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Human connectome project

Carme Uribe, Barbara Segura, Hugo Cesar Baggio, Alexandra Abos, Anna Isabel Garcia-Diaz, Anna Campabadal, Maria Jose Marti, Francesc Valldeoriola, Yaroslau Compta, Eduard Tolosa, Carme Junque
INTRODUCTION: Cortical brain atrophy detectable with MRI in non-demented advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) is well characterized, but its presence in early disease stages is still under debate. We aimed to investigate cortical atrophy patterns in a large sample of early untreated PD patients using a hypothesis-free data-driven approach. METHODS: Seventy-seven de novo PD patients and 50 controls from the Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative database with T1-weighted images in a 3-tesla Siemens scanner were included in this study...
February 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Hikaru Fukutomi, Matthew F Glasser, Hui Zhang, Joonas A Autio, Timothy S Coalson, Tomohisa Okada, Kaori Togashi, David C Van Essen, Takuya Hayashi
We present distinct patterns of neurite distribution in the human cerebral cortex using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We analyzed both high-resolution structural (T1w and T2w images) and diffusion MRI data in 505 subjects from the Human Connectome Project. Neurite distributions were evaluated using the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model, optimized for gray matter, and mapped onto the cortical surface using a method weighted towards the cortical mid-thickness to reduce partial volume effects...
February 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Haixiao Du, Mingrui Xia, Kang Zhao, Xuhong Liao, Huazhong Yang, Yu Wang, Yong He
The recent collection of unprecedented quantities of neuroimaging data with high spatial resolution has led to brain network big data. However, a toolkit for fast and scalable computational solutions is still lacking. Here, we developed the PArallel Graph-theoretical ANalysIs (PAGANI) Toolkit based on a hybrid central processing unit-graphics processing unit (CPU-GPU) framework with a graphical user interface to facilitate the mapping and characterization of high-resolution brain networks. Specifically, the toolkit provides flexible parameters for users to customize computations of graph metrics in brain network analyses...
February 7, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Frithjof Kruggel
The human neocortex shows a considerable individual structural variability. While primary gyri and sulci are found in all normally developed brains and bear clear-cut gross structural descriptions, secondary structures are highly variable and not present in all brains. The blend of common and individual structures poses challenges when comparing structural and functional results from quantitative neuroimaging studies across individuals, and sets limits on the precision of location information much above the spatial resolution of current neuroimaging methods...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Haraldur T Hallgrímsson, Matthew Cieslak, Luca Foschini, Scott Grafton, Ambuj K Singh
We present a method to discover differences between populations with respect to the spatial coherence of their oriented white matter microstructure in arbitrarily shaped white matter regions. This method is applied to diffusion MRI scans of a subset of the Human Connectome Project dataset: 57 pairs of monozygotic and 52 pairs of dizygotic twins. After controlling for morphological similarity between twins, we identify 3.7% of all white matter as being associated with genetic similarity (35.1 k voxels, p<10-4, false discovery rate 1...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Yu Takagi, Yuki Sakai, Yoshinari Abe, Seiji Nishida, Ben J Harrison, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Carles Soriano-Mas, Jin Narumoto, Saori C Tanaka
Anxiety is one of the most common mental states of humans. Although it drives us to avoid frightening situations and to achieve our goals, it may also impose significant suffering and burden if it becomes extreme. Because we experience anxiety in a variety of forms, previous studies investigated neural substrates of anxiety in a variety of ways. These studies revealed that individuals with high state, trait, or pathological anxiety showed altered neural substrates. However, no studies have directly investigated whether the different dimensions of anxiety share a common neural substrate, despite its theoretical and practical importance...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
Antonios Makropoulos, Emma C Robinson, Andreas Schuh, Robert Wright, Sean Fitzgibbon, Jelena Bozek, Serena J Counsell, Johannes Steinweg, Katy Vecchiato, Jonathan Passerat-Palmbach, Gregor Lenz, Filippo Mortari, Tencho Tenev, Eugene P Duff, Matteo Bastiani, Lucilio Cordero-Grande, Emer Hughes, Nora Tusor, Jacques-Donald Tournier, Jana Hutter, Anthony N Price, Rui Pedro A G Teixeira, Maria Murgasova, Suresh Victor, Christopher Kelly, Mary A Rutherford, Stephen M Smith, A David Edwards, Joseph V Hajnal, Mark Jenkinson, Daniel Rueckert
The Developing Human Connectome Project (dHCP) seeks to create the first 4-dimensional connectome of early life. Understanding this connectome in detail may provide insights into normal as well as abnormal patterns of brain development. Following established best practices adopted by the WU-MINN Human Connectome Project (HCP), and pioneered by FreeSurfer, the project utilises cortical surface-based processing pipelines. In this paper, we propose a fully automated processing pipeline for the structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the developing neonatal brain...
January 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Ben Cassidy, F DuBois Bowman, Caroline Rae, Victor Solo
There is intense interest in fMRI research on whole-brain functional connectivity, and however, two fundamental issues are still unresolved: the impact of spatiotemporal data resolution (spatial parcellation and temporal sampling) and the impact of the network construction method on the reliability of functional brain networks. In particular, the impact of spatiotemporal data resolution on the resulting connectivity findings has not been sufficiently investigated. In fact, a number of studies have already observed that functional networks often give different conclusions across different parcellation scales...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Xavier Guell, John D E Gabrieli, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Delineation of functional topography is critical to the evolving understanding of the cerebellum's role in a wide range of nervous system functions. We used data from the Human Connectome Project (n = 787) to analyze cerebellar fMRI task activation (motor, working memory, language, social and emotion processing) and resting-state functional connectivity calculated from cerebral cortical seeds corresponding to the peak Cohen's d of each task contrast. The combination of exceptional statistical power, activation from both motor and multiple non-motor tasks in the same participants, and convergent resting-state networks in the same participants revealed novel aspects of the functional topography of the human cerebellum...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Benjamin B Risk, Mary C Kociuba, Daniel B Rowe
Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging can be used to decrease the time between acquisition of fMRI volumes, which can increase sensitivity by facilitating the removal of higher-frequency artifacts and boosting effective sample size. The technique requires an additional processing step in which the slices are separated, or unaliased, to recover the whole brain volume. However, this may result in signal "leakage" between aliased locations, i.e., slice "leakage," and lead to spurious activation (decreased specificity)...
February 3, 2018: NeuroImage
Amanda F Mejia, Mary Beth Nebel, Anita D Barber, Ann S Choe, James J Pekar, Brian S Caffo, Martin A Lindquist
Reliability of subject-level resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is determined in part by the statistical techniques employed in its estimation. Methods that pool information across subjects to inform estimation of subject-level effects (e.g., Bayesian approaches) have been shown to enhance reliability of subject-level FC. However, fully Bayesian approaches are computationally demanding, while empirical Bayesian approaches typically rely on using repeated measures to estimate the variance components in the model...
January 29, 2018: NeuroImage
Lachlan T Strike, Narelle K Hansell, Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Paul M Thompson, Greig I de Zubicaray, Katie L McMahon, Margaret J Wright
Quantifying the genetic architecture of the cerebral cortex is necessary for understanding disease and changes to the brain across the lifespan. Prior work shows that both surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) are heritable. However, we do not yet understand the extent to which region-specific genetic factors (i.e., independent of global effects) play a dominant role in the regional patterning or inter-regional associations across the cortex. Using a population sample of young adult twins (N = 923), we show that the heritability of SA and CT varies widely across regions, generally independent of measurement error...
January 25, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Xiao Liu, Jacco A de Zwart, Marieke L Schölvinck, Catie Chang, Frank Q Ye, David A Leopold, Jeff H Duyn
Cortical activity during periods of rest is punctuated by widespread, synchronous events in both electrophysiological and hemodynamic signals, but their behavioral relevance remains unclear. Here we report that these events correspond to momentary drops in cortical arousal and are associated with activity changes in the basal forebrain and thalamus. Combining fMRI and electrophysiology in macaques, we first establish that fMRI transients co-occur with spectral shifts in local field potentials (LFPs) toward low frequencies...
January 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Mai-Anh T Vu, Tulay Adali, Demba Ba, Gyorgy Buzsaki, David Carlson, Katherine Heller, Conor Liston, Cynthia Rudin, Vikaas Sohal, Alik S Widge, Helen S Mayberg, Guillermo Sapiro, Kafui Dzirasa
With ever-increasing advancements in technology, neuroscientists are able to collect data in greater volumes and with finer resolution. The bottleneck in understanding how the brain works is consequently shifting away from the amount and type of data we can collect and toward what we actually do with the data. There has been a growing interest in leveraging this vast volume of data across levels of analysis, measurement techniques, and experimental paradigms to gain more insight into brain function. Such efforts are visible at an international scale, with the emergence of big data neuroscience initiatives such as the BRAIN initiative(Bargmann et al...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Peter O Jenkins, Sara De Simoni, Niall J Bourke, Jessica Fleminger, Gregory Scott, David J Towey, William Svensson, Sameer Khan, Maneesh Patel, Richard Greenwood, James H Cole, David J Sharp
Traumatic brain injury can reduce striatal dopamine levels. The cause of this is uncertain, but is likely to be related to damage to the nigrostriatal system. We investigated the pattern of striatal dopamine abnormalities using 123I-Ioflupane single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans and their relationship to nigrostriatal damage and clinical features. We studied 42 moderate-severe traumatic brain injury patients with cognitive impairments but no motor parkinsonism signs and 20 healthy controls...
January 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Zhengwu Zhang, Maxime Descoteaux, Jingwen Zhang, Gabriel Girard, Maxime Chamberland, David Dunson, Anuj Srivastava, Hongtu Zhu
Advances in understanding the structural connectomes of human brain require improved approaches for the construction, comparison and integration of high-dimensional whole-brain tractography data from a large number of individuals. This article develops a population-based structural connectome (PSC) mapping framework to address these challenges. PSC simultaneously characterizes a large number of white matter bundles within and across different subjects by registering different subjects' brains based on coarse cortical parcellations, compressing the bundles of each connection, and extracting novel connection weights...
January 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Lachlan T Strike, Greig I de Zubicaray, Katie L McMahon, Paul M Thompson, Ian B Hickie, Nicholas G Martin, Margaret J Wright
Here we aimed to identify cortical endophenotypes for anxiety-depression. Our data-driven approach used vertex-wise genetic correlations (estimated from a twin sample: 157 monozygotic and 194 dizygotic twin pairs) to parcellate cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) into genetically homogeneous regions (Chen et al., 2013). In an overlapping twin and sibling sample (n = 834; aged 15-29, 66% female), in those with anxiety-depression Somatic and Psychological Health Report (SPHERE) scores (Hickie et al...
January 2018: ENeuro
J D Kruschwitz, L Waller, L S Daedelow, H Walter, I M Veer
One hallmark example of a link between global topological network properties of complex functional brain connectivity and cognitive performance is the finding that general intelligence may depend on the efficiency of the brain's intrinsic functional network architecture. However, although this association has been featured prominently over the course of the last decade, the empirical basis for this broad association of general intelligence and global functional network efficiency is quite limited. In the current study, we set out to replicate the previously reported association between general intelligence and global functional network efficiency using the large sample size and high quality data of the Human Connectome Project, and extended the original study by testing for separate association of crystallized and fluid intelligence with global efficiency, characteristic path length, and global clustering coefficient...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Chao Zhang, Chase C Dougherty, Stefi A Baum, Tonya White, Andrew M Michael
Prevalence of certain forms of psychopathology, such as autism and depression, differs between genders and understanding gender differences of the neurotypical brain may provide insights into risk and protective factors. In recent research, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) is widely used to map the inherent functional networks of the brain. Although previous studies have reported gender differences in rfMRI, the robustness of gender differences is not well characterized. In this study, we use a large data set to test whether rfMRI functional connectivity (FC) can be used to predict gender and identify FC features that are most predictive of gender...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
T M Lancaster, I Ihssen, L M Brindley, D E Linden
The reward-processing network is implicated in the aetiology of obesity. Several lines of evidence suggest obesity-linked genetic risk loci (such as DRD2 and FTO) may influence individual variation in body mass index (BMI) through neuropsychological processes reflected in alterations in activation of the striatum during reward processing. However, no study has tested the broader hypotheses that (a) the relationship between BMI and reward-related brain activation (measured through the blood oxygenation-dependent (BOLD) signal) may be observed in a large population study and (b) the overall genetic architecture of these phenotypes overlap, an assumption critical for the progression of imaging genetic studies in obesity research...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
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