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Vector borne diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351273/understanding-the-legal-trade-of-cattle-and-camels-and-the-derived-risk-of-rift-valley-fever-introduction-into-and-transmission-within-egypt
#1
Sebastian Napp, Veronique Chevalier, Núria Busquets, Paolo Calistri, Jordi Casal, Mohamed Attia, Rehab Elbassal, Heba Hosni, Hatem Farrag, Noura Hassan, Rasha Tawfik, Sohair Abd Elkader, Shahin Bayomy
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis, which may cause significant losses for the livestock sector and have serious public health implications. Egypt has been repeatedly affected by RVF epidemics, mainly associated to the importation of animals from sub-Saharan countries, where the disease is endemic. The objective of our study was the improvement of the surveillance and control strategies implemented in Egypt. In order to do that, first we evaluated the legal trade of live animals into and within Egypt...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346369/the-rise-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-the-new-texas
#2
REVIEW
Peter J Hotez
Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346287/development-of-zika-virus-vaccines
#3
REVIEW
Huda Makhluf, Sujan Shresta
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged as a global threat following the most recent outbreak in Brazil in 2015. ZIKV infection of pregnant women is associated with fetal abnormalities such as microcephaly, and infection of adults can lead to Guillain-Barré syndrome, an autoimmune disease characterized by neurological deficits. Although there are currently licensed vaccines for other flaviviruses, there remains an urgent need for preventative vaccines against ZIKV infection. Herein we describe the current efforts to accelerate the development of ZIKV vaccines using various platforms, including live attenuated virus, inactivated virus, DNA and RNA, viral vectors, and in silico-predicted immunogenic viral epitopes...
January 18, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343494/uncovering-genomic-regions-associated-with-trypanosoma-infections-in-wild-populations-of-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-fuscipes
#4
Andrea Gloria-Soria, W Augustine Dunn, Xiaoqing Yu, Aurélien Vigneron, Kuang-Yao Lee, Mo Li, Brian L Weiss, Hongyu Zhao, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Vector-borne diseases are responsible for more than one million deaths every year but genomic resources for most species responsible for their transmission are limited. This is true for neglected diseases such as sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis), a disease caused by Trypanosoma parasites vectored by several species of tseste flies within the genus Glossina We describe an integrative approach that identifies statistical associations between trypanosome infection status of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) flies from Uganda, for which functional studies are complicated because the species cannot be easily maintained in laboratory colonies, and ~73,000 polymorphic sites distributed across the genome...
January 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343279/spatial-distribution-and-habitat-characterization-of-mosquito-species-during-the-dry-season-along-the-mara-river-and-its-tributaries-in-kenya-and-tanzania
#5
Gabriel O Dida, Douglas N Anyona, Paul O Abuom, Daniel Akoko, Samson O Adoka, Ally-Said Matano, Philip O Owuor, Collins Ouma
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases are increasingly becoming a major health problem among communities living along the major rivers of Africa. Although larger water bodies such as lakes and dams have been extensively researched, rivers and their tributaries have largely been ignored. This study sought to establish the spatial distribution of mosquito species during the dry season and further characterize their habitats along the Mara River and its tributaries. METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, mosquito larvae were sampled along the Mara River, its two perennial tributaries (Amala and Nyangores), drying streams, and adjacent aquatic habitats (e...
January 18, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339746/zika-virus-in-salivary-glands-of-five-different-species-of-wild-caught-mosquitoes-from-mexico
#6
Darwin Elizondo-Quiroga, Aarón Medina-Sánchez, Jorge M Sánchez-González, Kristen Allison Eckert, Erendira Villalobos-Sánchez, Antonio Rigoberto Navarro-Zúñiga, Gustavo Sánchez-Tejeda, Fabián Correa-Morales, Cassandra González-Acosta, Carlos F Arias, Susana López, Rosa María Del Ángel, Victoria Pando-Robles, Armando E Elizondo-Quiroga
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen, and Aedes aegypti has been identified as the main vector of the disease. Other mosquito species in the Aedes and Culex genera have been suggested to have the potential for being competent vectors based on experimental exposition of mosquitoes to an infectious blood meal containing ZIKV. Here, we report the isolation in cell culture of ZIKV obtained from different body parts of wild-caught female mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti, Ae. vexans, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. coronator, and Cx...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339054/the-dynamics-of-vector-borne-relapsing-diseases
#7
Cody Palmer, Erin Landguth, Emily Stone, Tammi Johnson
In this paper, we describe the dynamics of a vector-borne relapsing disease, such as tick-borne relapsing fever, using the methods of compartmental models. After some motivation and model description we provide a proof of a conjectured general form of the reproductive ratio R0, which is the average number of new infections produced by a single infected individual. A disease free equilibrium undergoes a bifurcation at R0=1 and we show that for an arbitrary number of relapses it is a transcritical bifurcation with a single branch of endemic equilibria that is locally asymptotically stable for R0 sufficiently close to 1...
January 12, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337661/maintaining-quality-of-candidate-strains-of-transgenic-mosquitoes-for-studies-in-containment-facilities-in-disease-endemic-countries
#8
John D Mumford, Adrian W Leach, Mark Q Benedict, Luca Facchinelli, M Megan Quinlan
Transgenic mosquitoes are being developed as novel components of area-wide approaches to vector-borne disease control. Best practice is to develop these in phases, beginning with laboratory studies, before moving to field testing and inclusion in control programs, to ensure safety and prevent costly field testing of unsuitable strains. The process of identifying and developing good candidate strains requires maintenance of transgenic colonies over many generations in containment facilities. By working in disease endemic countries with target vector populations, laboratory strains may be developed and selected for properties that will enhance intended control efficacy in the next phase, while avoiding traits that introduce unnecessary risks...
January 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336985/the-blacklegged-tick-ixodes-scapularis-an-increasing-public-health-concern
#9
REVIEW
Rebecca J Eisen, Lars Eisen
In the United States, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of seven human pathogens, including those causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, Powassan virus disease, and ehrlichiosis associated with Ehrlichia muris eauclarensis. In addition to an accelerated rate of discovery of I. scapularis-borne pathogens over the past two decades, the geographic range of the tick, and incidence and range of I. scapularis-borne disease cases, have increased. Despite knowledge of when and where humans are most at risk of exposure to infected ticks, control of I...
January 11, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336049/a-distinct-group-of-north-european-aedes-vexans-as-determined-by-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-markers
#10
T Lilja, K Troell, H Kirik, A Lindström
The floodwater mosquito Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera: Culicidae) is common in several areas of Sweden and is predicted to become more abundant in the wake of expected changes in precipitation and temperature caused by climate change. As well as being a nuisance, Ae. vexans can act as a vector of over 30 viruses. In the event of an outbreak of disease caused by a vector-borne virus, knowledge of the distribution, population structure and intermixing of populations from different locations will help direct resources to target locations to prevent spread of the pathogen...
January 16, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334340/identification-of-anti-filarial-leads-against-aspartate-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-of-wolbachia-endosymbiont-of-brugia-malayi-combined-molecular-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-approaches
#11
Dhamodharan Prabhu, Sundaraj Rajamanikandan, Mathimaran Amala, Surekha Kanagarajan, Jeyaraman Jeyakanthan
Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating vector borne parasitic disease that infects human lymphatic system by nematode Brugia malayi. Currently available anti-filarial drugs are effective only on the larval stages of parasite. So far, no effective drugs are available for humans to treat filarial infections. In this regard, aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASDase) in lysine biosynthetic pathway from Wolbachia endosymbiont Brugia malayi represents an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel anti-filarial agents...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332596/synthesis-and-characterization-of-thiocarbohydrazones-and-their-inhibitory-potential-against-ignored-disease-leishmaniasis
#12
Nida Ghouri, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Arshia, M Iqbal Choudhary, Shahnaz Perveen
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic vector-borne disease which is endemic in 88 tropical countries. Infected sand fly is the main cause of this disease while, there are several vectors, parasites, and reservoirs involved in the transmission of this disease. Leishmania donovani, L. infantum, and L. chagasi are. common disease causing species, spread through sandflies. It is considered to be a focal disease having scattered foci. Leishmaniasis is a disease with a broad clinical spectrum...
January 14, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329629/estimates-of-repeatability-and-correlations-of-hemoparasites-infection-levels-for-cattle-reared-in-endemic-areas-for-rhipicephalus-microplus
#13
Rodrigo Giglioti, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Talita Barban Bilhassi, Amanda Izeli Portilho, Cintia Hiromi Okino, Cintia Righetti Marcondes, Marcia Cristina de Sena Oliveira
Rhipicephalus microplus is a vector of cattle tick fever, a disease caused by the protozoans Babesia bovisand B. bigemina, and also anaplasmosis, produced by the Rickettsiales Anaplasma marginale. These tick-borne pathogens cause considerable losses to Brazilian livestock breeders and represent an obstacle to the expanded use of taurine breeds due to their higher sensitivity to ticks and hemoparasites compared to zebu breeds. Differences in the susceptibility to hemoparasites were also verified within breeds, suggesting that may be possible to select a most resistant phenotype...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329394/analysis-of-the%C3%A2-aedes-albopictus%C3%A2-c6-36-genome-provides-insight-into-cell-line-utility-for-viral-propagation
#14
Jason R Miller, Sergey Koren, Kari A Dilley, Vinita Puri, David M Brown, Derek M Harkins, Françoise Thibaud-Nissen, Benjamin Rosen, Xiao-Guang Chen, Zhijian Tu, Igor V Sharakhov, Maria V Sharakhova, Robert Sebra, Timothy B Stockwell, Nicholas H Bergman, Granger G Sutton, Adam M Phillippy, Peter M Piermarini, Reed S Shabman
Background: The 50-year old Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line is a resource for the detection, amplification, and analysis of mosquito-borne viruses including Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. The cell line is derived from an unknown number of larvae from an unspecified strain of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Toward improved utility of the cell line for research in virus transmission, we present an annotated assembly of the C6/36 genome. Results: The C6/36 genome assembly has the largest contig N50 (3...
January 10, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324760/bionomics-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-in-villages-in-bihar-india-with-insights-into-efficacy-of-irs-based-control-measures
#15
David M Poché, Rajesh B Garlapati, Shanta Mukherjee, Zaria Torres-Poché, Epco Hasker, Tahfizur Rahman, Aakanksha Bharti, Vishnu P Tripathi, Suman Prakash, Rahul Chaubey, Richard M Poché
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324042/mosquito-immunobiology-the-intersection-of-vector-health-and-vector-competence
#16
Lyric C Bartholomay, Kristin Michel
As holometabolous insects that occupy distinct aquatic and terrestrial environments in larval and adult stages and utilize hematophagy for nutrient acquisition, mosquitoes are subjected to a wide variety of symbiotic interactions. Indeed, mosquitoes play host to endosymbiotic, entomopathogenic, and mosquito-borne organisms, including protozoa, viruses, bacteria, fungi, fungal-like organisms, and metazoans, all of which trigger and shape innate infection-response capacity. Depending on the infection or interaction, the mosquito may employ, for example, cellular and humoral immune effectors for septic infections in the hemocoel, humoral infection responses in the midgut lumen, and RNA interference and programmed cell death for intracellular pathogens...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320544/diversity-patterns-leishmania-dna-detection-and-bloodmeal-identification-of-phlebotominae-sand-flies-in-villages-in-northern-colombia
#17
Camila González, Cielo León, Andrea Paz, Marla López, Gisell Molina, Diana Toro, Mario Ortiz, Juan Manuel Cordovez, María Claudia Atencia, Germán Aguilera, Catalina Tovar
Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases exhibiting complex transmission cycles due to the number of parasite species circulating, sand fly species acting as vectors and infected mammals, including humans, which are defined in the New World as accidental hosts. However, current transmission scenarios are changing, and the disease is no longer exclusively related to forested areas but urban transmission foci occur, involving some species of domestic animals as suspected reservoirs. The aim of this study was to determine the transmission cycles in urban environments by evaluating sand fly diversity, detection of Leishmania DNA, and bloodmeal sources through intra and peridomestic collections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317885/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-theileria-equi-infection-in-equines-from-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-province-pakistan
#18
Muhammad Jamal Khan Afridi, Abdul Hafeez Mian, Muhammad Saqib, Ghazanfar Abbas, Javid Ali, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor, Awais Ur Rahman Sial, Imaad Rasheed, Muhammad Hammad Hussain
Background: Theileria equi is a tick borne protozoan parasite which causes piroplasmosis among equines worldwide. The present study was aimed to determine seroprevalence of T. equi in donkeys, horses, and mules from two equine populated districts (Peshawar and Charsadda) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. Methods: A total of 393 equine (195 horses, 194 donkeys and 4 mules) serum samples were collected from five and four randomly selected localities in Charsadda (n = 193) and Peshawar (n = 200), respectively...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317702/surveillance-of-vector-borne-pathogens-under-imperfect-detection-lessons-from-chagas-disease-risk-mis-measurement
#19
Thaís Tâmara Castro Minuzzi-Souza, Nadjar Nitz, César Augusto Cuba Cuba, Luciana Hagström, Mariana Machado Hecht, Camila Santana, Marcelle Ribeiro, Tamires Emanuele Vital, Marcelo Santalucia, Monique Knox, Marcos Takashi Obara, Fernando Abad-Franch, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
Vector-borne pathogens threaten human health worldwide. Despite their critical role in disease prevention, routine surveillance systems often rely on low-complexity pathogen detection tests of uncertain accuracy. In Chagas disease surveillance, optical microscopy (OM) is routinely used for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi in its vectors. Here, we use replicate T. cruzi detection data and hierarchical site-occupancy models to assess the reliability of OM-based T. cruzi surveillance while explicitly accounting for false-negative and false-positive results...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316967/ecological-distribution-and-population-dynamics-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-mosquito-vectors-diptera-culicidae-in-senegal
#20
Biram Biteye, Assane G Fall, Mamadou Ciss, Momar T Seck, Andrea Apolloni, Moussa Fall, Annelise Tran, Geoffrey Gimonneau
BACKGROUND: Many zoonotic infectious diseases have emerged and re-emerged over the last two decades. There has been a significant increase in vector-borne diseases due to climate variations that lead to environmental changes favoring the development and adaptation of vectors. This study was carried out to improve knowledge of the ecology of mosquito vectors involved in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Senegal. METHODS: An entomological survey was conducted in three Senegalese agro-systems, Senegal River Delta (SRD), Senegal River Valley (SRV) and Ferlo, during the rainy season (July to November) of 2014 and 2015...
January 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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