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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149298/vector-borne-diseases-and-climate-change-a-european-perspective
#1
Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146711/ethics-health-policy-and-zika-from-emergency-to-global-epidemic
#2
Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Michael J Selgelid
Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting the PAHO ethics guidance and the role of ethics in emergency responses, before turning to ethical issues that are yet to be resolved...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145171/host-target-based-approaches-against-arboviral-diseases
#3
Rebeca Froes Rocha, Juliana Lemos Del Sarto, Rafael Elias Marques, Vivian Vasconcelos Costa, Mauro Martins Teixeira
In the 20th century, socioeconomic and environmental changes facilitated the reintroduction of mosquitoes in developing cities, resulting in the reintroduction of mosquito-borne viral diseases and the dispersal of their causative agents in a worldwide scale. Recurrent outbreaks of arboviral diseases are being reported, even in regions without a previous history of arboviral disease transmission. Of note, arboviral infections represented approximately 30% of all emerging vector-borne diseases of the last decade...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141746/monitoring-and-control-of-aedes-albopictus-a-vector-of-zika-virus-near-residences-of-imported-zika-virus-patients-during-2016-in-south-korea
#4
Kyu-Sik Chang, Gi-Hun Kim, Young-Ran Ha, Eun Kyeong Jeong, Heung-Chul Kim, Terry A Klein, Seung Hwan Shin, Eun Jeung Kim, Seung Jegal, Se Jin Chung, Young-Ran Ju, Young Mee Jee
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus mainly transmitted by Aedes species. A total of nine of the 16 imported ZIKV reported cases during the mosquito season in the Republic of Korea (ROK), following the return of local nationals from foreign ZIKV endemic countries, were surveyed for Aedes albopictus. Surveillance and vector control of Ae. albopictus, a potential vector of ZIKV, and related species are critical for reducing the potential for autochthonous transmission in the ROK. Surveillance and vector control were coordinated by Korean Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC) and conducted by local health authorities within 200 m of imported ZIKV patients' residences...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141726/status-of-insecticide-resistance-in-papua-new-guinea-an-update-from-nation-wide-monitoring-of-anopheles-mosquitoes
#5
Gussy Koimbu, Cyrille Czeher, Michelle Katusele, Muker Sakur, Lemen Kilepak, Anthony Tandrapah, Manuel W Hetzel, Justin Pulford, Leanne Robinson, Stephan Karl
Insecticide resistance (IR) monitoring is an important component of vector-borne disease control. The last assessment of IR in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was conducted in 2010. Since then, vector populations have been exposed to higher levels of pyrethroids with the continued nation-wide distribution of insecticide-treated nets. Here, we provide an update on phenotypic IR in four highly malaria-endemic areas of PNG. IR against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane was assessed using World Health Organization bioassays...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133932/post-earthquake-zika-virus-surge-disaster-and-public-health-threat-amid-climatic-conduciveness
#6
Miguel Reina Ortiz, Nicole K Le, Vinita Sharma, Ismael Hoare, Edy Quizhpe, Enrique Teran, Eknath Naik, Hamisu M Salihu, Ricardo Izurieta
A recent major earthquake (M7.8), coupled with appropriate climatic conditions, led to significant destruction in Ecuador. Temperature variations, which may be induced by anthropogenic climate change, are often associated with changes in rainfall, humidity and pressure. Temperature and humidity are associated with ecological modifications that may favour mosquito breeding. We hypothesized that the disruptive ecological changes triggered by the earthquake, in the context of appropriate climatic conditions, led to an upsurge in Zika virus (ZIKV) infections...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133662/a-tiny-tick-can-cause-a-big-health-problem
#7
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132437/hap2-a-novel-gene-in-babesia-bigemina-is-expressed-in-tick-stages-and-specific-antibodies-block-zygote-formation
#8
Minerva Camacho-Nuez, Diego Josimar Hernández-Silva, Elizabeth Jacqueline Castañeda-Ortiz, María Elena Paredes-Martínez, Marisol Karina Rocha-Martínez, María Elizbeth Alvarez-Sánchez, Ricardo Francisco Mercado-Curiel, Gabriela Aguilar-Tipacamu, Juan Mosqueda
BACKGROUND: Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. In their host vector, Babesia spp. undergo sexual reproduction. Therefore, the development of sexual stages and the subsequent formation of the zygote are essential for the parasite to invade the intestinal cells of the vector tick and continue its life-cycle. HAP2/GCS1 is a protein identified in plants, protozoan parasites and other organisms that has an important role during membrane fusion in fertilization processes...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132371/survey-of-vector-borne-agents-in-feral-cats-and-first-report-of-babesia-gibsoni-in-cats-on-st-kitts-west-indies
#9
Patrick John Kelly, Liza Köster, Jing Li, Jilei Zhang, Ke Huang, Gillian Carmichael Branford, Silvia Marchi, Michel Vandenplas, Chengming Wang
BACKGROUND: As there is little data on vector-borne diseases of cats in the Caribbean region and even around the world, we tested feral cats from St Kitts by PCR to detect infections with Babesia, Ehrlichia and spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and surveyed them for antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii and Ehrlichia canis. RESULTS: Whole blood was collected from apparently healthy feral cats during spay/ neuter campaigns on St Kitts in 2011 (N = 68) and 2014 (N = 52)...
November 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128861/atrial-cardiomyopathy-in-an-adult-labrador-retriever-dog
#10
E Bomassi, J Rousselot, S Libermann, I Raymond Letron, S Etchepareborde, C Misbach
A 7-year-old castrated male Labrador retriever was examined for a 10-day history of weakness and syncope. Physical examination revealed bradycardia and a grade III/VI left apical systolic heart murmur. Electrocardiography demonstrated bradycardia, absence of P waves and an atrio-ventricular nodal escape rhythm. Echocardiography revealed marked biatrial enlargement. Thoracic radiographs showed no evidence of pulmonary edema. Routine plasma biochemistry and electrolytes, basal serum cortisol, total thyroxin concentration, and complete blood count were within normal limits...
November 2017: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126460/dirofilaria-repens-transmission-in-southeastern-finland
#11
Risto Pietikäinen, Stig Nordling, Sakari Jokiranta, Seppo Saari, Petra Heikkinen, Chris Gardiner, Anne-Marie Kerttula, Tiina Kantanen, Anna Nikanorova, Sauli Laaksonen, Antti Lavikainen, Antti Oksanen
BACKGROUND: The spread of vector-borne diseases to new regions has become a global threat due to climate change, increasing traffic, and movement of people and animals. Dirofilaria repens, the canine subcutaneous filarioid nematode, has expanded its distribution range northward during the last decades. The northernmost European locations, where the parasite life-cycle has been confirmed, are Estonia and the Novgorod Region in Russia. RESULTS: Herein, we describe an autochthonous D...
November 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120083/isolation-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-australasian-topotype-of-bluetongue-virus-serotype-4-from-india
#12
Y V Reddy, B Susmitha, S Patil, Y Krishnajyothi, K Putty, K V Ramakrishna, G Sunitha, B V Devi, K Kavitha, B Deepthi, S Krovvidi, Y N Reddy, G H Reddy, K P Singh, N S Maan, D Hemadri, S Maan, P P Mertens, N R Hegde, P P Rao
Bluetongue (BT) is a Culicoides-borne disease caused by several serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV). Similar to other insect-borne viral diseases, distribution of BT is limited to distribution of Culicoides species competent to transmit BTV. In the tropics, vector activity is almost year long, and hence, the disease is endemic, with the circulation of several serotypes of BTV, whereas in temperate areas, seasonal incursions of a limited number of serotypes of BTV from neighbouring tropical areas are observed...
November 9, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119703/rickettsia-parkeri-in-free-ranging-wild-canids-from-brazilian-pampa
#13
B Dall'Agnol, U A Souza, B Weck, T C Trigo, M M A Jardim, F B Costa, M B Labruna, F B Peters, M O Favarini, F D Mazim, C A S Ferreira, J Reck
Spotted fevers are tick-borne diseases associated with various Rickettsia species. Rickettsia parkeri sensu stricto (s.s.) is the agent of an emerging eschar-associated rickettsiosis in humans from the USA and South American Pampa. Considering that R. parkeri s.s. is restricted to Americas and the potential role of dogs in the epidemiology of the disease, it is thus reasonable to hypothesize that wild canids could be involved in the enzootic cycle of this rickettsiosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential role of the wild canids from Pampa, Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox) and Lycalopex gymnocercus (Pampas fox), in the ecology of R...
November 8, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118655/the-burden-of-dengue-source-reduction-measures-and-serotype-patterns-in-myanmar-2011-to-2015-r2
#14
Pwint Mon Oo, Khin Thet Wai, Anthony D Harries, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Tin Oo, Aung Thi, Zaw Lin
Background: Myanmar is currently classified as a high burden dengue country in the Asian Pacific region. The Myanmar vector-borne diseases control (VBDC) program has collected data on dengue and source reduction measures since 1970, and there is a pressing need to collate, analyze, and interpret this information. The aim of this study was to describe the burden of hospital-based dengue disease, dengue control measures, and serotype patterns in Myanmar between 2011 and 2015. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using annual records from the Dengue Fever/Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Prevention and Control Project in Myanmar...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117114/climatic-variables-and-malaria-morbidity-in-mutale-local-municipality-south-africa-a-19-year-data-analysis
#15
Abiodun M Adeola, Joel O Botai, Hannes Rautenbach, Omolola M Adisa, Katlego P Ncongwane, Christina M Botai, Temitope C Adebayo-Ojo
The north-eastern parts of South Africa, comprising the Limpopo Province, have recorded a sudden rise in the rate of malaria morbidity and mortality in the 2017 malaria season. The epidemiological profiles of malaria, as well as other vector-borne diseases, are strongly associated with climate and environmental conditions. A retrospective understanding of the relationship between climate and the occurrence of malaria may provide insight into the dynamics of the disease's transmission and its persistence in the north-eastern region...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116538/environmentally-benign-nanometric-neem-laced-urea-emulsion-for-controlling-mosquito-population-in-environment
#16
Prabhakar Mishra, Merlyn Keziah Samuel, Ruchishya Reddy, Brij Kishore Tyagi, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran
The increasing risk of vector-borne diseases and the environmental pollution in the day-to-day life due to the usage of the conventional pesticides makes the role of nanotechnology to come into the action. The current study deals with one of the applications of nanotechnology through the formulation of neem urea nanoemulsion (NUNE). NUNE was formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and urea using the microfluidization method. Prior to the development of nanoemulsion, the ratio of oil/surfactant/urea was optimized using the response surface modeling method...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116169/a-zika-vaccine-targeting-ns1-protein-protects-immunocompetent-adult-mice-in-a-lethal-challenge-model
#17
Aaron C Brault, Arban Domi, Erin M McDonald, Dalit Talmi-Frank, Nathanael McCurley, Rahul Basu, Harriet L Robinson, Michael Hellerstein, Nisha K Duggal, Richard A Bowen, Farshad Guirakhoo
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has rapidly extended its geographic range around the world. Its association with abnormal fetal brain development, sexual transmission, and lack of a preventive vaccine have constituted a global health concern. Designing a safe and effective vaccine requires significant caution due to overlapping geographical distribution of ZIKV with dengue virus (DENV) and other flaviviruses, possibly resulting in more severe disease manifestations in flavivirus immune vaccinees such as Antibody-Dependent Enhancement (ADE, a phenomenon involved in pathogenesis of DENV, and a risk associated with ZIKV vaccines using the envelope proteins as immunogens)...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116038/borrelia-burgdorferi-glycosaminoglycan-binding-proteins-a-potential-target-for-new-therapeutics-against-lyme-disease
#18
Yi-Pin Lin, Lingyun Li, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
The spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in Europe and the United States. The spirochetes can be transmitted to humans via ticks, and then spread to different tissues, leading to arthritis, carditis and neuroborreliosis. Although antibiotics have commonly been used to treat infected individuals, some treated patients do not respond to antibiotics and experience persistent, long-term arthritis. Thus, there is a need to investigate alternative therapeutics against Lyme disease...
November 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115255/threats-of-vector-borne-zoonotic-disease-in-europe-dogs-drosophilids-and-oriental-eye-worm
#19
John W McGarry, John Graham-Brown, Monika Pasztor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112671/travel-characteristics-and-pretravel-health-care-among-pregnant-or-breastfeeding-u-s-women-preparing-for-international-travel
#20
Stefan H F Hagmann, Sowmya R Rao, Regina C LaRocque, Stefanie Erskine, Emily S Jentes, Allison T Walker, Elizabeth D Barnett, Lin H Chen, Davidson H Hamer, Edward T Ryan
OBJECTIVE: To study characteristics and preventive interventions of adult pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seeking pretravel health care in the United States. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data (2009-2014) of pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seen at U.S. travel clinics participating in Global TravEpiNet. Nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding adult female travelers of childbearing age were used for comparison. We evaluated the prescription of malaria chemoprophylaxis and antibiotics for this population as well as the administration of three travel-related vaccines: hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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