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Human connectome project

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894889/tradeoffs-in-pushing-the-spatial-resolution-of-fmri-for-the-7t-human-connectome-project
#1
An Thanh Vu, Keith Jamison, Matthew F Glasser, Stephen M Smith, Timothy Coalson, Steen Moeller, Edward J Auerbach, Kamil Ugurbil, Essa Yacoub
Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with multiband acceleration, has played an important role in mapping the functional connectivity throughout the entire brain with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrahigh magnetic field strengths (7T and above) allow functional imaging with even higher functional contrast-to-noise ratios for improved spatial resolution and specificity compared to traditional field strengths (1.5T and 3T). High-resolution 7T fMRI, however, has primarily been constrained to smaller brain regions given the amount of time it takes to acquire the number of slices necessary for high resolution whole brain imaging...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875803/analysis-of-alcohol-use-disorders-from-the-nathan-kline-institute-rockland-sample-correlation-of-brain-cortical-thickness-with-neuroticism
#2
Yihong Zhao, Zhi-Liang Zheng, F Xavier Castellanos
BACKGROUND: Although differences in both neuroanatomical measures and personality traits, in particular neuroticism, have been associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD), whether lifetime AUD diagnosis alters the relationship between neuroticism and neuroanatomical structures remains to be determined. METHODS: Data from 65 patients with lifetime AUD diagnoses and 65 healthy comparisons (HC) group-matched on age, sex and race were extracted from the Nathan Kline Institute - Rockland Sample data set...
November 8, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875123/synergetic-and-redundant-information-flow-detected-by-unnormalized-granger-causality-application-to-resting-state-fmri
#3
Sebastiano Stramaglia, Leonardo Angelini, Guorong Wu, Jesus M Cortes, Luca Faes, Daniele Marinazzo
OBJECTIVES: We develop a framework for the analysis of synergy and redundancy in the pattern of information flow between subsystems of a complex network. METHODS: The presence of redundancy and/or synergy in multivariate time series data renders difficulty to estimate the neat flow of information from each driver variable to a given target. We show that adopting an unnormalized definition of Granger causality, one may put in evidence redundant multiplets of variables influencing the target by maximizing the total Granger causality to a given target, over all the possible partitions of the set of driving variables...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875122/inferring-individual-level-variations-in-the-functional-parcellation-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#4
Lei Nie, Paul M Matthews, Yike Guo
OBJECTIVE: Functional parcellation of the cerebral cortex is variable across different subjects or between cognitive states. Ignoring individual-or state-dependent variations in the functional parcellation may lead to inaccurate representations of individual functional connectivity, limiting the precision of interpretations of differences in individual connectivity profiles. However, it is difficult to infer the individual-level variations due to the relatively low robustness of methods for parcellation of individual subjects...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867354/a-symmetry-based-method-to-infer-structural-brain-networks-from-probabilistic-tractography-data
#5
Kamal Shadi, Saideh Bakhshi, David A Gutman, Helen S Mayberg, Constantine Dovrolis
Recent progress in diffusion MRI and tractography algorithms as well as the launch of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) have provided brain research with an abundance of structural connectivity data. In this work, we describe and evaluate a method that can infer the structural brain network that interconnects a given set of Regions of Interest (ROIs) from probabilistic tractography data. The proposed method, referred to as Minimum Asymmetry Network Inference Algorithm (MANIA), does not determine the connectivity between two ROIs based on an arbitrary connectivity threshold...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856314/the-fiber-density-coreset-for-redundancy-reduction-in-huge-fiber-sets
#6
Guy Alexandroni, Gali Zimmerman Moreno, Nir Sochen, Hayit Greenspan
State of the art Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) protocols of white matter followed by advanced tractography techniques produce impressive reconstructions of White Matter (WM) pathways. These pathways often contain millions of trajectories (fibers). While for several applications the high number of fibers is essential, other applications (visualization, registration, some types of across-subject comparison) can achieve satisfying results using much smaller sets and may be overburdened by the computational load of the large fiber sets...
November 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845344/multidimensional-heritability-analysis-of-neuroanatomical-shape
#7
Tian Ge, Martin Reuter, Anderson M Winkler, Avram J Holmes, Phil H Lee, Lee S Tirrell, Joshua L Roffman, Randy L Buckner, Jordan W Smoller, Mert R Sabuncu
In the dawning era of large-scale biomedical data, multidimensional phenotype vectors will play an increasing role in examining the genetic underpinnings of brain features, behaviour and disease. For example, shape measurements derived from brain MRI scans are multidimensional geometric descriptions of brain structure and provide an alternate class of phenotypes that remains largely unexplored in genetic studies. Here we extend the concept of heritability to multidimensional traits, and present the first comprehensive analysis of the heritability of neuroanatomical shape measurements across an ensemble of brain structures based on genome-wide SNP and MRI data from 1,320 unrelated, young and healthy individuals...
November 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833940/cingulo-opercular-network-efficiency-mediates-the-association-between-psychotic-like-experiences-and-cognitive-ability-in-the-general-population
#8
Julia M Sheffield, Sridhar Kandala, Gregory C Burgess, Michael P Harms, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Psychosis is hypothesized to occur on a spectrum between psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. In the middle of the spectrum are individuals who endorse psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) that may not impact daily functioning or cause distress. Individuals with PLEs show alterations in both cognitive ability and functional connectivity of several brain networks, but the relationship between PLEs, cognition, and functional networks remains poorly understood. METHODS: We analyzed resting-state fMRI data, a range of neuropsychological tasks, and questions from the Achenbach Adult Self Report (ASR) in 468 individuals from the Human Connectome Project...
November 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819474/structure-as-cause-and-representation-implications-of-descriptivist-inference-for-structural-modeling-across-multiple-levels-of-analysis
#9
Kristian E Markon, Katherine G Jonas
What does a structural model reflect? Different answers to this question implicitly underlie different nosological paradigms. Traditionally, structural analysis has been seen as a process of identifying true or causative values, states, or conditions. This paradigm has faced mounting challenges, however, as psychopathology theory and research has come to encompass different levels of analysis, with concomitant questions about what constructs are most "correct." Here, we discuss an alternative descriptivist paradigm, in which models are seen as the process of identifying optimally parsimonious, generalizable representations of observations...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775400/dynamic-functional-connectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-is-associated-with-executive-function-and-processing-speed-a-preliminary-study
#10
Tanya T Nguyen, Sanja Kovacevic, Sheena I Dev, Kun Lu, Thomas T Liu, Lisa T Eyler
Objective: Disturbances in functional connectivity have been suggested to contribute to cognitive and emotion processing deficits observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Functional connectivity between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions may be particularly abnormal. The goal of the present study was to characterize the temporal dynamics of the default mode network (DMN) connectivity in BD and examine its association with cognition. Method: In a preliminary study, euthymic BD (n = 15) and healthy comparison (HC, n = 19) participants underwent resting-state functional MRI, using high-resolution sequences adapted from the Human Connectome Project, and completed neuropsychological measures of processing speed and executive function...
October 24, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744495/white-matter-integrity-in-brain-networks-relevant-to-anxiety-and-depression-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project-dataset
#11
Nele A J De Witte, Sven C Mueller
Anxiety and depression are associated with altered communication within global brain networks and between these networks and the amygdala. Functional connectivity studies demonstrate an effect of anxiety and depression on four critical brain networks involved in top-down attentional control (fronto-parietal network; FPN), salience detection and error monitoring (cingulo-opercular network; CON), bottom-up stimulus-driven attention (ventral attention network; VAN), and default mode (default mode network; DMN)...
October 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744290/shared-genetic-factors-influence-head-motion-during-mri-and-body-mass-index
#12
Karen Hodgson, Russell A Poldrack, Joanne E Curran, Emma E Knowles, Samuel Mathias, Harald Hh Göring, Nailin Yao, Rene L Olvera, Peter T Fox, Laura Almasy, Ravi Duggirala, Deanna M Barch, John Blangero, David C Glahn
Head movements are typically viewed as a nuisance to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, and are particularly problematic for resting state fMRI. However, there is growing evidence that head motion is a behavioral trait with neural and genetic underpinnings. Using data from a large randomly ascertained extended pedigree sample of Mexican Americans (n = 689), we modeled the genetic structure of head motion during resting state fMRI and its relation to 48 other demographic and behavioral phenotypes...
October 15, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693796/automated-individual-level-parcellation-of-broca-s-region-based-on-functional-connectivity
#13
Estrid Jakobsen, Franziskus Liem, Manousos A Klados, Seyma Bayrak, Michael Petrides, Daniel S Margulies
Broca's region can be subdivided into its constituent areas 44 and 45 based on established differences in connectivity to superior temporal and inferior parietal regions. The current study builds on our previous work manually parcellating Broca's area on the individual-level by applying these anatomical criteria to functional connectivity data. Here we present an automated observer-independent and anatomy-informed parcellation pipeline with comparable precision to the manual labels at the individual-level. The method first extracts individualized connectivity templates of areas 44 and 45 by assigning to each surface vertex within the ventrolateral frontal cortex the partial correlation value of its functional connectivity to group-level templates of areas 44 and 45, accounting for other template connectivity patterns...
September 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686222/processing-time-reduction-an-application-in-living-human-high-resolution-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-data
#14
Nicolás F Lori, Augustin Ibañez, Rui Lavrador, Lucia Fonseca, Carlos Santos, Rui Travasso, Artur Pereira, Rosaldo Rossetti, Nuno Sousa, Victor Alves
High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) is a type of brain imaging that collects a very large amount of data, and if many subjects are considered then it amounts to a big data framework (e.g., the human connectome project has 20 Terabytes of data). HARDI is also becoming increasingly relevant for clinical settings (e.g., detecting early cerebral ischemic changes in acute stroke, and in pre-clinical assessment of white matter-WM anatomy using tractography). Thus, this method is becoming a routine assessment in clinical settings...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643791/a-dedicated-neonatal-brain-imaging-system
#15
Emer J Hughes, Tobias Winchman, Francesco Padormo, Rui Teixeira, Julia Wurie, Maryanne Sharma, Matthew Fox, Jana Hutter, Lucilio Cordero-Grande, Anthony N Price, Joanna Allsop, Jose Bueno-Conde, Nora Tusor, Tomoki Arichi, A D Edwards, Mary A Rutherford, Serena J Counsell, Joseph V Hajnal
PURPOSE: The goal of the Developing Human Connectome Project is to acquire MRI in 1000 neonates to create a dynamic map of human brain connectivity during early development. High-quality imaging in this cohort without sedation presents a number of technical and practical challenges. METHODS: We designed a neonatal brain imaging system (NBIS) consisting of a dedicated 32-channel receive array coil and a positioning device that allows placement of the infant's head deep into the coil for maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)...
September 19, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622394/connectivity-based-change-point-detection-for-large-size-functional-networks
#16
Seok-Oh Jeong, Chongwon Pae, Hae-Jeong Park
Recent understanding that the brain at rest does not remain in a single state but transiently visits multiple states emphasizes the importance of state changes embedded in the brain network. Due to the effectiveness of larger networks in characterizing brain states, there is an increasing need for a network-based change point detection method that is applicable to large-size networks, particularly those with longer time series. This paper presents a fast and efficient method for detecting change points in the large-size functional networks of resting-state fMRI...
December 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608442/temporal-dynamics-assessment-of-spatial-overlap-pattern-of-functional-brain-networks-reveals-novel-functional-architecture-of-cerebral-cortex
#17
Xi Jiang, Xiang Li, Jinglei Lv, Shijie Zhao, Shu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Tuo Zhang, Junwei Han, Lei Guo, Tianming Liu
OBJECTIVE: Various studies in the brain mapping field have demonstrated that there exist multiple concurrent functional networks that are spatially overlapped and interacting with each other during specific task performance to jointly realize the total brain function. Assessing such spatial overlap patterns of functional networks (SOPFNs) based on fMRI has thus received increasing interest for brain function studies. However, there are still two crucial issues to be addressed. First, the SOPFNs are assessed over the entire fMRI scan assuming the temporal stationarity, while possibly time-dependent dynamics of the SOPFNs is not sufficiently explored...
August 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600689/real-time-estimation-of-dynamic-functional-connectivity-networks
#18
Ricardo Pio Monti, Romy Lorenz, Rodrigo M Braga, Christoforos Anagnostopoulos, Robert Leech, Giovanni Montana
Two novel and exciting avenues of neuroscientific research involve the study of task-driven dynamic reconfigurations of functional connectivity networks and the study of functional connectivity in real-time. While the former is a well-established field within neuroscience and has received considerable attention in recent years, the latter remains in its infancy. To date, the vast majority of real-time fMRI studies have focused on a single brain region at a time. This is due in part to the many challenges faced when estimating dynamic functional connectivity networks in real-time...
September 7, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582702/the-hub-disruption-index-a-reliable-index-sensitive-to-the-brain-networks-reorganization-a-study-of-the-contralesional-hemisphere-in-stroke
#19
Maite Termenon, Sophie Achard, Assia Jaillard, Chantal Delon-Martin
Stroke, resulting in focal structural damage, induces changes in brain function at both local and global levels. Following stroke, cerebral networks present structural, and functional reorganization to compensate for the dysfunctioning provoked by the lesion itself and its remote effects. As some recent studies underlined the role of the contralesional hemisphere during recovery, we studied its role in the reorganization of brain function of stroke patients using resting state fMRI and graph theory. We explored this reorganization using the "hub disruption index" (κ), a global index sensitive to the reorganization of nodes within the graph...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571276/evaluation-of-denoising-strategies-to-address-motion-correlated-artifacts-in-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-data-from-the-human-connectome-project
#20
Gregory C Burgess, Sridhar Kandala, Dan Nolan, Timothy O Laumann, Jonathan D Power, Babatunde Adeyemo, Michael P Harms, Steven E Petersen, Deanna M Barch
Like all resting-state functional connectivity data, the data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) are adversely affected by structured noise artifacts arising from head motion and physiological processes. Functional connectivity estimates (Pearson's correlation coefficients) were inflated for high-motion time points and for high-motion participants. This inflation occurred across the brain, suggesting the presence of globally distributed artifacts. The degree of inflation was further increased for connections between nearby regions compared with distant regions, suggesting the presence of distance-dependent spatially specific artifacts...
November 2016: Brain Connectivity
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