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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090602/probabilistic-tractography-for-topographically-organized-connectomes
#1
Dogu Baran Aydogan, Yonggang Shi
While tractography is widely used in brain imaging research, its quantitative validation is highly difficult. Many fiber systems, however, have well-known topographic organization which can even be quantitatively mapped such as the retinotopy of visual pathway. Motivated by this previously untapped anatomical knowledge, we develop a novel tractography method that preserves both topographic and geometric regularity of fiber systems. For topographic preservation, we propose a novel likelihood function that tests the match between parallel curves and fiber orientation distributions...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054634/within-brain-area-tractography-suggests-local-modularity-using-high-resolution-connectomics
#2
Peter N Taylor, Yujiang Wang, Marcus Kaiser
Previous structural brain connectivity studies have mainly focussed on the macroscopic scale of around 1,000 or fewer brain areas (network nodes). However, it has recently been demonstrated that high resolution structural connectomes of around 50,000 nodes can be generated reproducibly. In this study, we infer high resolution brain connectivity matrices using diffusion imaging data from the Human Connectome Project. With such high resolution we are able to analyse networks within brain areas in a single subject...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052450/correspondence-between-evoked-and-intrinsic-functional-brain-network-configurations
#3
Taylor Bolt, Jason S Nomi, Mikail Rubinov, Lucina Q Uddin
Much of the literature exploring differences between intrinsic and task-evoked brain architectures has examined changes in functional connectivity patterns between specific brain regions. While informative, this approach overlooks important overall functional changes in hub organization and network topology that may provide insights about differences in integration between intrinsic and task-evoked states. Examination of changes in overall network organization, such as a change in the concentration of hub nodes or a quantitative change in network organization, is important for understanding the underlying processes that differ between intrinsic and task-evoked brain architectures...
January 4, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031999/sleep-duration-and-resting-fmri-functional-connectivity-examination-of-short-sleepers-with-and-without-perceived-daytime-dysfunction
#4
Brian J Curtis, Paula G Williams, Christopher R Jones, Jeffrey S Anderson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of the U.S. population reports recurrent short sleep; however, perceived sleep need varies widely among individuals. Some "habitual short sleepers" routinely sleep 4-6 hr/night without self-reported adverse consequences. Identifying neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in perceived sleep-related dysfunction has important implications for understanding associations between sleep duration and health. METHOD: This study utilized data from 839 subjects of the Human Connectome Project to examine resting functional connectivity associations with self-reported short sleep duration, as well as differences between short sleepers with versus without reported dysfunction...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994537/alignment-of-tractograms-as-graph-matching
#5
Emanuele Olivetti, Nusrat Sharmin, Paolo Avesani
The white matter pathways of the brain can be reconstructed as 3D polylines, called streamlines, through the analysis of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data. The whole set of streamlines is called tractogram and represents the structural connectome of the brain. In multiple applications, like group-analysis, segmentation, or atlasing, tractograms of different subjects need to be aligned. Typically, this is done with registration methods, that transform the tractograms in order to increase their similarity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989904/dependence-on-b-value-of-the-direction-averaged-diffusion-weighted-imaging-signal-in-brain
#6
Emilie T McKinnon, Jens H Jensen, G Russell Glenn, Joseph A Helpern
PURPOSE: The dependence of the direction-averaged diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) signal in brain was studied as a function of b-value in order to help elucidate the relationship between diffusion weighting and brain microstructure. METHODS: High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data were acquired from two human volunteers with 128 diffusion-encoding directions and six b-value shells ranging from 1000 to 6000s/mm(2) in increments of 1000s/mm(2). The direction-averaged signal was calculated for each shell by averaging over all diffusion-encoding directions, and the signal was plotted as a function of b-value for selected regions of interest...
October 27, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989777/hand-classification-of-fmri-ica-noise-components
#7
Ludovica Griffanti, Gwenaëlle Douaud, Janine Bijsterbosh, Stefania Evangelisti, Fidel Alfaro-Almagro, Matthew F Glasser, Eugene P Duff, Sean Fitzgibbon, Robert Westphal, Davide Carone, Christian F Beckmann, Stephen M Smith
We present a practical "how-to" guide to help determine whether single-subject fMRI independent components (ICs) characterise structured noise or not. Manual identification of signal and noise after ICA decomposition is required for efficient data denoising: to train supervised algorithms, to check the results of unsupervised ones or to manually clean the data. In this paper we describe the main spatial and temporal features of ICs and provide general guidelines on how to evaluate these. Examples of signal and noise components are provided from a wide range of datasets (3T data, including examples from the UK Biobank and the Human Connectome Project, and 7T data), together with practical guidelines for their identification...
December 16, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982771/comparison-of-probabilistic-and-deterministic-fiber-tracking-of-cranial-nerves
#8
Amir Zolal, Stephan B Sobottka, Dino Podlesek, Jennifer Linn, Bernhard Rieger, Tareq A Juratli, Gabriele Schackert, Hagen H Kitzler
OBJECTIVE The depiction of cranial nerves (CNs) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is of great interest in skull base tumor surgery and DTI used with deterministic tracking methods has been reported previously. However, there are still no good methods usable for the elimination of noise from the resulting depictions. The authors have hypothesized that probabilistic tracking could lead to more accurate results, because it more efficiently extracts information from the underlying data. Moreover, the authors have adapted a previously described technique for noise elimination using gradual threshold increases to probabilistic tracking...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959921/temporal-dynamics-and-developmental-maturation-of-salience-default-and-central-executive-network-interactions-revealed-by-variational-bayes-hidden-markov-modeling
#9
Srikanth Ryali, Kaustubh Supekar, Tianwen Chen, John Kochalka, Weidong Cai, Jonathan Nicholas, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Vinod Menon
Little is currently known about dynamic brain networks involved in high-level cognition and their ontological basis. Here we develop a novel Variational Bayesian Hidden Markov Model (VB-HMM) to investigate dynamic temporal properties of interactions between salience (SN), default mode (DMN), and central executive (CEN) networks-three brain systems that play a critical role in human cognition. In contrast to conventional models, VB-HMM revealed multiple short-lived states characterized by rapid switching and transient connectivity between SN, CEN, and DMN...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935937/let-s-not-waste-time-using-temporal-information-in-clustered-activity-estimation-with-spatial-adjacency-restrictions-caesar-for-parcellating-fmri-data
#10
Ronald J Janssen, Pasi Jylänki, Marcel A J van Gerven
We have proposed a Bayesian approach for functional parcellation of whole-brain FMRI measurements which we call Clustered Activity Estimation with Spatial Adjacency Restrictions (CAESAR). We use distance-dependent Chinese restaurant processes (dd-CRPs) to define a flexible prior which partitions the voxel measurements into clusters whose number and shapes are unknown a priori. With dd-CRPs we can conveniently implement spatial constraints to ensure that our parcellations remain spatially contiguous and thereby physiologically meaningful...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916985/the-obese-brain-as-a-heritable-phenotype-a-combined-morphometry-and-twin-study
#11
C M Weise, P Piaggi, M Reinhardt, K Chen, C R Savage, J Krakoff, B Pleger
BACKGROUND: Body weight and adiposity are heritable traits. To date it remains unknown whether obesity-associated brain structural alterations are under a similar level of genetic control. METHODS: For this study we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the Human Connectome Project. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate associations between body mass index (BMI) and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 875 young adults with a wide BMI range (386m/489f; age 28...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894889/tradeoffs-in-pushing-the-spatial-resolution-of-fmri-for-the-7t-human-connectome-project
#12
An Thanh Vu, Keith Jamison, Matthew F Glasser, Stephen M Smith, Timothy Coalson, Steen Moeller, Edward J Auerbach, Kamil Uğurbil, Essa Yacoub
Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with multiband acceleration, has played an important role in mapping the functional connectivity throughout the entire brain with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrahigh magnetic field strengths (7T and above) allow functional imaging with even higher functional contrast-to-noise ratios for improved spatial resolution and specificity compared to traditional field strengths (1.5T and 3T). High-resolution 7T fMRI, however, has primarily been constrained to smaller brain regions given the amount of time it takes to acquire the number of slices necessary for high resolution whole brain imaging...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875803/analysis-of-alcohol-use-disorders-from-the-nathan-kline-institute-rockland-sample-correlation-of-brain-cortical-thickness-with-neuroticism
#13
Yihong Zhao, Zhi-Liang Zheng, F Xavier Castellanos
BACKGROUND: Although differences in both neuroanatomical measures and personality traits, in particular neuroticism, have been associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD), whether lifetime AUD diagnosis alters the relationship between neuroticism and neuroanatomical structures remains to be determined. METHODS: Data from 65 patients with lifetime AUD diagnoses and 65 healthy comparisons (HC) group-matched on age, sex and race were extracted from the Nathan Kline Institute - Rockland Sample data set...
January 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875123/synergetic-and-redundant-information-flow-detected-by-unnormalized-granger-causality-application-to-resting-state-fmri
#14
Sebastiano Stramaglia, Leonardo Angelini, Guorong Wu, Jesus M Cortes, Luca Faes, Daniele Marinazzo
OBJECTIVES: We develop a framework for the analysis of synergy and redundancy in the pattern of information flow between subsystems of a complex network. METHODS: The presence of redundancy and/or synergy in multivariate time series data renders difficulty to estimate the neat flow of information from each driver variable to a given target. We show that adopting an unnormalized definition of Granger causality, one may put in evidence redundant multiplets of variables influencing the target by maximizing the total Granger causality to a given target, over all the possible partitions of the set of driving variables...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875122/inferring-individual-level-variations-in-the-functional-parcellation-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#15
Lei Nie, Paul M Matthews, Yike Guo
OBJECTIVE: Functional parcellation of the cerebral cortex is variable across different subjects or between cognitive states. Ignoring individual-or state-dependent variations in the functional parcellation may lead to inaccurate representations of individual functional connectivity, limiting the precision of interpretations of differences in individual connectivity profiles. However, it is difficult to infer the individual-level variations due to the relatively low robustness of methods for parcellation of individual subjects...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867354/a-symmetry-based-method-to-infer-structural-brain-networks-from-probabilistic-tractography-data
#16
Kamal Shadi, Saideh Bakhshi, David A Gutman, Helen S Mayberg, Constantine Dovrolis
Recent progress in diffusion MRI and tractography algorithms as well as the launch of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) have provided brain research with an abundance of structural connectivity data. In this work, we describe and evaluate a method that can infer the structural brain network that interconnects a given set of Regions of Interest (ROIs) from probabilistic tractography data. The proposed method, referred to as Minimum Asymmetry Network Inference Algorithm (MANIA), does not determine the connectivity between two ROIs based on an arbitrary connectivity threshold...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856314/the-fiber-density-coreset-for-redundancy-reduction-in-huge-fiber-sets
#17
Guy Alexandroni, Gali Zimmerman Moreno, Nir Sochen, Hayit Greenspan
State of the art Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) protocols of white matter followed by advanced tractography techniques produce impressive reconstructions of White Matter (WM) pathways. These pathways often contain millions of trajectories (fibers). While for several applications the high number of fibers is essential, other applications (visualization, registration, some types of across-subject comparison) can achieve satisfying results using much smaller sets and may be overburdened by the computational load of the large fiber sets...
November 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845344/multidimensional-heritability-analysis-of-neuroanatomical-shape
#18
Tian Ge, Martin Reuter, Anderson M Winkler, Avram J Holmes, Phil H Lee, Lee S Tirrell, Joshua L Roffman, Randy L Buckner, Jordan W Smoller, Mert R Sabuncu
In the dawning era of large-scale biomedical data, multidimensional phenotype vectors will play an increasing role in examining the genetic underpinnings of brain features, behaviour and disease. For example, shape measurements derived from brain MRI scans are multidimensional geometric descriptions of brain structure and provide an alternate class of phenotypes that remains largely unexplored in genetic studies. Here we extend the concept of heritability to multidimensional traits, and present the first comprehensive analysis of the heritability of neuroanatomical shape measurements across an ensemble of brain structures based on genome-wide SNP and MRI data from 1,320 unrelated, young and healthy individuals...
November 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833940/cingulo-opercular-network-efficiency-mediates-the-association-between-psychotic-like-experiences-and-cognitive-ability-in-the-general-population
#19
Julia M Sheffield, Sridhar Kandala, Gregory C Burgess, Michael P Harms, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Psychosis is hypothesized to occur on a spectrum between psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. In the middle of the spectrum are individuals who endorse psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) that may not impact daily functioning or cause distress. Individuals with PLEs show alterations in both cognitive ability and functional connectivity of several brain networks, but the relationship between PLEs, cognition, and functional networks remains poorly understood. METHODS: We analyzed resting-state fMRI data, a range of neuropsychological tasks, and questions from the Achenbach Adult Self Report (ASR) in 468 individuals from the Human Connectome Project...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819474/structure-as-cause-and-representation-implications-of-descriptivist-inference-for-structural-modeling-across-multiple-levels-of-analysis
#20
Kristian E Markon, Katherine G Jonas
What does a structural model reflect? Different answers to this question implicitly underlie different nosological paradigms. Traditionally, structural analysis has been seen as a process of identifying true or causative values, states, or conditions. This paradigm has faced mounting challenges, however, as psychopathology theory and research has come to encompass different levels of analysis, with concomitant questions about what constructs are most "correct." Here, we discuss an alternative descriptivist paradigm, in which models are seen as the process of identifying optimally parsimonious, generalizable representations of observations...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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