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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103294/community-based-entomological-surveillance-reveals-urban-foci-of-chagas-disease-vectors-in-sobral-state-of-cear%C3%A3-northeastern-brazil
#1
Cynara Carvalho Parente, Fernando S M Bezerra, Plutarco I Parente, Raimundo V Dias-Neto, Samanta C C Xavier, Alberto N Ramos, Filipe A Carvalho-Costa, Marli M Lima
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to explore the potential risk of vector-borne Chagas disease in urban districts in northeastern Brazil, by analyzing the spatiotemporal distributions and natural infection rates with Trypanosoma cruzi of triatomine species captured in recent years. The main motivation of this work was an acute human case of Chagas disease reported in 2008 in the municipality of Sobral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from community-based entomological surveillance carried out from 2010 to 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103209/west-nile-virus-and-other-nationally-notifiable-arboviral-diseases-united-states-2015
#2
Elisabeth Krow-Lucal, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. The leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States is West Nile virus (WNV) (1). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, St. Louis encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, also cause sporadic cases and outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2015 for nationally notifiable arboviruses...
January 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099817/applying-proteomics-to-tick-vaccine-development-where-are-we
#3
Margarita Villar, Anabel Marina, José de la Fuente
Ticks are second to mosquitoes as a vector of human diseases and are the first vector of animal diseases with a great impact on livestock farming. Tick vaccines represent a sustainable and effective alternative to chemical acaricides for the control of tick infestations and transmitted pathogens. The application of proteomics to tick vaccine development is a fairly recent area, which has resulted in the characterization of some tick-host-pathogen interactions and the identification of candidate protective antigens...
January 18, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096483/the-gut-microbiome-of-the-vector-lutzomyia-longipalpis-is-essential-for-survival-of-leishmania-infantum
#4
Patrick H Kelly, Sarah M Bahr, Tiago D Serafim, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Claudio Meneses, John R Kirby, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Mary E Wilson
: The vector-borne disease leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania species protozoa, is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies. Development of Leishmania to infective metacyclic promastigotes in the insect gut, a process termed metacyclogenesis, is an essential prerequisite for transmission. Based on the hypothesis that vector gut microbiota influence the development of virulent parasites, we sequenced midgut microbiomes in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis with or without Leishmania infantum infection...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096420/drivers-of-rift-valley-fever-epidemics-in-madagascar
#5
Renaud Lancelot, Marina Béral, Vincent Michel Rakotoharinome, Soa-Fy Andriamandimby, Jean-Michel Héraud, Caroline Coste, Andrea Apolloni, Cécile Squarzoni-Diaw, Stéphane de La Rocque, Pierre B H Formenty, Jérémy Bouyer, G R William Wint, Eric Cardinale
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral disease widespread in Africa. The primary cycle involves mosquitoes and wild and domestic ruminant hosts. Humans are usually contaminated after contact with infected ruminants. As many environmental, agricultural, epidemiological, and anthropogenic factors are implicated in RVF spread, the multidisciplinary One Health approach was needed to identify the drivers of RVF epidemics in Madagascar. We examined the environmental patterns associated with these epidemics, comparing human and ruminant serological data with environmental and cattle-trade data...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095503/detection-of-a-potential-new-bartonella-species-candidatus-bartonella-rondoniensis-in-human-biting-kissing-bugs-reduviidae-triatominae
#6
Maureen Laroche, Jean-Michel Berenger, Oleg Mediannikov, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095423/influences-of-host-community-characteristics-on-borrelia-burgdorferi-infection-prevalence-in-blacklegged-ticks
#7
Holly B Vuong, Grace S Chiu, Peter E Smouse, Dina M Fonseca, Dustin Brisson, Peter J Morin, Richard S Ostfeld
Lyme disease is a major vector-borne bacterial disease in the USA. The disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, and transmitted among hosts and humans, primarily by blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The ~25 B. burgdorferi genotypes, based on genotypic variation of their outer surface protein C (ospC), can be phenotypically separated as strains that primarily cause human diseases-human invasive strains (HIS)-or those that rarely do. Additionally, the genotypes are non-randomly associated with host species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095418/novel-vector-control-approaches-the-future-for-prevention-of-zika-virus-transmission
#8
Lorenz von Seidlein, Alexander S Kekulé, Daniel Strickman
In a Perspective accompanying Abad-Franch and colleagues, Lorenz von Seidlein, Alexander Kekulé, and Daniel Strickman discuss the importance of developing effective strategies to minimize mosquito-borne transmission of human diseases.
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095414/mosquito-disseminated-insecticide-for-citywide-vector-control-and-its-potential-to-block-arbovirus-epidemics-entomological-observations-and-modeling-results-from-amazonian-brazil
#9
Fernando Abad-Franch, Elvira Zamora-Perea, Sérgio L B Luz
BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne viruses threaten public health worldwide. When the ratio of competent vectors to susceptible humans is low enough, the virus's basic reproductive number (R0) falls below 1.0 (each case generating, on average, <1.0 additional case) and the infection fades out from the population. Conventional mosquito control tactics, however, seldom yield R0 < 1.0. A promising alternative uses mosquitoes to disseminate a potent growth-regulator larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), to aquatic larval habitats; this kills most mosquito juveniles and substantially reduces adult mosquito emergence...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095405/defining-the-risk-of-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-transmission-in-human-population-centers-of-the-eastern-united-states
#10
Carrie A Manore, Richard S Ostfeld, Folashade B Agusto, Holly Gaff, Shannon L LaDeau
The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091855/combining-dispersion-modelling-with-synoptic-patterns-to-understand-the-wind-borne-transport-into-the-uk-of-the-bluetongue-disease-vector
#11
Laura Burgin, Marie Ekström, Suraje Dessai
Bluetongue, an economically important animal disease, can be spread over long distances by carriage of insect vectors (Culicoides biting midges) on the wind. The weather conditions which influence the midge's flight are controlled by synoptic scale atmospheric circulations. A method is proposed that links wind-borne dispersion of the insects to synoptic circulation through the use of a dispersion model in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. We illustrate how to identify the main synoptic situations present during times of midge incursions into the UK from the European continent...
January 14, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089780/co-feeding-transmission-facilitates-strain-coexistence-in-borrelia-burgdorferi-the-lyme-disease-agent
#12
S L States, C I Huang, S Davis, D M Tufts, M A Diuk-Wasser
Coexistence of multiple tick-borne pathogens or strains is common in natural hosts and can be facilitated by resource partitioning of the host species, within-host localization, or by different transmission pathways. Most vector-borne pathogens are transmitted horizontally via systemic host infection, but transmission may occur in the absence of systemic infection between two vectors feeding in close proximity, enabling pathogens to minimize competition and escape the host immune response. In a laboratory study, we demonstrated that co-feeding transmission can occur for a rapidly-cleared strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, between two stages of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis while feeding on their dominant host, Peromyscus leucopus...
December 26, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089651/canine-tick-borne-pathogens-in-cyprus-and-a-unique-canine-case-of-multiple-co-infections
#13
Charalampos Attipa, Chelsea A E Hicks, Emily N Barker, Vasiliki Christodoulou, Kyriaki Neofytou, Mathios E Mylonakis, Victoria I Siarkou, Elpida I Vingopoulou, Francesca Soutter, Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Anna Psaroulaki, Kostas Papasouliotis, Séverine Tasker
Canine tick-borne pathogens such as Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis are widespread in the Mediterranean basin but have never been reported or investigated in Cyprus. We describe herein the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens in three dogs with clinical signs compatible with vector-borne diseases from Paphos area of Cyprus. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, H. canis, Babesia vogeli and Mycoplasma haemocanis in Cyprus. One dog co-infected with E...
December 26, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089123/ticks-and-borrelia-in-urban-and-peri-urban-green-space-habitats-in-a-city-in-southern-england
#14
Kayleigh M Hansford, Manoj Fonville, Emma L Gillingham, Elena Claudia Coipan, Maaike E Pietzsch, Aleksandra I Krawczyk, Alexander G C Vaux, Benjamin Cull, Hein Sprong, Jolyon M Medlock
Ticks are becoming increasingly recognised as important vectors of pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas, including green space used for recreational activities. In the UK, the risk posed by ticks in such areas is largely unknown. In order to begin to assess the risk of ticks in urban/peri-urban areas in southern England, questing ticks were collected from five different habitat types (grassland, hedge, park, woodland and woodland edge) in a city during the spring, summer and autumn of 2013/2014 and screened for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato...
December 21, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088225/using-low-cost-drones-to-map-malaria-vector-habitats
#15
Andy Hardy, Makame Makame, Dónall Cross, Silas Majambere, Mwinyi Msellem
BACKGROUND: There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (< $1000) drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations...
January 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078341/the-role-of-uv-radiation-and-vitamin-d-in-the-seasonality-and-outcomes-of-infectious-disease
#16
Abhimanyu, Anna K Coussens
The seasonality of infectious disease outbreaks suggests that environmental conditions have a significant effect on disease risk. One of the major environmental factors that can affect this is solar radiation, primarily acting through ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and its subsequent control of vitamin D production. Here we show how UVR and vitamin D, which are modified by latitude and season, can affect host and pathogen fitness and relate them to the outcomes of bacterial, viral and vector-borne infections...
January 12, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077180/understanding-transmissibility-patterns-of-chagas-disease-through-complex-vector-host-networks
#17
Laura Rengifo-Correa, Christopher R Stephens, Juan J Morrone, Juan Luis Téllez-Rendón, Constantino González-Salazar
Chagas disease is one of the most important vector-borne zoonotic diseases in Latin America. Control strategies could be improved if transmissibility patterns of its aetiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, were better understood. To understand transmissibility patterns of Chagas disease in Mexico, we inferred potential vectors and hosts of T. cruzi from geographic distributions of nine species of Triatominae and 396 wild mammal species, respectively. The most probable vectors and hosts of T. cruzi were represented in a Complex Inference Network, from which we formulated a predictive model and several associated hypotheses about the ecological epidemiology of Chagas disease...
January 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074128/epidemic-outbreak-of-chikungunya-in-two-neighboring-towns-in-the-colombian-caribbean-a-survival-analysis
#18
Misael Oviedo-Pastrana, Nelson Méndez, Salim Mattar, Germán Arrieta, Luty Gomezcaceres
BACKGROUND: The first autochthonous Chikungunya virus transmission in Colombia was reported in September 2014. Three months later, every town in the Caribbean region was affected, including the bordering towns of Ovejas and Corozal, in the department of Sucre. The objective of the study was to analyze and compare the temporal dynamics of the outbreak of Chikungunya in two towns of the department of Sucre. METHODS: Households with suspicious cases with clinical symptomatology for Chikungunya were enrolled...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073392/does-the-dilution-effect-generally-occur-in-animal-diseases
#19
Zheng Y X Huang, Yang Yu, Frank VAN Langevelde, Willem F DE Boer
The dilution effect (DE) has been reported in many diseases, but its generality is still highly disputed. Most current criticisms of DE are related to animal diseases. Particularly, some critical studies argued that DE is less likely to occur in complex environments. Here our meta-analyses demonstrated that the magnitude of DE did not differ between animal vs plant diseases. Moreover, DE generally occurs in all three subgroups of animal diseases, namely direct-transmitted diseases, vector-borne diseases and diseases caused by parasites with free-living stages...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072517/arthropod-innate-immune-systems-and-vector-borne-diseases
#20
Richard H G Baxter, Alicia Contet, Kathryn Krueger
Arthropods, especially ticks and mosquitoes, are the vectors for a number of parasitic and viral human diseases including malaria, sleeping sickness, Dengue and Zika. Yet arthropods show tremendous individual variation in their capacity to transmit disease. A key factor in this capacity is genetically encoded immune factors that counteract infection by the pathogen. Arthropod-specific pattern recognition receptors and protease cascades detect and respond to infection. Proteins such as antimicrobial peptides, thioester-containing proteins, and transglutaminases effect responses such as lysis, phagocytosis, melanization and agglutination...
January 10, 2017: Biochemistry
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