Read by QxMD icon Read

Human connectome project

Nele A J De Witte, Sven C Mueller
Anxiety and depression are associated with altered communication within global brain networks and between these networks and the amygdala. Functional connectivity studies demonstrate an effect of anxiety and depression on four critical brain networks involved in top-down attentional control (fronto-parietal network; FPN), salience detection and error monitoring (cingulo-opercular network; CON), bottom-up stimulus-driven attention (ventral attention network; VAN), and default mode (default mode network; DMN)...
October 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Karen Hodgson, Russell A Poldrack, Joanne E Curran, Emma E Knowles, Samuel Mathias, Harald Hh Göring, Nailin Yao, Rene L Olvera, Peter T Fox, Laura Almasy, Ravi Duggirala, Deanna M Barch, John Blangero, David C Glahn
Head movements are typically viewed as a nuisance to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, and are particularly problematic for resting state fMRI. However, there is growing evidence that head motion is a behavioral trait with neural and genetic underpinnings. Using data from a large randomly ascertained extended pedigree sample of Mexican Americans (n = 689), we modeled the genetic structure of head motion during resting state fMRI and its relation to 48 other demographic and behavioral phenotypes...
October 15, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Estrid Jakobsen, Franziskus Liem, Manousos A Klados, Seyma Bayrak, Michael Petrides, Daniel S Margulies
Broca's region can be subdivided into its constituent areas 44 and 45 based on established differences in connectivity to superior temporal and inferior parietal regions. The current study builds on our previous work manually parcellating Broca's area on the individual-level by applying these anatomical criteria to functional connectivity data. Here we present an automated observer-independent and anatomy-informed parcellation pipeline with comparable precision to the manual labels at the individual-level. The method first extracts individualized connectivity templates of areas 44 and 45 by assigning to each surface vertex within the ventrolateral frontal cortex the partial correlation value of its functional connectivity to group-level templates of areas 44 and 45, accounting for other template connectivity patterns...
September 30, 2016: NeuroImage
Nicolás F Lori, Augustin Ibañez, Rui Lavrador, Lucia Fonseca, Carlos Santos, Rui Travasso, Artur Pereira, Rosaldo Rossetti, Nuno Sousa, Victor Alves
High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) is a type of brain imaging that collects a very large amount of data, and if many subjects are considered then it amounts to a big data framework (e.g., the human connectome project has 20 Terabytes of data). HARDI is also becoming increasingly relevant for clinical settings (e.g., detecting early cerebral ischemic changes in acute stroke, and in pre-clinical assessment of white matter-WM anatomy using tractography). Thus, this method is becoming a routine assessment in clinical settings...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Emer J Hughes, Tobias Winchman, Francesco Padormo, Rui Teixeira, Julia Wurie, Maryanne Sharma, Matthew Fox, Jana Hutter, Lucilio Cordero-Grande, Anthony N Price, Joanna Allsop, Jose Bueno-Conde, Nora Tusor, Tomoki Arichi, A D Edwards, Mary A Rutherford, Serena J Counsell, Joseph V Hajnal
PURPOSE: The goal of the Developing Human Connectome Project is to acquire MRI in 1000 neonates to create a dynamic map of human brain connectivity during early development. High-quality imaging in this cohort without sedation presents a number of technical and practical challenges. METHODS: We designed a neonatal brain imaging system (NBIS) consisting of a dedicated 32-channel receive array coil and a positioning device that allows placement of the infant's head deep into the coil for maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)...
September 19, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Seok-Oh Jeong, Chongwon Pae, Hae-Jeong Park
Recent understanding that the brain at rest does not remain in a single state but transiently visits multiple states emphasizes the importance of state changes embedded in the brain network. Due to the effectiveness of larger networks in characterizing brain states, there is an increasing need for a network-based change point detection method that is applicable to large-size networks, particularly those with longer time series. This paper presents a fast and efficient method for detecting change points in the large-size functional networks of resting-state fMRI...
September 10, 2016: NeuroImage
Xi Jiang, Xiang Li, Jinglei Lv, Shijie Zhao, Shu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Tuo Zhang, Junwei Han, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
OBJECTIVE: Various studies in the brain mapping field have demonstrated that there exist multiple concurrent functional networks that are spatially overlapped and interacting with each other during specific task performance to jointly realize the total brain function. Assessing such spatial overlap patterns of functional networks (SOPFNs) based on fMRI has thus received increasing interest for brain function studies. However, there are still two crucial issues to be addressed. First, the SOPFNs are assessed over the entire fMRI scan assuming the temporal stationarity, while possibly time-dependent dynamics of the SOPFNs is not sufficiently explored...
August 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Ricardo Pio Monti, Romy Lorenz, Rodrigo M Braga, Christoforos Anagnostopoulos, Robert Leech, Giovanni Montana
Two novel and exciting avenues of neuroscientific research involve the study of task-driven dynamic reconfigurations of functional connectivity networks and the study of functional connectivity in real-time. While the former is a well-established field within neuroscience and has received considerable attention in recent years, the latter remains in its infancy. To date, the vast majority of real-time fMRI studies have focused on a single brain region at a time. This is due in part to the many challenges faced when estimating dynamic functional connectivity networks in real-time...
September 7, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Maite Termenon, Sophie Achard, Assia Jaillard, Chantal Delon-Martin
Stroke, resulting in focal structural damage, induces changes in brain function at both local and global levels. Following stroke, cerebral networks present structural, and functional reorganization to compensate for the dysfunctioning provoked by the lesion itself and its remote effects. As some recent studies underlined the role of the contralesional hemisphere during recovery, we studied its role in the reorganization of brain function of stroke patients using resting state fMRI and graph theory. We explored this reorganization using the "hub disruption index" (κ), a global index sensitive to the reorganization of nodes within the graph...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Gregory C Burgess, Sridhar Kandala, Dan Nolan, Timothy O Laumann, Jonathan Power, Babatunde Adeyemo, Michael P Harms, Steven E Petersen, Deanna M Barch
Like all resting-state functional connectivity data, the data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) are adversely affected by structured noise artifact arising from head motion and physiological processes. Functional connectivity estimates (Pearson's correlation coefficients) were inflated for high-motion time points and for high-motion participants. This inflation occurred across the brain, suggesting the presence of globally-distributed artifact. The degree of inflation was further increased for connections between nearby regions compared to distant regions, suggesting the presence of distance-dependent, spatially-specific artifact...
August 29, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Matthew F Glasser, Stephen M Smith, Daniel S Marcus, Jesper L R Andersson, Edward J Auerbach, Timothy E J Behrens, Timothy S Coalson, Michael P Harms, Mark Jenkinson, Steen Moeller, Emma C Robinson, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Junqian Xu, Essa Yacoub, Kamil Ugurbil, David C Van Essen
Noninvasive human neuroimaging has yielded many discoveries about the brain. Numerous methodological advances have also occurred, though inertia has slowed their adoption. This paper presents an integrated approach to data acquisition, analysis and sharing that builds upon recent advances, particularly from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The 'HCP-style' paradigm has seven core tenets: (i) collect multimodal imaging data from many subjects; (ii) acquire data at high spatial and temporal resolution; (iii) preprocess data to minimize distortions, blurring and temporal artifacts; (iv) represent data using the natural geometry of cortical and subcortical structures; (v) accurately align corresponding brain areas across subjects and studies; (vi) analyze data using neurobiologically accurate brain parcellations; and (vii) share published data via user-friendly databases...
August 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Luke J Hearne, Jason B Mattingley, Luca Cocchi
Intelligence is a fundamental ability that sets humans apart from other animal species. Despite its importance in defining human behaviour, the neural networks responsible for intelligence are not well understood. The dominant view from neuroimaging work suggests that intelligent performance on a range of tasks is underpinned by segregated interactions in a fronto-parietal network of brain regions. Here we asked whether fronto-parietal interactions associated with intelligence are ubiquitous, or emerge from more widespread associations in a task-free context...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joshua S Siegel, Anish Mitra, Timothy O Laumann, Benjamin A Seitzman, Marcus Raichle, Maurizio Corbetta, Abraham Z Snyder
A growing field of research explores links between behavioral measures and functional connectivity (FC) assessed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies suggest that measurement of these relationships may be corrupted by head motion artifact. Using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), we find that a surprising number of behavioral, demographic, and physiological measures (23 of 122), including fluid intelligence, reading ability, weight, and psychiatric diagnostic scales, correlate with head motion...
August 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Chao Zhang, Nathan D Cahill, Mohammad R Arbabshirani, Tonya White, Stefi A Baum, Andrew Michael
Functional connectivity (FC) in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to find co-activating regions in the human brain. Despite its widespread use, the effects of sex and age on resting FC are not well characterized, especially during early adulthood. Here we apply regression and graph theoretical analyses to explore the effects of sex and age on FC between the 116 AAL atlas parcellations (a total of 6,670 FC measures). Rs-fMRI data of 494 healthy subjects (203 males and 291 females; age range: 22-36 years) from the Human Connectome Project were analyzed...
August 15, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Kirstie J Whitaker, Petra E Vértes, Rafael Romero-Garcia, František Váša, Michael Moutoussis, Gita Prabhu, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Martina F Callaghan, Konrad Wagstyl, Timothy Rittman, Roger Tait, Cinly Ooi, John Suckling, Becky Inkster, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J Dolan, Peter B Jones, Ian M Goodyer, Edward T Bullmore
How does human brain structure mature during adolescence? We used MRI to measure cortical thickness and intracortical myelination in 297 population volunteers aged 14-24 y old. We found and replicated that association cortical areas were thicker and less myelinated than primary cortical areas at 14 y. However, association cortex had faster rates of shrinkage and myelination over the course of adolescence. Age-related increases in cortical myelination were maximized approximately at the internal layer of projection neurons...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Elizabeth W Pang, O C Snead Iii
New advances in structural neuroimaging have revealed the intricate and extensive connections within the brain, data which have informed a number of ambitious projects such as the mapping of the human connectome. Elucidation of the structural connections of the brain, at both the macro and micro levels, promises new perspectives on brain structure and function that could translate into improved outcomes in functional neurosurgery. The understanding of neuronal structural connectivity afforded by these data now offers a vista on the brain, in both healthy and diseased states, that could not be seen with traditional neuroimaging...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Matthew F Glasser, Timothy S Coalson, Emma C Robinson, Carl D Hacker, John Harwell, Essa Yacoub, Kamil Ugurbil, Jesper Andersson, Christian F Beckmann, Mark Jenkinson, Stephen M Smith, David C Van Essen
Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults...
August 11, 2016: Nature
Joseph M Orr, Courtnie J Paschall, Marie T Banich
A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Joshua Dee Burks, Phillip A Bonney, Andrew K P Conner, Chad A Glenn, Robert G Briggs, Lillian B Boettcher, Daniel L OʼDonoghue, Dee H Wu, Michael Edward Sughrue
INTRODUCTION: The orbitofrontal cortex is understood to have a role in outcome evaluation and risk assessment, and is commonly involved by infiltrative tumors. A detailed understanding of the exact location and nature of associated white tracts could go far to prevent postoperative morbidity related to declining capacity. Through diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we have characterized these connections based on relationships to other well-known structures...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Pranav Nanda, Garrett P Banks, Yagna Pathak, Danika L Paulo, Guillermo Horga, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Zhiyuan Xu, Antonio Lopes, Nicole McLaughlin, Benjamin Greenberg, Jason P Sheehan, Euripides C Miguel, Sameer A Sheth
INTRODUCTION: Whereas most patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are well controlled with pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy, 10% to 20% remain severe and refractory. Stereotactic lesions in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) have been used for decades to treat these patients. Recent studies using stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have demonstrated significant symptom response in 30% to 70% of patients. One contributor to response variability may be differences in upstream and downstream brain regions affected by lesions...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"