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Urine Drug Screens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718268/oxymorphone-induced-thrombotic-microangiopathy-mimicking-atypical-haemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#1
Amibhen Gandhi, Saad Ullah, Shani Kotadia, Samer Nasser
Atypical Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS) is a rare life threatening entity characterized by thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia and renal dysfunction. It is a thrombotic microangiopathy related to genetic mutations in the alternate complement pathway and has a distinct pathophysiology which makes it harder to distinguish from other microangiopathies. We present a case of a 25-year-old male patient with history of polysubstance abuse who presented with chest pain and dyspnoea. He admitted to using injectable oxymorphone (Opana) two weeks before presentation...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715206/high-throughput-screening-and-quantitation-of-target-compounds-in-biofluids-by-coated-blade-spray-mass-spectrometry
#2
Marcos Tascon, German Augusto Gómez-Ríos, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Justen J Poole, Ezel Boyaci, Janusz Pawliszyn
Most contemporary methods of screening and quantitating controlled substances and therapeutic drugs in biofluids typically require laborious, time-consuming, and expensive analytical workflows. In recent years, our group has worked towards developing microextraction (µe)-mass spectrometry (MS) technologies that merge all of the tedious steps of the classical methods into a simple, efficient, and low-cost methodology. Unquestionably, the automation of these technologies allows for faster sample throughput, greater reproducibility, and radically reduced analysis times...
July 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715154/the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-acute-renal-injury-of-newborn-rats-exposed-to-hypoxia-and-endotoxin
#3
Egor Y Plotnikov, Tatiana A Pavlenko, Irina B Pevzner, Ljubava D Zorova, Vasily N Manskikh, Denis N Silachev, Gennady T Sukhikh, Dmitry B Zorov
Neonatal kidney injury is a frequent pathology, especially among premature infants. The search for effective nephroprotection requires the creation of adequate experimental models of nephropathy in newborns. In this study, we explored the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in neonatal rats during hypoxia or administration of endotoxin. We found that 2-h hypoxia (8% O2 ) and the intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes the appearance of AKI markers, such as КIM-1 and NGAL in the rat urine after 24 and 72 h of exposure...
July 17, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713441/analysis-of-raw-biofluids-by-mass-spectrometry-using-microfluidic-diffusion-based-separation
#4
Joshua Heinemann, Brigit Noon, Daniel Willems, Katherine Budeski, Brian Bothner
Elucidation and monitoring of biomarkers continues to expand because of their medical value and potential to reduce healthcare costs. For example, biomarkers are used extensively to track physiology associated with drug addiction, disease progression, aging, and industrial processes. While longitudinal analyses are of great value from a biological or healthcare perspective, the cost associated with replicate analyses is preventing the expansion of frequent routine testing. Frequent testing could deepen our understanding of disease emergence and aid adoption of personalized healthcare...
January 21, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710651/intoxication-caused-by-new-psychostimulants-analytical-methods-to-disclose-acute-and-chronic-use-of-benzofurans-and-ethylphenidate
#5
Bernardino Barceló, Isabel Gomila, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Emilia Marchei, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Simona Pichini, Carolina Roset, Miguel Ángel Elorza, Francesco Paolo Busardò
The acute and chronic toxicity of several new psychoactive substances (NPS) is unknown, and only little information is available on the pharmacology and toxicology, toxicokinetics, and detectability in body samples of such new compounds. We here propose analytical methods to disclose acute and chronic use of two types of new psychostimulants: benzofurans and ethylphenidate and we applied them to a real case of a subject attending Emergency Department with signs of acute intoxication due to psychotropic drug(s)...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706384/antimicrobial-susceptibility-risk-factors-and-prevalence-of-bla-cefotaximase-temoneira-and-sulfhydryl-variable-genes-among-escherichia-coli-in-community-acquired-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#6
Kallyadan V Nisha, Shetty A Veena, Shenoy D Rathika, Shenoy M Vijaya, Shetty K Avinash
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has become an important challenge among pediatric patients with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, associated risk factors and to survey the frequency of bla cefotaximase (CTX-M), bla temoneira (TEM), and bla sulfhydryl variable (SHV) genotypes in ESBL-producing E...
July 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705744/the-relationship-between-ocular-trauma-and-substance-abuse-in-emergency-department-patients
#7
Sylvia L Chang, Vaama Patel, John Giltner, Richard Lee, Catherine A Marco
INTRODUCTION: Eye injury is the second most common cause of visual impairment and a leading cause of monocular blindness in the United States. There are approximately 6 million ED visits related to drug use annually, including misuse or abuse of pharmaceuticals and illicit drug use. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between ocular trauma and substance abuse among emergency department patients and to assess that relationship with demographic factors, including age and gender...
July 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700524/challenges-for-detecting-valproic-acid-in-a-nontargeted-urine-drug-screening-method
#8
Jeffrey D Pope, Marion J Black, Olaf H Drummer, Hans G Schneider
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely prescribed medicine, and acute toxicity is possible. As such, it should be included in any nontargeted urine drug screening method. In many published liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) methods, VPA is usually measured using a pseudo-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition. We investigate a simple ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (QTof) approach to detect the presence of VPA with more confidence...
August 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699773/variability-amongst-urine-toxicology-amphetamine-readings-with-concurrent-administration-of-fenofibrate
#9
Navin Dadlani, Anna Farrar, Graham Jones
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to highlight that concurrent administration of the common lipid-lowering agent fenofibrate may lead to false-positive amphetamine results in often-used immunoassay-based urine drug screens. It also aimed to show that there are significant moral and clinical challenges associated with the interpretation of such results amongst psychiatric inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: It is evident that different pathology laboratories may utilise different commercial urine drug-screen immunoassays in their toxicology analysis, with variability in the test specificities...
July 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681615/self-identification-of-nonpharmaceutical-fentanyl-exposure-following-heroin-overdose
#10
Matthew K Griswold, Peter R Chai, Alex J Krotulski, Melissa Friscia, Brittany Chapman, Edward W Boyer, Barry K Logan, Kavita M Babu
OBJECTIVE: To compare user self-identification of nonpharmaceutical fentanyl exposure with confirmatory urine drug testing in emergency department (ED) patients presenting after heroin overdose. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of adult ED patients who presented after a heroin overdose requiring naloxone administration. Participants provided verbal consent after which they were asked a series of questions regarding their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs toward heroin and nonpharmaceutical fentanyl...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677880/study-of-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-metabolism-of-the-tryptamine-5-meo-mipt-using-human-liver-microsomes-and-real-case-samples
#11
Katharina Elisabeth Grafinger, Marianne Hädener, Stefan König, Wolfgang Weinmann
The synthetic tryptamine 5-methoxy-N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MiPT) has recently been abused as a hallucinogenic drug in Germany and Switzerland. This study presents a case of 5-MeO-MiPT intoxication and the structural elucidation of metabolites in pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM), blood, and urine. Microsomal incubation experiments were performed using pHLM to detect and identify in vitro metabolites. In August 2016, the police encountered a naked man, agitated and with aggressive behavior on the street...
July 5, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666669/medical-treatment-of-nocturia-in-men-with-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-systematic-review-by-the-european-association-of-urology-guidelines-panel-for-male-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms
#12
REVIEW
Vasileios I Sakalis, Markos Karavitakis, Dina Bedretdinova, Thorsten Bach, J L H Ruud Bosch, Mauro Gacci, Christian Gratzke, Thomas R Herrmann, Stephan Madersbacher, Charalampos Mamoulakis, Kari A O Tikkinen, Stavros Gravas, Marcus J Drake
CONTEXT: The treatment of nocturia is a key challenge due to the multi-factorial pathophysiology of the symptom and the disparate outcome measures used in research. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare available therapy options for nocturia, in terms of symptom severity and quality of life. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medical databases (Embase, Medline, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central) were searched with no date restriction. Comparative studies were included which studied adult men with nocturia as the primary presentation and lower urinary tract symptoms including nocturia or nocturnal polyuria...
June 27, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650900/a-high-throughput-hplc-ms-ms-assay-for-the-detection-quantification-and-simultaneous-structural-confirmation-of-136-drugs-and-metabolites-in-human-urine
#13
Jacek Klepacki, Baharak Davari, Marion Boulet, Ryan Lizarraga, Uwe Christians
BACKGROUND: Due to its superior sensitivity and specificity, multi-analyte high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has become the gold standard in clinical toxicology. Although several qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS assays on various mass spectrometry platforms have been described in the literature, the majority of these methods either analyze only a limited number of compounds, and/or require tedious and time-consuming sample preparation...
June 22, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649510/targeted-screening-of-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency-ssadhd-employing-an-enzymatic-assay-for-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyric-acid-ghb-in-biofluids
#14
C Wernli, S Finochiaro, C Volken, H Andresen-Streichert, A Buettler, D Gygax, G S Salomons, E E Jansen, G R Ainslie, K R Vogel, K M Gibson
HYPOTHESIS: An enzymatic assay for quantification of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in biofluids can be employed for targeted screening of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD) in selected populations. RATIONALE: We used a two-tiered study approach, in which the first study (proof of concept) examined 7 urine samples derived from patients with SSADHD and 5 controls, and the second study (feasibility study) examined a broader sample population of patients and controls, including plasma...
June 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648787/online-turbulent-flow-extraction-coupled-with-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-high-throughput-screening-of-anabolic-steroids-in-horse-urine
#15
Hyun Du Shin, Joon Hyuk Suh, Junghyun Kim, Hyun-Deok Cho, Su Duk Lee, Kwan Seok Han, Yu Wang, Sang Beom Han
A high throughput method for simultaneous screening of anabolic steroids and their metabolites (4-esterendione, trenbolone, boldenone, oxandrolone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, testosterone, 1-androstendione, ethisterone, normethandrolone, methyltestosterone, 16β-Hydroxystanozolol, epitestosterone, bolasterone, norethandrolone, danazol, stanozolol and androstadienone) in equine urine by online turbulent flow extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The use of turbulent flow chromatography could simplify pretreatment of horse urine, which has complex matrices as well as high viscosity...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646926/high-burden-of-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-in-school-aged-children-in-marolambo-district-madagascar
#16
Stephen A Spencer, James M St John Penney, Hannah J Russell, Anthony P Howe, Cortland Linder, Andriamahitsisambatra L D Rakotomampianina, Anjara M Nandimbiniaina, S Bertel Squire, J Russell Stothard, Amaya L Bustinduy, Alain M Rahetilahy
BACKGROUND: A school-based survey was undertaken to assess prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in the Marolambo District of Madagascar. METHODS: School-aged children from six purposively selected schools were tested for Schistosoma haematobium by urine filtration and Schistosoma mansoni using circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and Kato-Katz stool analysis. The investigators did not address soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in this study...
June 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644052/a-little-dab-will-do-ya-in-a-case-report-of-neuro-and-cardiotoxicity-following-use-of-cannabis-concentrates
#17
Shannon S Rickner, Dazhe Cao, Kurt Kleinschmidt, Steven Fleming
CONTEXT: The use of marijuana and cannabis concentrates is increasing, especially following decriminalization in several states. Psychosis and cardiotoxicity have been reported following cannabis use; however, myocardial injury from "dabbing" has not yet been reported. We report a case of hyperthermia, tachycardia, hypertension, severe agitation, neuro-, and cardiotoxicity following the use of "dabs" where there is concomitant confirmatory biological and sample testing. CASE DETAILS: A 17-year-old athletic man developed agitation requiring sedation and intubation for safety, with peak systolic blood pressures in the 190s and hyperthermia (to 102 °F)...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635345/avatar-assisted-therapy-a-proof-of-concept-pilot-study-of-a-novel-technology-based-intervention-to-treat-substance-use-disorders
#18
Michael S Gordon, Steven B Carswell, Mary Schadegg, Kayla Mangen, Kelly Merkel, Susan Tangires, Frank J Vocci
BACKGROUND: Avatar-assisted therapy (AAT) is a novel and emerging technology that uses the Internet to enable clinicians and clients in substance abuse treatment to participate in group counseling sessions from separate and remote locations in real time through the use of avatars and virtual environments. OBJECTIVES: The current study is a pilot proof-of-concept feasibility study involving individuals in outpatient substance abuse treatment. This report addresses two questions: (1) are individuals who present for substance abuse treatment interested in receiving AAT and (2) what factors are associated with better treatment success...
September 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633318/evaluation-of-oral-fluid-as-a-specimen-for-duid
#19
Allison M Veitenheimer, Jarrad R Wagner
Drugged driving has become more prevalent than drunk driving and is quickly gaining national attention due to increased prescription drug abuse and recent cannabis legalization. Unlike alcohol, police officers do not generally have access to approved devices to screen for drugs at the roadside. Onsite drug screening devices do exist and are used in other countries, but have not garnered widespread approval for use in the United States in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases. One reason for this is that the devices are designed to test oral fluid, which is not a commonly accepted specimen for DUID...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633284/determination-of-some-%C3%AE-blockers-and-%C3%AE-2-agonists-in-plasma-and-urine-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-solid-phase-extraction
#20
Alaa A Salem, Ibrahim Wasfi, Salama S Al-Nassib, Mahmoud Allawy Mohsin, Nawal Al-Katheeri
A highly sensitive method for the determinations of acebutolol, clenbuterol, nadolol, oxprenolol, propranolol, terbutaline and timolol β-blockers and β2-agonists in plasma and urine was developed. The method was optimized using electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) and clean screen solid phase extraction cartridges. Matrix effect was reduced by removing co-extractives from the SPE cartridges using methanol prior to drugs' elution. Using blood and serum matrices for calibration and applying the internal standard method has also contributed to the reduction of matrix effect...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
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