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Human connectome project

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018335/a-connectomic-analysis-of-the-human-basal-ganglia-network
#1
Alberto Cacciola, Alessandro Calamuneri, Demetrio Milardi, Enricomaria Mormina, Gaetana Chillemi, Silvia Marino, Antonino Naro, Giuseppina Rizzo, Giuseppe Anastasi, Angelo Quartarone
The current model of basal ganglia circuits has been introduced almost two decades ago and has settled the basis for our understanding of basal ganglia physiology and movement disorders. Although many questions are yet to be answered, several efforts have been recently made to shed new light on basal ganglia function. The traditional concept of "direct" and "indirect" pathways, obtained from axonal tracing studies in non-human primates and post-mortem fiber dissection in the human brain, still retains a remarkable appeal but is somehow obsolete...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989049/individual-variability-of-the-human-cerebral-cortex-identified-using-intraoperative-mapping
#2
Johan Pallud, Marc Zanello, Grégory Kuchcinski, Alexandre Roux, Jun Muto, Charles Mellerio, Edouard Dezamis, Catherine Oppenheim
BACKGROUND: The intraoperative functional cortical mapping using direct electrical stimulation may show a wider individual variability than those suggested by non-invasive imaging data on healthy subjects. METHODS: We assessed the intraoperative variability of the frontal eye fields and of the speech arrest sites in adult patients having undergone a wide-awake craniotomy with direct electrostimulation for diffuse gliomas located within eloquent regions and we compared with the human cortical parcellation of the Human Connectome Project (Glasser, Nature, 2016)...
October 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986206/frequency-dependent-hub-role-of-the-dorsal-and-ventral-right-anterior-insula
#3
Yifeng Wang, Lixia Zhu, Qijun Zou, Qian Cui, Wei Liao, Xujun Duan, Bharat Biswal, Huafu Chen
The right anterior insula (rAI) plays a crucial role in generating adaptive behavior by orchestrating multiple brain networks. Based on functional separation findings of the insula and spectral fingerprints theory of cognitive functions, we hypothesize that the hub role of the rAI is region and frequency dependent. Using the Human Connectome Project dataset and backtracking approach, we segregate the rAI into dorsal and ventral parts at frequency bands from slow 6 to slow 3, indicating the frequency dependent functional separation of the rAI...
October 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980144/hierarchical-multi-resolution-mesh-networks-for-brain-decoding
#4
Itir Onal Ertugrul, Mete Ozay, Fatos T Yarman Vural
Human brain is supposed to process information in multiple frequency bands. Therefore, we can extract diverse information from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data by processing it at multiple resolutions. We propose a framework, called Hierarchical Multi-resolution Mesh Networks (HMMNs), which establishes a set of brain networks at multiple resolutions of fMRI signal to represent the underlying cognitive process. Our framework, first, decomposes the fMRI signal into various frequency subbands using wavelet transform...
October 4, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971385/biological-relevance-of-network-architecture
#5
Ioannis Gkigkitzis, Ioannis Haranas, Ilias Kotsireas
Mathematical representations of brain networks in neuroscience through the use of graph theory may be very useful for the understanding of neurological diseases and disorders and such an explanatory power is currently under intense investigation. Graph metrics are expected to vary across subjects and are likely to reflect behavioural and cognitive performances. The challenge is to set up a framework that can explain how behaviour, cognition, memory, and other brain properties can emerge through the combined interactions of neurons, ensembles of neurons, and larger-scale brain regions that make information transfer possible...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968754/influences-on-the-test-retest-reliability-of-functional-connectivity-mri-and-its-relationship-with-behavioral-utility
#6
Stephanie Noble, Marisa N Spann, Fuyuze Tokoglu, Xilin Shen, R Todd Constable, Dustin Scheinost
Best practices are currently being developed for the acquisition and processing of resting-state magnetic resonance imaging data used to estimate brain functional organization-or "functional connectivity." Standards have been proposed based on test-retest reliability, but open questions remain. These include how amount of data per subject influences whole-brain reliability, the influence of increasing runs versus sessions, the spatial distribution of reliability, the reliability of multivariate methods, and, crucially, how reliability maps onto prediction of behavior...
September 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960629/a-multisample-study-of-longitudinal-changes-in-brain-network-architecture-in-4-13-year-old-children
#7
Lara M Wierenga, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Bob Oranje, Jay N Giedd, Sarah Durston, Jiska S Peper, Timothy T Brown, Eveline A Crone
Recent advances in human neuroimaging research have revealed that white-matter connectivity can be described in terms of an integrated network, which is the basis of the human connectome. However, the developmental changes of this connectome in childhood are not well understood. This study made use of two independent longitudinal diffusion-weighted imaging data sets to characterize developmental changes in the connectome by estimating age-related changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) for reconstructed fibers (edges) between 68 cortical regions...
September 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952937/single-and-multiple-shell-uniform-sampling-schemes-for-diffusion-mri-using-spherical-codes
#8
Jian Cheng, Dinggang Shen, Pew-Thian Yap, Peter J Basser
In diffusion MRI (dMRI), a good sampling scheme is important for efficient acquisition and robust reconstruction. Diffusion weighted signal is normally acquired on single or multiple shells in q-space. Signal samples are typically distributed uniformly on different shells to make them invariant to the orientation of structures within tissue, or the laboratory coordinate frame. The Electrostatic Energy Minimization (EEM) method, originally proposed for single shell sampling scheme in dMRI, was recently generalized to multi-shell schemes, called Generalized EEM (GEEM)...
September 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943732/topographic-regularity-for-tract-filtering-in-brain-connectivity
#9
Junyan Wang, Dogu Baran Aydogan, Rohit Varma, Arthur W Toga, Yonggang Shi
The preservation of the spatial relationships among axonal pathways has long been studied and known to be critical for many functions of the brain. Being a fundamental property of the brain connections, there is an intuitive understanding of topographic regularity in neuroscience but yet to be systematically explored in connectome imaging research. In this work, we propose a general mathematical model for topographic regularity of fiber bundles that is consistent with its neuroanatomical understanding. Our model is based on a novel group spectral graph analysis (GSGA) framework motivated by spectral graph theory and tensor decomposition...
June 2017: Information Processing in Medical Imaging: Proceedings of the ... Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933871/neuropsychology-and-cognitive-neuroscience-in-the-fmri-era-a-recapitulation-of-localizationist-and-connectionist-views
#10
Matthew J Sutterer, Daniel Tranel
OBJECTIVE: We highlight the past 25 years of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the impact to the field of the introduction in 1992 of functional MRI (fMRI). METHOD: We reviewed the past 25 years of literature in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the relation and interplay of fMRI studies and studies utilizing the "lesion method" in human participants with focal brain damage. RESULTS: Our review highlights the state of localist/connectionist research debates in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology circa 1992, and details how the introduction of fMRI into the field at that time catalyzed a new wave of efforts to map complex human behavior to specific brain regions...
September 21, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921634/the-role-of-whole-brain-diffusion-mri-as-a-tool-for-studying-human-in-vivo-cortical-segregation-based-on-a-measure-of-neurite-density
#11
Fernando Calamante, Ben Jeurissen, Robert E Smith, Jacques-Donald Tournier, Alan Connelly
PURPOSE: To investigate whether diffusion MRI can be used to study cortical segregation based on a contrast related to neurite density, thus providing a complementary tool to myelin-based MRI techniques used for myeloarchitecture. METHODS: Several myelin-sensitive MRI methods (e.g., based on T1 , T2 , and T2*) have been proposed to parcellate cortical areas based on their myeloarchitecture. Recent improvements in hardware, acquisition, and analysis methods have opened the possibility of achieving a more robust characterization of cortical microstructure using diffusion MRI...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916180/interpreting-temporal-fluctuations-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-mri
#12
REVIEW
Raphaël Liégeois, Timothy O Laumann, Abraham Z Snyder, Juan Zhou, B T Thomas Yeo
Resting-state functional connectivity is a powerful tool for studying human functional brain networks. Temporal fluctuations in functional connectivity, i.e., dynamic functional connectivity (dFC), are thought to reflect dynamic changes in brain organization and non-stationary switching of discrete brain states. However, recent studies have suggested that dFC might be attributed to sampling variability of static FC. Despite this controversy, a detailed exposition of stationarity and statistical testing of dFC is lacking in the literature...
September 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913860/connectivity-based-parcellation-of-the-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule
#13
Pranav Nanda, Garrett P Banks, Yagna J Pathak, Sameer A Sheth
The anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) is an important locus of frontal-subcortical fiber tracts involved in cognitive and limbic feedback loops. However, the structural organization of its component fiber tracts remains unclear. Therefore, although the ALIC is a promising target for various neurosurgical procedures for psychiatric disorders, more precise understanding of its organization is required to optimize target localization. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) collected on healthy subjects by the Human Connectome Project (HCP), we generated parcellations of the ALIC by dividing it according to structural connectivity to various frontal regions...
September 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905121/a-probabilistic-atlas-of-fiber-crossings-for-variability-reduction-of-anisotropy-measures
#14
Lukas J Volz, M Cieslak, S T Grafton
Diffusion imaging enables assessment of human brain white matter (WM) in vivo. WM microstructural integrity is routinely quantified via fractional anisotropy (FA). However, FA is also influenced by the number of differentially oriented fiber populations per voxel. To date, the precise statistical relationship between FA and fiber populations has not been characterized, complicating microstructural integrity assessment. Here, we used 630 state-of-the-art diffusion datasets from the Human Connectome Project, which allowed us to infer the number of fiber populations per voxel in a model-free fashion...
September 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889005/a-flexible-graphical-model-for-multi-modal-parcellation-of-the-cortex
#15
Sarah Parisot, Ben Glocker, Sofia Ira Ktena, Salim Arslan, Markus D Schirmer, Daniel Rueckert
Advances in neuroimaging have provided a tremendous amount of in-vivo information on the brain's organisation. Its anatomy and cortical organisation can be investigated from the point of view of several imaging modalities, many of which have been studied for mapping functionally specialised cortical areas. There is strong evidence that a single modality is not sufficient to fully identify the brain's cortical organisation. Combining multiple modalities in the same parcellation task has the potential to provide more accurate and robust subdivisions of the cortex...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867339/multimodal-neural-correlates-of-cognitive-control-in-the-human-connectome-project
#16
Dov B Lerman-Sinkoff, Jing Sui, Srinivas Rachakonda, Sridhar Kandala, Vince D Calhoun, Deanna M Barch
Cognitive control is a construct that refers to the set of functions that enable decision-making and task performance through the representation of task states, goals, and rules. The neural correlates of cognitive control have been studied in humans using a wide variety of neuroimaging modalities, including structural MRI, resting-state fMRI, and task-based fMRI. The results from each of these modalities independently have implicated the involvement of a number of brain regions in cognitive control, including dorsal prefrontal cortex, and frontal parietal and cingulo-opercular brain networks...
September 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866840/topography-of-the-human-acoustic-radiation-as-revealed-by-ex-vivo-fibers-micro-dissection-and-in-vivo-diffusion-based-tractography
#17
Chiara Maffei, Jorge Jovicich, Alessandro De Benedictis, Francesco Corsini, Mattia Barbareschi, Franco Chioffi, Silvio Sarubbo
The acoustic radiation is a compact bundle of fibers conveying auditory information from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus to the auditory cortex. Topographical knowledge of this bundle in primates is scarce and in vivo diffusion-based tractography reconstructions in humans remains challenging, especially with the most widely used MRI acquisition protocols. Therefore, the AR represents a notable anatomical omission in the neurobiological investigation of acoustic and linguistic functional mechanisms in humans...
September 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862541/anatomy-and-white-matter-connections-of-the-orbitofrontal-gyrus
#18
Joshua D Burks, Andrew K Conner, Phillip A Bonney, Chad A Glenn, Cordell M Baker, Lillian B Boettcher, Robert G Briggs, Daniel L O'Donoghue, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
OBJECTIVE The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is understood to have a role in outcome evaluation and risk assessment and is commonly involved with infiltrative tumors. A detailed understanding of the exact location and nature of associated white matter tracts could significantly improve postoperative morbidity related to declining capacity. Through diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, the authors have characterized these connections based on relationships to other well-known structures...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843214/constructing-fine-granularity-functional-brain-network-atlases-via-deep-convolutional-autoencoder
#19
Yu Zhao, Qinglin Dong, Hanbo Chen, Armin Iraji, Yujie Li, Milad Makkie, Zhifeng Kou, Tianming Liu
State-of-the-art functional brain network reconstruction methods such as independent component analysis (ICA) or sparse coding of whole-brain fMRI data can effectively infer many thousands of volumetric brain network maps from a large number of human brains. However, due to the variability of individual brain networks and the large scale of such networks needed for statistically meaningful group-level analysis, it is still a challenging and open problem to derive group-wise common networks as network atlases...
August 18, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834322/lipid-metabolism-abdominal-adiposity-and-cerebral-health-in-the-amish
#20
Meghann Ryan, Peter Kochunov, Laura M Rowland, Braxton D Mitchell, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Els Fieremans, Jelle Veraart, Dmitry S Novikov, Xiaoming Du, Bhim Adhikari, Feven Fisseha, Heather Bruce, Joshua Chiappelli, Hemalatha Sampath, Seth Ament, Jeffrey O'Connell, Alan R Shuldiner, L Elliot Hong
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between peripheral lipid/fat profiles and cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in healthy Old Order Amish (OOA). METHODS: Blood lipids, abdominal adiposity, liver lipid contents, and cerebral microstructure were assessed in OOA (N = 64, 31 males/33 females, ages 18-77). Orthogonal factors were extracted from lipid and imaging adiposity measures. GM assessment used the Human Connectome Project protocol to measure whole-brain average cortical thickness...
August 20, 2017: Obesity
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