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Vector borne diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219407/development-of-dirofilaria-immitis-and-dirofilaria-repens-in-aedes-japonicus-and-aedes-geniculatus
#1
Cornelia Silaghi, Relja Beck, Gioia Capelli, Fabrizio Montarsi, Alexander Mathis
BACKGROUND: The mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens primarily affect dogs but also cats, causing heartworm disease or subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, and both may also cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Several mosquito species have been reported as competent vectors for these nematodes, but no data are available for the invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The objective of this study was to describe the development of both D...
February 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213810/how-to-tackle-natural-focal-infections-from-risk-assessment-to-vaccination-strategies
#2
Luca Busani, Alexander E Platonov, Onder Ergonul, Giovanni Rezza
Natural focal diseases are caused by biological agents associated with specific landscapes. The natural focus of such diseases is defined as any natural ecosystem containing the pathogen's population as an essential component. In such context, the agent circulates independently on human presence, and humans may become accidentally infected through contact with vectors or reservoirs. Some viruses (i.e., tick-borne encephalitis and Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus) are paradigmatic examples of natural focal diseases...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212848/major-vectors-and-vector-borne-diseases-in-small-ruminants-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Kassahun Asmare, Takele Abayneh, Berhanu Sibhat, Dessie Shiferaw, Barbara Szonyi, Randi I Krontveit, Eystein Skjerve, Barbara Wieland
Vector-borne diseases are among major health constraints of small ruminant in Ethiopia. While various studies on single vector-borne diseases or presence of vectors have been conducted, no summarized evidence is available on the occurrence of these diseases and the related vectors. This systematic literature review provides a comprehensive summary on major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Search for published and unpublished literature was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212379/distribution-and-abundance-of-key-vectors-of-rift-valley-fever-and-other-arboviruses-in-two-ecologically-distinct-counties-in-kenya
#4
Rosemary Sang, Samwel Arum, Edith Chepkorir, Gladys Mosomtai, Caroline Tigoi, Faith Sigei, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Tobias Landmann, Hippolyte Affognon, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208639/biological-control-strategies-for-mosquito-vectors-of-arboviruses
#5
REVIEW
Yan-Jang S Huang, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
Historically, biological control utilizes predatory species and pathogenic microorganisms to reduce the population of mosquitoes as disease vectors. This is particularly important for the control of mosquito-borne arboviruses, which normally do not have specific antiviral therapies available. Although development of resistance is likely, the advantages of biological control are that the resources used are typically biodegradable and ecologically friendly. Over the past decade, the advancement of molecular biology has enabled optimization by the manipulation of genetic materials associated with biological control agents...
February 10, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206867/mosquito-biology-and-mosquito-borne-disease-awareness-among-island-communities-in-malaysia
#6
Aziz Shafie, Muhammad Aidil Roslan, Romano Ngui, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Wan Yusoff Wan Sulaiman
Mosquito-borne diseases have been increasing at an alarming rate over the past decades. In Malaysia, one finds several important mosquito-borne diseases such as Japanese encephalitis, dengue, malaria, and chikungunya. Mosquito surveillance and control programs are the most effective way of detecting and controlling mosquito-borne diseases, but these programs are less effective without an aware and well-informed general public. In 2014 we used a questionnaire to evaluate the extent of awareness of basic mosquito biology and mosquito-borne diseases in 6 villages, Kampung Masjid, Kampung Teluk Gedung, Kampung Teluk Dalam, Kampung Ujung Kelawai, Kampung Sungai Pinang Besar, and Kampung Sungai Pinang Kechil on Pangkor Island, Malaysia...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202075/tick-borne-pathogens-induce-differential-expression-of-genes-promoting-cell-survival-and-host-resistance-in-ixodes-ricinus-cells
#7
Karen L Mansfield, Charlotte Cook, Richard J Ellis, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Nicholas Johnson, Pilar Alberdi, José de la Fuente, Anthony R Fooks
BACKGROUND: There has been an emergence and expansion of tick-borne diseases in Europe, Asia and North America in recent years, including Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis and human anaplasmosis. The primary vectors implicated are hard ticks of the genus Ixodes. Although much is known about the host response to these bacterial and viral pathogens, there is limited knowledge of the cellular responses to infection within the tick vector. The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum is able to bypass apoptotic processes in ticks, enabling infection to proceed...
February 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198544/dengue-virus-and-malaria-concurrent-infection-among-febrile-subjects-within-ilorin-metropolis-nigeria
#8
Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Adebimpe Adetola Seriki, Ahmad Adebayo Irekeola, Kizito Eneye Bello, Oluwapelumi Olufemi Adeyemi
Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease of public health importance. It is caused by four serotypes of Dengue virus (i.e. DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4). As a result of practices that are conducive for mosquito breading, its vector is widespread in Nigeria and this could result to possible DENV outbreaks in Nigeria and beyond. This study aimed to assess the recency of DENV infection as well as occurrence of DENV and Malaria co-infections within Ilorin, Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained from 176 febrile subjects and analyzed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the presence of DENV antibodies...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196962/spatial-and-temporal-analysis-of-alphavirus-replication-and-assembly-in-mammalian-and-mosquito-cells
#9
Joyce Jose, Aaron B Taylor, Richard J Kuhn
Sindbis virus (SINV [genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae]) is an enveloped, mosquito-borne virus. Alphaviruses cause cytolytic infections in mammalian cells while establishing noncytopathic, persistent infections in mosquito cells. Mosquito vector adaptation of alphaviruses is a major factor in the transmission of epidemic strains of alphaviruses. Though extensive studies have been performed on infected mammalian cells, the morphological and structural elements of alphavirus replication and assembly remain poorly understood in mosquito cells...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194661/guillain-barre-syndrome-complicating-chikungunya-virus-infection
#10
Ayush Agarwal, Deepti Vibha, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Garima Shukla, Kameshwar Prasad
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus which presents with symptoms of fever, rash, arthralgia, and occasional neurologic disease. While outbreaks have been earlier reported from India and other parts of the world, the recent outbreak in India witnessed more than 1000 cases. Various systemic and rarely neurological complications have been reported with CHIKV. We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with CHIKV. GBS is a rare neurological complication which may occur after subsidence of fever and constitutional symptoms by several neurotropic viruses...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192064/aedes-borne-virus-mosquito-interactions-mass-spectrometry-strategies-and-findings
#11
Victoria Pando-Robles, Cesar V Batista
Aedes-borne viruses are responsible for high-impact neglected tropical diseases and unpredictable outbreaks such as the ongoing Zika epidemics. Aedes mosquitoes spread different arboviruses such as Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Zika virus, among others, and are responsible for the continuous emergence and reemergence of these pathogens. These viruses have complex transmission cycles that include two hosts, namely the Aedes mosquito as a vector and susceptible vertebrate hosts. Human infection with arboviruses causes diseases that range from subclinical or mild to febrile diseases, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever...
February 13, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189117/blocking-transmission-of-vector-borne-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Sandra Schorderet-Weber, Sandra Noack, Paul M Selzer, Ronald Kaminsky
Vector-borne diseases are responsible for significant health problems in humans, as well as in companion and farm animals. Killing the vectors with ectoparasitic drugs before they have the opportunity to pass on their pathogens could be the ideal way to prevent vector borne diseases. Blocking of transmission might work when transmission is delayed during blood meal, as often happens in ticks. The recently described systemic isoxazolines have been shown to successfully prevent disease transmission under conditions of delayed pathogen transfer...
January 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185870/prevention-and-control-of-dengue-the-light-at-the-end-of-the-tunnel
#13
REVIEW
Tikki Pang, Tippi K Mak, Duane J Gubler
Advances in the development of new dengue control tools, including vaccines and vector control, herald a new era of desperately needed dengue prevention and control. The burden of dengue has expanded for decades, and now affects more than 120 countries. Complex, large-scale global forces have and will continue to contribute to the expansion of dengue, including population growth, unplanned urbanisation, and suboptimal mosquito control in urban centres. Although no so-called magic bullets are available, there is new optimism following the first licensure of a dengue vaccine and other promising vaccine candidates, and the development of novel vector control interventions to help control dengue and other expanding mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus...
February 6, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185868/dengue-knowledge-gaps-unmet-needs-and-research-priorities
#14
REVIEW
Leah C Katzelnick, Josefina Coloma, Eva Harris
Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen that causes up to about 100 million cases of disease each year, placing a major public health, social, and economic burden on numerous low-income and middle-income countries. Major advances by investigators, vaccine developers, and affected communities are revealing new insights and enabling novel interventions and approaches to dengue prevention and control. Such research has highlighted further questions about both the basic understanding of dengue and efforts to develop new tools...
February 6, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179512/drought-and-immunity-determine-the-intensity-of-west-nile-virus-epidemics-and-climate-change-impacts
#15
Sara H Paull, Daniel E Horton, Moetasim Ashfaq, Deeksha Rastogi, Laura D Kramer, Noah S Diffenbaugh, A Marm Kilpatrick
The effect of global climate change on infectious disease remains hotly debated because multiple extrinsic and intrinsic drivers interact to influence transmission dynamics in nonlinear ways. The dominant drivers of widespread pathogens, like West Nile virus, can be challenging to identify due to regional variability in vector and host ecology, with past studies producing disparate findings. Here, we used analyses at national and state scales to examine a suite of climatic and intrinsic drivers of continental-scale West Nile virus epidemics, including an empirically derived mechanistic relationship between temperature and transmission potential that accounts for spatial variability in vectors...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179027/genome-scaffolding-and-annotation-for-the-pathogen-vector-ixodes-ricinus-by-ultra-long-single-molecule-sequencing
#16
Wibke J Cramaro, Oliver E Hunewald, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Claude P Muller
BACKGROUND: Global warming and other ecological changes have facilitated the expansion of Ixodes ricinus tick populations. Ixodes ricinus is the most important carrier of vector-borne pathogens in Europe, transmitting viruses, protozoa and bacteria, in particular Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in humans in the Northern hemisphere. To faster control this disease vector, a better understanding of the I...
February 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177042/microbial-control-of-arthropod-borne-disease
#17
Miguel A Saldaña, Shivanand Hegde, Grant L Hughes
Arthropods harbor a diverse array of microbes that profoundly influence many aspects of host biology, including vector competence. Additionally, symbionts can be engineered to produce molecules that inhibit pathogens. Due to their intimate association with the host, microbes have developed strategies that facilitate their transmission, either horizontally or vertically, to conspecifics. These attributes make microbes attractive agents for applied strategies to control arthropod-borne disease. Here we discuss the recent advances in microbial control approaches to reduce the burden of pathogens such as Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, and Trypanosome and Plasmodium parasites...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169066/standardization-and-validation-of-simple-pcr-duplex-pcr-and-rapd-in-comparison-to-blood-smear-examination-for-diagnosing-bovine-tropical-theileriosis
#18
Vikrant Sudan, Daya Shanker, Amit Jaiswal, Amit Singh, Vijay Pandey
Bovine Tropical Theileriosis (BTT) is an important vector-borne protozoan disease that imposing serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle. It is matter of common fact that following recovery from primary infection, cattle become persistent carriers and act as reservoirs of infection thereby, playing a critical role in disease epidemiology. The present study describes the comparative diagnostic efficiency of simplex PCR, duplex PCR and RAPD assays for detection of Theileria annulata in cattle...
February 3, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167589/trypanosoma-cruzi-agent-of-chagas-disease-in-sympatric-human-and-dog-populations-in-colonias-of-the-lower-rio-grande-valley-of-texas
#19
Rachel Curtis-Robles, Italo B Zecca, Valery Roman-Cruz, Ester S Carbajal, Lisa D Auckland, Isidore Flores, Ann V Millard, Sarah A Hamer
The zoonotic, vector-borne parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease throughout the Americas, but human and veterinary health burdens in the United States are unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional prevalence study in indigent, medically underserved human and cohabiting canine populations of seven south Texas border communities, known as colonias. Defining positivity as those samples that were positive on two or more independent tests, we found 1.3% seroprevalence in 233 humans, including one child born in the United States with only short-duration travel to Mexico...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166814/closely-related-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-stricto-strains-exhibit-similar-fitness-in-single-infections-and-asymmetric-competition-in-multiple-infections
#20
Evelyn C Rynkiewicz, Julia Brown, Danielle M Tufts, Ching-I Huang, Helge Kampen, Stephen J Bent, Durland Fish, Maria A Diuk-Wasser
BACKGROUND: Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America...
February 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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