were obtained from 66 cattle from different farms in four townships of the Nay Pyi Taw Union Territory of central Myanmar...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Virology
Cairo H S De Oliveira, José D Barbosa, Karine A Damasceno, Geovanni D Cassali, Carlos Mc Oliveira, Rômulo C Leite, Jenner K P Reis
BACKGROUND: The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas...
October 20, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Silvana Opp, Thomas Fricke, Caitlin Shepard, Dmytro Kovalskyy, Akash Bhattacharya, Frank Herkules, Dmitri N Ivanov, Kim Baek, Jose Valle-Casuso, Felipe Diaz-Griffero
The small molecule 6-(tert-butyl)-4-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H,3H-1,3,5-triazin-2-one (3G11) inhibits HIV-1 replication in the human T cell line MT-2. Here we showed that 3G11 specifically and potently blocks HIV-1 infection. By contrast, 3G11 did not block other retroviruses such as HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac ), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV), B-tropic murine leukemia virus (B-MLV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV)...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Yuka Okuwa, Michiko Miyamato-Hayashi, Takaichi Tanaka, Yuji Hayakawa, Yasuo Inoshima
Various techniques for screening and detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were compared to ascertain a rapid and simple technique for routine examination. The performance of real-time PCR, nested PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays was compared using DNA extracted from whole blood instead of white blood cells (WBCs) of 23 cattle. Real-time PCR, LAMP and nested PCR detected 18, 16 and 11 BLV-positive cattle, respectively. These results suggest that LAMP using DNA from whole blood could enable rapid examination, as isolation of WBCs and electrophoresis is time-consuming and could be useful as a simple, and rapid method for routine screening of BLV...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Satoru Konnai, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi
Recently, dysfunction of antigen-specific T cells is well documented as T-cell exhaustion and has been defined by the loss of effector functions during chronic infections and cancer in human. The exhausted T cells are characterized phenotypically by the surface expression of immunoinhibitory receptors, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1), lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). However, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the immunoinhibitory receptors in the fields of veterinary medicine...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Omid Nekouei, John VanLeeuwen, Henrik Stryhn, David Kelton, Greg Keefe
Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The economic impacts of the infection have been debated in the literature. The present study was conducted to determine the lifetime effects of BLV infection on longevity and milk production of dairy cows in Canada. The data were aggregated from a combination of two data sets: 1) BLV serum-ELISA test results from Canada-wide surveys of production limiting diseases, which took place between 1998 and 2003 in 8 provinces, and 2) longitudinal production data for all cows in the former study, extracted from the Canadian dairy herd improvement database...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Benoit Van Driessche, Anthony Rodari, Nadège Delacourt, Sylvain Fauquenoy, Caroline Vanhulle, Arsène Burny, Olivier Rohr, Carine Van Lint
Bovine leukemia virus latency is a viral strategy used to escape from the host immune system and contribute to tumor development. However, a highly expressed BLV micro-RNA cluster has been reported, suggesting that the BLV silencing is not complete. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo recruitment of RNA polymerase III to the BLV miRNA cluster both in BLV-latently infected cell lines and in ovine BLV-infected primary cells, through a canonical type 2 RNAPIII promoter. Moreover, by RPC6-knockdown, we showed a direct functional link between RNAPIII transcription and BLV miRNAs expression...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hironobu Murakami, Jumpei Uchiyama, Sae Nikaido, Reiichiro Sato, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Kenji Tsukamoto
Enzootic bovine leucosis is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, which is highly prevalent in several regions of the world and significantly impacts the livestock industry. In BLV infection, the proviral load in the blood reflects disease progression. Although the BLV genome is highly conserved among retroviruses, genetic variation has been reported. However, the relationship between proviral load and genetic variation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the changes in proviral load in BLV-infected cattle in Japan and then identified and analysed a BLV strain pvAF967 that had a static proviral load...
October 2016: Journal of General Virology
Ramiro Merlini, Gerónimo Gutiérrez, Irene Alvarez, Juan Pablo Jaworski, Hugo Carignano, Mario Poli, Luc Willems, Karina Trono
In this work, we studied seven groups of pregnant heifers from a consortium of dairy farms heavily infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). ELISA testing showed that the seroprevalence ranges of BLV in heifers between 36.1 and 66.5 %. No significant differences in proviral load were found when comparing heifers with adult cattle. Before their first delivery, more than 9.8 % of heifers show a high proviral load. Because BLV infection can occur during the first two years of life, the rationale of any strategy should be to take action as early as possible after birth...
November 2016: Archives of Virology
María Victoria Nieto Farias, Pamela Anahí Lendez, Maia Marin, Silvina Quintana, Lucía Martínez-Cuesta, María Carolina Ceriani, Guillermina Laura Dolcini
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is widespread mainly in dairy cattle and 5-10% of infected animals will die due to lymphosarcoma; most cattle remain asymptomatic but 30% develop persistent lymphocytosis (PL). BLV transmission depends on infected cell exchange and thus, proviral load is determinant. Understanding the mechanisms which govern the control of viral dissemination will be desirable for the design of effective therapeutic or preventive strategies for BLV. The development of high proviral load (HPL) or low proviral load (LPL) might be associated to genetic factors and humoral immune responses, however cellular responses are not fully described...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Omid Nekouei, Jean Durocher, Greg Keefe
This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs.
July 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Jian-Gang Ma, Wen-Bin Zheng, Dong-Hui Zhou, Si-Yuan Qin, Ming-Yang Yin, Xing-Quan Zhu, Gui-Xue Hu
Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a chronic lymphosarcoma disease of cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). No information is available concerning the epidemiology of BLV infection in yaks (Bos mutus). One thousand five hundred and eighty-four serum samples from 610 black yaks and 974 white yaks from Gansu province, northwest China, were collected between April 2013 and March 2014 and tested for BLV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall BLV seroprevalence in yaks was 21.09% (334/1584), with 24...
2016: BioMed Research International
Rodrigo Puentes, Laureana De Brun, Agustina Algorta, Valeria Da Silva, Florencia Mansilla, Gustavo Sacco, Silvia Llambí, Alejandra V Capozzo
BACKGROUND: Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) produces disorders on the immune system in naturally infected animals, which may counteract the development of immunity after vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate whether healthy and BLV infected cattle elicited similar humoral responses after foot and mouth disease (FMD) immunization. In a field study, 35 Holstein heifers were selected based on their BLV serological status and immunized with a single dose of a commercial bivalent oil-based FMD vaccine...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Cairo H S De Oliveira, Cláudia F Resende, Carlos M C Oliveira, José D Barbosa, Antônio A Fonseca, Rômulo C Leite, Jenner K P Reis
Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available...
July 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Yahia Ismail Khudhair, Saleem Amin Hasso, Nahi Y Yaseen, Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
P Brym, B Bojarojć-Nosowicz, K Oleński, D M Hering, A Ruść, E Kaczmarczyk, S Kamiński
The mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and the processes underlying the phenomenon of differential host response to BLV infection still remain poorly understood. The aim of the study was to screen the entire cattle genome to identify markers and candidate genes that might be involved in host response to bovine leukemia virus infection. A genome-wide association study was performed using Holstein cows naturally infected by BLV. A data set included 43 cows (BLV positive) and 30 cows (BLV negative) genotyped for 54,609 SNP markers (Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip)...
July 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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