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Vector borne diseases

Dirk Louis P Schorkopf, Christos G Spanoudis, Leonard E G Mboera, Agenor Mafra-Neto, Rickard Ignell, Teun Dekker
BACKGROUND: There is a global need for cost-effective and environmentally friendly tools for control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. One potential way to achieve this is to combine already available tools to gain synergistic effects to reduce vector mosquito populations. Another possible way to improve mosquito control is to extend the active period of a given control agent, enabling less frequent applications and consequently, more efficient and longer lasting vector population suppression...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jessica M Healy, M Catherine Burgess, Tai-Ho Chen, W Thane Hancock, Karrie-Ann E Toews, Magele Scott Anesi, Ray T Tulafono, Mary Aseta Mataia, Benjamin Sili, Jacqueline Solaita, A Christian Whelen, Rebecca Sciulli, Remedios B Gose, Vasiti Uluiviti, Morgan Hennessey, Fara Utu, Motusa Tuileama Nua, Marc Fischer
During December 2015-January 2016, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) detected through surveillance an increase in the number of cases of acute febrile rash illness. Concurrently, a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection documented to cause microcephaly and other severe brain defects in some infants born to women infected during pregnancy (1,2) was reported in a traveler returning to New Zealand from American Samoa. In the absence of local laboratory capacity to test for Zika virus, ASDoH initiated arboviral disease control measures, including public education and vector source reduction campaigns...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Leon E Hugo, Natalie A Prow, Bing Tang, Greg Devine, Andreas Suhrbier
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus associated with epidemics of acute and chronic arthritic disease in humans. Aedes albopictus has emerged as an important new natural vector for CHIKV transmission; however, mouse models for studying transmission have not been developed. METHODS: Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were infected with CHIKV via membrane feeding and by using infected adult wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Paraffin sections of infected mosquitoes were analysed by immunofluorescent antibody staining using an anti-CHIKV antibody...
October 19, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jérôme Casas, Claudio Lazzari, Teresita Insausti, Pascal Launois, Florence Fouque
Major emergency efforts are being mounted for each vector-borne disease epidemiological crisis anew, while knowledge about the biology of arthropods vectors is dwindling slowly but continuously, as is the number of field entomologists. The discrepancy between the rates of production of knowledge and its use and need for solving crises is widening, in particular due to the highly differing time spans of the two concurrent processes. A worldwide web based search using multiple key words and search engines of onsite and online courses in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and German concerned with the biology of vectors identified over 140 courses...
October 13, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
M H Reiskind, R H Griffin, M S Janairo, K A Hopperstad
Knowledge of the distribution of arthropod vectors across a landscape is important in determining the risk for vector-borne disease. This has been well explored for ticks, but not for mosquitoes, despite their importance in the transmission of a variety of pathogens. This study examined the importance of habitat, habitat edges, and the scale at which mosquito abundance and diversity vary in a rural landscape by trapping along transects from grassland areas into forest patches. Significant patterns of vector diversity and distinct mosquito assemblages across habitats were found...
October 19, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Minmin Zhang, Jinying Ge, Zhiyuan Wen, Weiye Chen, Xijun Wang, Renqiang Liu, Zhigao Bu
Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is caused by the arthropod-borne bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), which is a member of the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Ephemerovirus. BEFV causes an acute febrile infection in cattle and water buffalo. In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of BEFV (rL-BEFV-G) was constructed, and its biological characteristics in vitro and in vivo, pathogenicity, and immune response in mice and cattle were evaluated. BEFV G enabled NDV to spread from cell to cell...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Virology
Matthew Shortus, Jennie Musto, Hugo Bugoro, Charles Butafa, Alison Sio, Cynthia Joshua
PROBLEM: The close quartering and exposed living conditions in evacuation centres and the potential increase in vector density after flooding in Solomon Islands resulted in an increased risk of exposure for the occupants to vectorborne diseases. CONTEXT: In April 2014, Solomon Islands experienced a flash flooding event that affected many areas and displaced a large number of people. In the capital, Honiara, nearly 10 000 people were housed in emergency evacuation centres at the peak of the post-flood emergency...
January 2016: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Józef Piotr Knap, Michał Andrzej Targowski
Pappataci (sandfly fever) is a viral (RNA Phlebovirus) vector-borne zoonosis transmitted to men by small Phlebotomus mosquitous. This disease fulfill the international criteria of "emerging disease". Despite of that, pappataci fever is a little known disease brought into Poland. Distribution of disease includes: Mediterranean region, Central Asia and Indian Peninsula. On the basis of pertinent literature and own personal experience, the authors described etiopathogenesis, epidemiology and clinical picture of sandfly fever...
September 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Pankaj Trivedi, Chanda Trivedi, Jasmine Grinyer, Ian C Anderson, Brajesh K Singh
Plant health and productivity is strongly influenced by their intimate interaction with deleterious and beneficial organisms, including microbes, and insects. Of the various plant diseases, insect-vectored diseases are of particular interest, including those caused by obligate parasites affecting plant phloem such as Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma species and several species of Ca. Liberibacter. Recent studies on plant-microbe and plant-insect interactions of these pathogens have demonstrated that plant-microbe-insect interactions have far reaching consequences for the functioning and evolution of the organisms involved...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Berlin Londono-Renteria, Jenny C Cardenas, Andrea Troupin, Tonya M Colpitts
Chronic exposure to antigens may favor the production of IgG4 antibodies over other antibody types. Recent studies have shown that up to a 30% of normal human IgG4 is bi-specific and is able to recognize two antigens of different nature. A requirement for this specificity is the presence of both eliciting antigens in the same time and at the same place where the immune response is induced. During transmission of most vector-borne diseases, the pathogen is delivered to the vertebrate host along with the arthropod saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have shown the existence of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito salivary allergens...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Xianghong Zhang, Sanyi Tang, Robert A Cheke, Huaiping Zhu
Dengue fever has rapidly become the world's most common vector-borne viral disease. Use of endosymbiotic Wolbachia is an innovative technology to prevent vector mosquitoes from reproducing and so break the cycle of dengue transmission. However, strategies such as population eradication and replacement will only succeed if appropriate augmentations with Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes that take account of a variety of factors are carried out. Here, we describe the spread of Wolbachia in mosquito populations using an impulsive differential system with four state variables, incorporating the effects of cytoplasmic incompatibility and the augmentation of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with different sex ratios...
October 12, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Diane G Edmondson, Sabitha Prabhakaran, Steven J Norris, Amy J Ullmann, Joe Piesman, Marc Dolan, Christian Probst, Christiane Radzimski, Winfried Stöcker, Lars Komorowski
Lyme borreliosis is caused by tick-transmitted spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a 23 kDa outer surface lipoprotein expressed during spirochete transmission from the tick to the vertebrate host. In a previous study, we found that immunization with a recombinant disulfide-bridged dimeric form of OspC (D-OspC) stimulates increased antibody responses relative to immunization with commonly employed monomeric OspC...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Tom G Schwan, Job E Lopez, David Safronetz, Jennifer M Anderson, Robert J Fischer, Ousmane Maïga, Nafomon Sogoba
BACKGROUND: Fleas are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites and vectors of several bacterial zoonotic pathogens as well as trypanosomes that parasitize rodents and other small mammals. During investigations of tick- and rodent-borne diseases in Mali, West Africa, we included fleas and rodent-borne trypanosomes, both of which are poorly known in this country, but are attracting greater public health interest. METHODS: Small mammals were captured in 20 Malian villages from December 2007 to October 2011...
October 11, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Mario Alvarado-Rybak, Laia Solano-Gallego, Javier Millán
Piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. They cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. Piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. There are currently nine recognized species of Babesia, two of Theileria, two of Cytauxzoon and one of Rangelia infecting captive and wild carnivores, including members of Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Ursidae, Viverridae, Hyaenidae and Herpestidae in the Americas, Eurasia and Africa...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jason A Dunlop, Dmitry A Apanaskevich, Jens Lehmann, René Hoffmann, Florian Fusseis, Moritz Ehlke, Stefan Zachow, Xianghui Xiao
BACKGROUND: Fossil ticks are extremely rare and Ixodes succineus Weidner, 1964 from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber is one of the oldest examples of a living hard tick genus (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Previous work suggested it was most closely related to the modern and widespread European sheep tick Ixodes ricinus (Linneaus, 1758). RESULTS: Restudy using phase contrast synchrotron x-ray tomography yielded images of exceptional quality. These confirm the fossil's referral to Ixodes Latreille, 1795, but the characters resolved here suggest instead affinities with the Asian subgenus Partipalpiger Hoogstraal et al...
October 10, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Cristina Fevola, Kristian M Forbes, Satu Mäkelä, Niina Putkuri, Heidi C Hauffe, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Jukka Mustonen, Anne J Jääskeläinen, Antti Vaheri
BACKGROUND: The emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases are increasing in Europe. Prominent rodent-borne zoonotic viruses include Puumala hantavirus (PUUV; the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, NE), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and orthopoxviruses (OPV). In addition, Ljungan virus (LV) is considered a potentially zoonotic virus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare clinical picture between acute PUUV patients with and without additional rodent-borne viral infections, to investigate if concurrent infections influence disease severity...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Emmanuel Chanda, Birkinesh Ameneshewa, Magaran Bagayoko, John M Govere, Michael B Macdonald
The increasing global threat of emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases (VBDs) poses a serious health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integrated vector management (IVM) strategy for combating VBD transmission. An IVM approach requires entomological knowledge, technical and infrastructure capacity, and systems facilitating stakeholder collaboration. In sub-Saharan Africa, successful operational IVM experience comes from relatively few countries. This article provides an update on the extent to which IVM is official national policy, the degree of IVM implementation, the level of compliance with WHO guidelines, and concordance in the understanding of IVM, and it assesses the operational impact of IVM...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana
Arthropods transmit several medically important arboviruses that cause diseases in humans. Therapeutic strategies to treat or prevent diseases transmitted by the arthropods are limiting. Understanding the role of arthropod gut receptors in the interactions with various arboviruses would provide important means for the development of a strong anti-vector vaccine. In this review, we summarize some of the potential findings in the field of arthropod gut receptors for tick-borne or mosquito-borne viruses and discuss their relevance in the development of a broad-spectrum transmission-blocking vaccine to treat or control various diseases caused by arboviruses...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Glady Hazitha Samuel, Zach N Adelman, Kevin M Myles
The transmissibility of vector borne viruses can be affected by a combination of factors, both extrinsic (climatic changes, temperature, urbanization, among others) and intrinsic (genetics, life span, immunity, among others). Temperature is of particular importance since the insect vectors of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are ectothermic and acutely susceptible to temperature changes. Modeling suggests that with increasing global temperature and urbanization, arboviral diseases will continue to emerge or reemerge...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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