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Hypoxia Imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149829/the-validation-path-of-hypoxia-pet-imaging-a-focus-on-brain-tumours
#1
Natale Quartuccio, Marie-Claude Asselin
Gliomas are brain tumours arising from the glia, the supportive tissue of the central nervous system (CNS) and constitute the commonest primary malignant brain tumours. Gliomas are graded from grade I to IV according to their appearance under microscope. One of the most significant adverse features of high-grade gliomas (grade III-IV) is hypoxia, a biological phenomenon that develops when the oxygen concentration becomes insufficient to guarantee the normal functions of a tissue. Since tissue hypoxia influences negatively patient outcome and targeting hypoxia has potential therapeutic implications, there is currently great interest in imaging techniques measuring hypoxia...
November 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148253/quantification-of-vascular-damage-in-acute-kidney-injury-with-fluorine-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy
#2
Jeremy K Moore, Junjie Chen, Hua Pan, Joseph P Gaut, Sanjay Jain, Samuel A Wickline
PURPOSE: To design a fluorine MRI/MR spectroscopy approach to quantify renal vascular damage after ischemia-reperfusion injury, and the therapeutic response to antithrombin nanoparticles (NPs) to protect kidney function. METHODS: A total of 53 rats underwent 45 min of bilateral renal artery occlusion and were treated at reperfusion with either plain perfluorocarbon NPs or NPs functionalized with a direct thrombin inhibitor (PPACK:phenyalanine-proline-arginine-chloromethylketone)...
November 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#3
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144820/pheochromocytoma-a-genetic-and-diagnostic-update
#4
Leilani B Mercado-Asis, Katherine I Wolf, Ivana Jochmanova, David Taïeb
OBJECTIVE: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors derived from adrenal or extra-adrenal locations, respectively. Upon suspicion of PPGL, specific metabolomic, molecular, biochemical, imaging, and histopathological studies are performed to prove, localize, treat, and monitor disease progression. Recently, improved diagnostic tools allow physicians to accurately diagnose PPGL, even in patients presenting with small (less than 1 cm) or biochemically silent tumors, which previously delayed proper detection and treatment...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142384/hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-in-case-of-chiari-1-5-malformation-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Viralkumar M Vasani, Subhas Kanti Konar, S Satish
Type 2 respiratory failure is defined as hypercapnia associated with hypoxia. Chiari 1.5 is known as herniation of the cerebellar tonsils along with brain stem and fourth ventricle. We report a 35-year-old male who presented with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (Type 2), without any preexisting neurological or respiratory abnormality. Analysis of blood gases in emergency revealed a pH of 7.12, pCO2 of 132 mmHg, and arterial oxygen tension of 118 mm Hg. He was intubated and ventilated. Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed herniation of the cerebellar tonsils along with brain stem and fourth ventricle...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141840/cerebral-oxygenation-measurements-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-fetuses-with-and-without-heart-defects
#6
Mette H Lauridsen, Niels Uldbjerg, Tine B Henriksen, Olav B Petersen, Brian Stausbøl-Grøn, Niels B Matthiesen, David A Peters, Steffen Ringgaard, Vibeke E Hjortdal
BACKGROUND: Children with major congenital heart defects are risking impaired cerebral growth, delayed cerebral maturation, and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to compare the cerebral tissue oxygenation of fetuses with major heart defects to that of fetuses without heart defects as estimated by the magnetic resonance imaging modality T2*. T2* is low in areas with high concentrations of deoxyhemoglobin. METHODS AND RESULTS: At gestational age mean 32 weeks (early) and mean 37 weeks (late), we compared the fetal cerebral T2* in 28 fetuses without heart defects to that of 15 fetuses with major heart defects: transposition of the great arteries (n=7), coarctation of the aorta/hypoplastic aortic arch (n=5), tetralogy of Fallot (n=1), hypoplastic right heart (n=1), and common arterial trunk (n=1)...
November 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141489/non-linear-conversion-of-hx4-uptake-for-automatic-segmentation-of-hypoxic-volumes-and-dose-prescription
#7
Ana Ureba, Emely Lindblom, Alexandru Dasu, Johan Uhrdin, Aniek J G Even, Wouter van Elmpt, Philippe Lambin, Peter Wersäll, Iuliana Toma-Dasu
BACKGROUND: Tumour hypoxia is associated with increased radioresistance and poor response to radiotherapy. Pre-treatment assessment of tumour oxygenation could therefore give the possibility to tailor the treatment by calculating the required boost dose needed to overcome the increased radioresistance in hypoxic tumours. This study concerned the derivation of a non-linear conversion function between the uptake of the hypoxia-PET tracer (18)F-HX4 and oxygen partial pressure (pO2). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Building on previous experience with FMISO including experimental data on tracer uptake and pO2, tracer-specific model parameters were derived for converting the normalised HX4-uptake at the optimal imaging time point to pO2...
November 16, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133095/carboxymethyl-dextran-based-hypoxia-responsive-nanoparticles-for-doxorubicin-delivery
#8
Soyoung Son, Vijayakameswara Rao, Hyewon Ko, Sol Shin, Jueun Jeon, Hwa Seung Han, Van Quy Nguyen, Thavasyappan Thambi, Yung Doug Suh, Jae Hyung Park
In an attempt to develop the hypoxia-responsive nanoparticles for cancer therapy, a polymer conjugate, consisting of carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) and black hole quencher 3 (BHQ3), was prepared. The polymer conjugate can self-assemble into nanoparticles (CMD-BHQ3 NPs) under aqueous conditions. The anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was loaded in CMD-BHQ3 NPs to prepare DOX@CMD-BHQ3 NPs. The CMD-BHQ3 NPs released DOX in a sustained manner under physiological conditions, whereas the release rate of DOX remarkably increased under hypoxic conditions throughout the cleavage of the azo bond in BHQ3...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132215/in-vivo-molecular-epr-based-spectroscopy-and-imaging-of-tumor-microenvironment-and-redox-using-functional-paramagnetic-probes
#9
Valery V Khramtsov
<i><b>Significance:</b></i> A key role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in cancer progression, treatment resistance and as a target for therapeutic intervention is increasingly appreciated. Among physiological components of the TME are tissue hypoxia, acidosis, high reducing capacity, elevated concentrations of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and interstitial inorganic phosphate (Pi). Noninvasive <i>in vivo</i> assessment of these parameters provide unique insights into biological processes in TME, and may serve as a tool for pre-clinical screening of anticancer drugs and optimizing TME-targeted therapeutic strategies...
November 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131921/hot-topics-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#10
Irena Tsui, Alison Chu
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a condition seen in premature infants that is characterized by abnormal retinal blood vessel growth incited by relative hyperoxia and followed by hypoxia. It can have severe consequences ranging from high myopia to blindness. This article reviews recent "hot" topics related to ROP, specifically the changing incidence of ROP worldwide, the advent of predictive algorithms for screening for ROP, the emerging data behind efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments for ROP, and advanced retinal imaging in children who were born premature...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131746/topical-oxygen-therapy-promotes-the-healing-of-chronic-diabetic-foot-ulcers-a-pilot-study
#11
P D Hayes, N Alzuhir, G Curran, I M Loftus
OBJECTIVE: Interventions that can heal or reduce diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) size may reduce the incidence of infection and amputation, and reduce associated social and economic costs. Many chronic wounds exhibit a degree of hypoxia and this leads to a reduction in healing processes including cell division and differentiation, angiogenesis, infection prevention, and collagen production. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effects of a device supplying continuous oxygen ambulatory therapy on healing in chronic DFUs...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130334/pulsed-epr-imaging-applications-in-the-studies-of-tumor-physiology
#12
Shun Kishimoto, Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto, Keita Saito, Ayano Enomoto, Shingo Matsumoto, James Mitchell, Nallathamby Devasahayam, Murali C Krishna
SIGNIFICANCE: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance imaging (EPRI) is a powerful technique capable of generating images of tissue oxygenation using exogenous paramagnetic probes such as trityl radicals or nitroxyl radicals. Using principles similar to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with field gradients, the spatial distribution of the paramagnetic probecan be generatedand,from its spectral features, spatial maps of oxygen can be obtained from live objects. In this review, two methods of signal acquisition, image formation/reconstruction will be described...
November 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129621/tdcpp-protects-cardiomyocytes-from-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-induced-apoptosis-through-mitigating-calcium-overload-and-promotion-gsk-3%C3%AE-phosphorylation
#13
Xiju He, Shoutian Li, Xiaoxia Fang, Yanhong Liao
TDCPP, Tris (1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate belongs to a group of chemicals known as triester organophosphate flame retardants, It can alter calcium homeostasis at much lower concentrations in normal conditions, but the mechanism is unclear till now. Calcium overload is a leading cause of apoptosis in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, thus how to mitigate Ca(2+)-overload is deserved to be investigated. We therefore hypothesized that TDCPP could attenuate cardiomyocytes apoptosis in I/R injury...
November 9, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125161/dimer-formation-of-gddo3a-arylsulfonamide-complexes-causes-loss-of-ph-dependency-of-relaxivity
#14
Anja Wacker, Fabio Carniato, Carlos Platas-Iglesias, David Esteban-Gomez, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Lorenzo Tei, Johannes Notni
Gadolinium(iii) complexes with pH-dependent relaxivities have been proposed as responsive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CA) for mapping of pH value in living subjects. The latter is clinically relevant because hypoxia-induced reduction of interstitial pH (acidosis) is a hallmark of tumor progression and resistance against chemotherapy. In order to obtain versatile building blocks for integration of a pH-responsive MRI-CA functionality into larger molecular assemblies, such as bioconjugates, micelles or nanoparticles, we equipped the structural motif GdDO3A-ethylene(arylsulfonic acid) with additional carboxylic acid moieties in the aromatic para-position...
November 10, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123567/neurological-effects-of-fat-embolism-syndrome-a-case-report
#15
Emma Shacklock, Andrew Gemmell, Nigel Hollister
Fat embolism syndrome is a serious multi-system pathology which classically affects the respiratory system, neurological system and causes a petechial rash. We present the case of a 20-year-old farmer who developed fat embolism syndrome following a traumatic femoral fracture. Features developed within 24 h of injury and necessitated a prolonged stay in Intensive Care. He exhibited significant signs of cerebral fat embolism syndrome including coma and seizures but went on to make full functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging is the recommended imaging modality for patients with suspected cerebral fat embolism...
November 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123197/a-microdevice-platform-recapitulating-hypoxic-tumor-microenvironments
#16
Yuta Ando, Hoang P Ta, Daniel P Yen, Sang-Sin Lee, Sneha Raola, Keyue Shen
Hypoxia plays a central role in cancer progression and resistance to therapy. We have engineered a microdevice platform to recapitulate the intratumor oxygen gradients that drive the heterogeneous hypoxic landscapes in solid tumors. Our design features a "tumor section"-like culture by incorporating a cell layer between two diffusion barriers, where an oxygen gradient is established by cellular metabolism and physical constraints. We confirmed the oxygen gradient by numerical simulation and imaging-based oxygen sensor measurement...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122550/supply-and-demand-how-does-variation-in-atmospheric-oxygen-during-development-affect-insect-tracheal-and-mitochondrial-networks
#17
John M VandenBrooks, Gregory Gstrein, Jason Harmon, Jessica Friedman, Matthew Olsen, Anna Ward, Gregory Parker
Atmospheric oxygen is one of the most important atmospheric component for all terrestrial organisms. Variation in atmospheric oxygen has wide ranging effects on animal physiology, development, and evolution. This variation in oxygen has the potential to affect both respiratory systems (the supply side) and mitochondrial networks (the demand side) in animals. Insect respiratory systems supplying oxygen to tissues in the gas phase through blind ended tracheal systems are particularly susceptible to this variation...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122363/clustering-of-multi-parametric-functional-imaging-to-identify-high-risk-subvolumes-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Aniek J G Even, Bart Reymen, Matthew D La Fontaine, Marco Das, Felix M Mottaghy, José S A Belderbos, Dirk De Ruysscher, Philippe Lambin, Wouter van Elmpt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to identify tumour subregions with characteristic phenotypes based on pre-treatment multi-parametric functional imaging and correlate these subregions to treatment outcome. The subregions were created using imaging of metabolic activity (FDG-PET/CT), hypoxia (HX4-PET/CT) and tumour vasculature (DCE-CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 36 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients underwent functional imaging prior to radical radiotherapy...
November 6, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121984/carbon-ion-radiotherapy-impact-of-tumor-differentiation-on-local-control-in-experimental-prostate-carcinomas
#19
Christin Glowa, Peter Peschke, Stephan Brons, Oliver C Neels, Klaus Kopka, Jürgen Debus, Christian P Karger
BACKGROUND: To summarize the research activities of the "clinical research group heavy ion therapy", funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG, KFO 214), on the impact of intrinsic tumor characteristics (grading, hypoxia) on local tumor control after carbon ((12)C-) ion- and photon irradiations. METHODS: Three sublines of syngeneic rat prostate tumors (R3327) with various differentiation levels (highly (-H), moderately (-HI) or anaplastic (-AT1), (diameter 10 mm) were irradiated with 1, 2 and 6 fractions of either (12)C-ions or 6 MV photons using increasing dose levels...
November 9, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119942/18f-faza-pet-ct-in-the-preoperative-evaluation-of-nsclc-comparison-with-18f-fdg-and-immunohistochemistry
#20
Paola Mapelli, Valentino Bettinardi, Federico Fallanca, Elena Incerti, Antonia Compierchio, Francesca Rossetti, Angela Coliva, Annarita Savi, Claudio Doglioni, Giampiero Negri, Luigi Gianolli, Maria Picchio
PURPOSE: To assess the capability of 18F-FAZA PET/CT in identifying intratumoral hypoxic areas in early and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to compare 18F-FAZA PET/CT with 18F-FDG PET/CT and histopathological biomarkers and to investigate whether the assessment of tumour to blood (T/B) and tumour to muscle (T/M) ratios provides comparable information regarding the hypoxic fractions of the tumour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with NSCLC were prospectively enrolled (3 men, 4 women; median age: 71 years; range 63-80)...
November 8, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
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