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Clinical Drug studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822350/baclofen-for-alcohol-withdrawal
#1
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822348/risk-factors-for-potential-drug-drug-interactions-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#2
Slobodan M Janković, Ana V Pejčić, Miloš N Milosavljević, Valentina D Opančina, Nikola V Pešić, Tamara T Nedeljković, Goran M Babić
PURPOSE: To determine risk factors for each severity-based category of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) encountered at intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients treated at the ICU of the Clinical Center Kragujevac, a public tertiary care hospital in Kragujevac, Serbia. Three interaction checkers were used to reveal drug-drug interactions: Medscape, Epocrates and Micromedex. RESULTS: The study included 201 patients, 66...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822346/comparative-study-of-single-combination-use-of-huang-lian-jie-du-decoction-and-berberine-on-their-protection-on-sepsis-induced-acute-liver-injury-by-nmr-metabolic-profiling
#3
Yan Lv, Junsong Wang, Dingqiao Xu, Shanting Liao, Pei Li, Qian Zhang, Minghua Yang, Lingyi Kong
Sepsis is a serious clinical disease with a high mortality rate all around the world. Liver organ dysfunction is an important sign for the severity and outcome of sepsis in patients. In this study, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach and biochemical assays were applied to investigate the metabolic profiling for cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced acute liver injury, the therapeutical effect of single/combination use of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du decoction (HLJDD) and berberine, and the interaction of them. Metabolomics analysis revealed significant perturbations in livers of septic rats, which could be ameliorated by HLJDD, berberine and their combination treatment...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822197/-systematic-review-of-kudiezi-injection-drug-safety
#4
Shan-Shan Gao, Rui-Zhao Cui, Yan-Ming Xie, Xing Liao, Xiao-Yan Gao, Ji-Dong Wang
To systematically evaluate the safety of Kudiezi injection. Databases such as Cochrane library, Medline, EMbase, Web of Science, Clinical Trials, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang and Chinese Clinical Trial Register were searched to collect the literature on all the study types of Kudiezi injection. Two researchers screened literature, assessed quality and extracted data according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies were assessed by using internationally recognized methodological quality assessment tools or reporting quality evaluation criteria; Meta-analysis of adverse drug reaction/adverse events (ADR/AE) of Kudiezi injection was performed by using Stata 12...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822145/-advances-in-studies-on-autoimmune-diseases-treated-by-halofuginone
#5
REVIEW
Shi-Qi Wang, Ze-Hua Duan, Ya-Rong Zhao, Huan Dou
Halofuginone (HF) is a derivative of dichroine which is the extract of traditional Chinese medicine. It is widely used as an efficient anticoccidial drug. Recent studies have found that HF has unique biological activities, showing great potential capacities in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In the article, we summarized the therapeutic effects of HF in a variety of autoimmune diseases and its mechanism, providing references for further clinical studies of HF.
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821939/analgesic-use-in-patients-with-knee-and-or-hip-osteoarthritis-referred-to-an-outpatient-center-a-cross-sectional-study-within-the-amsterdam-osteoarthritis-cohort
#6
Jesper Knoop, Joyce van Tunen, Martin van der Esch, Leo D Roorda, Joost Dekker, Marike van der Leeden, Willem F Lems
Although analgesics are widely recommended in current guidelines, underuse and inadequate prescription of analgesics seem to result in suboptimal treatment effects in patients with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed (i) to describe the use of analgesics; and (ii) to determine factors that are related to analgesic use in patients with knee and/or hip OA referred to an outpatient center. A cross-sectional study with data from 656 patients with knee and/or hip OA referred to an outpatient center (Amsterdam Osteoarthritis (AMS-OA) cohort) was conducted...
August 18, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821804/nos2-deficient-mice-with-hypoxic-necrotizing-lung-lesions-predict-outcomes-of-tuberculosis-chemotherapy-in-humans
#7
Martin Gengenbacher, Maria A Duque-Correa, Peggy Kaiser, Stefanie Schuerer, Doris Lazar, Ulrike Zedler, Stephen T Reece, Amit Nayyar, Stewart T Cole, Vadim Makarov, Clifton E Barry Iii, Véronique Dartois, Stefan H E Kaufmann
During active TB in humans a spectrum of pulmonary granulomas with central necrosis and hypoxia exists. BALB/c mice, predominantly used in TB drug development, do not reproduce this complex pathology thereby inaccurately predicting clinical outcome. We found that Nos2 (-/-) mice incapable of NO-production in immune cells as microbial defence uniformly develop hypoxic necrotizing lung lesions, widely observed in human TB. To study the impact of hypoxic necrosis on the efficacy of antimycobacterials and drug candidates, we subjected Nos2 (-/-) mice with TB to monotherapy before or after establishment of human-like pathology...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821762/multi-tissue-interactions-in-an-integrated-three-tissue-organ-on-a-chip-platform
#8
Aleksander Skardal, Sean V Murphy, Mahesh Devarasetty, Ivy Mead, Hyun-Wook Kang, Young-Joon Seol, Yu Shrike Zhang, Su-Ryon Shin, Liang Zhao, Julio Aleman, Adam R Hall, Thomas D Shupe, Andre Kleensang, Mehmet R Dokmeci, Sang Jin Lee, John D Jackson, James J Yoo, Thomas Hartung, Ali Khademhosseini, Shay Soker, Colin E Bishop, Anthony Atala
Many drugs have progressed through preclinical and clinical trials and have been available - for years in some cases - before being recalled by the FDA for unanticipated toxicity in humans. One reason for such poor translation from drug candidate to successful use is a lack of model systems that accurately recapitulate normal tissue function of human organs and their response to drug compounds. Moreover, tissues in the body do not exist in isolation, but reside in a highly integrated and dynamically interactive environment, in which actions in one tissue can affect other downstream tissues...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821686/effect-of-simvastatin-on-csf-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-in-cognitively-normal-adults
#9
Ge Li, Cynthia L Mayer, Daniel Morelli, Steven P Millard, Wendy H Raskind, Eric C Petrie, Monique Cherrier, Anne M Fagan, Murray A Raskind, Elaine R Peskind
OBJECTIVE: To examine potential disease-modifying effects of statin drugs, we conducted a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of simvastatin in cognitively normal adults using change in CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers as primary outcome measure. METHODS: Participants were 45-64 years old and statin-naive with normal cognition and normal or mildly elevated cholesterol. Forty-six participants completed the 1-year study per protocol (25 in the simvastatin and 21 in the placebo group)...
August 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821607/two-plant-derived-aporphinoid-alkaloids-exert-their-antifungal-activity-by-disrupting-mitochondrial-iron-sulfur-cluster-biosynthesis
#10
Siddharth K Tripathi, Tao Xu, Qin Feng, Bharathi Avula, Xiaomin Shi, Xuewen Pan, Melanie M Mask, Scott R Baerson, Melissa R Jacob, Ranga Rao Ravu, Shabana I Khan, Xing-Cong Li, Ikhlas A Khan, Alice M Clark, Ameeta K Agarwal
Eupolauridine and liriodenine are plant-derived aporphinoid alkaloids that exhibit potent inhibitory activity against the opportunistic fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans However, the molecular mechanism of this antifungal activity is unknown. In this study, we show that eupolauridine 9591 (E9591), a synthetic analog of eupolauridine, and liriodenine methiodide (LMT), a methiodide salt of liriodenine, mediate their antifungal activities by disrupting mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster synthesis...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821555/p53-non-genotoxic-activation-and-mtorc1-inhibition-lead-to-effective-combination-for-neuroblastoma-therapy
#11
Myrthala Moreno-Smith, Anna Lakoma, Zaowen Chen, Ling Tao, Kathleen A Scorsone, Linda Schild, Kevin Aviles-Padilla, Rana Nikzad, Yankai Zhang, Rikhia Chakraborty, Jan J Molenaar, Sanjeev Vasudevan, Vivien Sheehan, Eugene S Kim, Silke Paust, Jason M Shohet, Eveline Barbieri
mTORC1 inhibitors are promising agents for neuroblastoma therapy, however they have shown limited clinical activity as monotherapy, thus rational drug combinations need to be explored to improve efficacy. Importantly, neuroblastoma maintains both an active p53 and an aberrant mTOR signaling. <br /><br />Experimental Design: Using an orthotopic xenograft model and modulating p53 levels, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of the mTORC1 inhibitor temsirolimus in neuroblastoma expressing normal, decreased, or mutant p53, both as single agent and in combination with first and second generation MDM2 inhibitors to reactivate p53...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821459/clinical-multi-omics-strategies-for-the-effective-cancer-management
#12
REVIEW
Byong Chul Yoo, Kyung-Hee Kim, Sang Myung Woo, Jae Kyung Myung
Cancer is a global health issue as a multi-factorial complex disease, and early detection and novel therapeutic strategies are required for more effective cancer management. With the development of systemic analytical -omics strategies, the therapeutic approach and study of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and cancer progression have moved from hypothesis-driven targeted investigations to data-driven untargeted investigations focusing on the integrated diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer in individual patients...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821193/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-and-its-impact-on-drug-levels-an-aclps-critical-review
#13
Caleb W Cheng, Jeanne E Hendrickson, Christopher A Tormey, Davinder Sidhu
Objectives: To examine and summarize the current literature on the effects of therapeutic plasma exchange on medication levels. Methods: Literature review was performed via searches of the Cochrane Database and PubMed-MEDLINE (1996 to August 2016) looking for all case reports, case series, and human randomized controlled trials involving therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE)-associated drug removal. Results: Approximately 60 peer-reviewed articles were identified with the majority being case reports; no randomized controlled trials were identified...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821011/the-photodynamic-action-of-pheophorbide-a-induces-cell-death-through-oxidative-stress-in-leishmania-amazonensis
#14
Nathielle Miranda, Hélito Volpato, Jean Henrique da Silva Rodrigues, Wilker Caetano, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura, Sueli de Oliveira Silva, Celso Vataru Nakamura
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by hemoflagellate protozoa, affecting millions of people worldwide. The difficulties of treating patients with this parasitosis include the limited efficacy and many side effects of the currently available drugs. Therefore, the search for new compounds with leishmanicidal action is necessary. Photodynamic therapy has been studied in the medical field because of its selectivity, utilizing a combination of visible light, a photosensitizer compound, and singlet oxygen to reach the area of treatment...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820848/ranibizumab-and-aflibercept-for-the-treatment-of-pigment-epithelial-detachment-in-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-data-from-an-observational-study
#15
Anagha Vaze, Vuong Nguyen, Vincent Daien, Jennifer J Arnold, Stephanie H Young, Chui M Cheung, Ecosse Lamoureux, Mayuri Bhargava, Daniel Barthelmes, Mark C Gillies
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab and aflibercept on retinal pigment epithelial detachment (RPED) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data from a prospectively designed and implemented clinical audit. Analysis included change in RPED dimensions and visual acuity in 92/233 treatment-naive eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and RPED 6 months after treatment with either aflibercept or ranibizumab...
August 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820683/malaria-in-the-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-in-china-a-twelve-year-surveillance-data-study
#16
Kangming Lin, Haiyan Wei, Weikang Jiang, Jun Li, Weiwei Zhang, Shujiao Wei, Yichao Yang, Yaming Huang, Xiangyang Feng, Hong Tu, Jun Feng
The incidence of an indigenous malaria, defined as malaria acquired by a local mosquito transmission, declined from 2004 to 2015 in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. However, imported malaria, defined as malaria acquired from other endemic regions outside of China, has been increasing in the region, as in the rest of the country, particularly the disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A retrospective study was conducted to explore malaria-endemic characteristics in Guangxi during the 2004-2015 timeframe; a total of 2,726 confirmed malaria cases were reported, and the majority (90...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820429/propofol-s-effects-on-the-fetal-brain-for-non-obstetric-surgery
#17
REVIEW
Ajay Malhotra, Emily Yosh, Ming Xiong
While the use of Propofol has been increasing in usage for general surgical procedures since its release to market, there has been little work done on its potential link to neurotoxicity in humans. Only recently, following the release of a warning label from the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) regarding a potential link to "neurotoxicity" in the neonate, did the surgical and anesthesiology communities become more aware of its potential for harm. Given the widespread use of this drug in clinical practice, the warning label naturally raised controversy regarding intrapartum Propofol usage...
August 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820396/the-role-of-mtor-inhibitors-and-hmg-coa-reductase-inhibitors-on-young-and-old-endothelial-cell-functions-critical-for-re-endothelialisation-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-an-in-vitro-study
#18
K Korybalska, E Kawka, A Breborowicz, J Witowski
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a standard treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, it is associated with endothelial cell denudation, which may predispose to in-stent thrombosis and restenosis. Pharmacological methods which prevent restenosis can delay post-PCI re-endothelialisation. We have therefore examined how atorvastatin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor), sirolimus and everolimus (mTOR inhibitors) affect young and old endothelial cell functions which are responsible for wound healing after PCI...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820359/clinical-outcomes-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-after-lower-extremity-arterial-procedures
#19
Afsha Aurshina, Pavel Kibrik, Justin Eisenberg, Ahmad Alsheekh, Anil Hingorani, Natalie Marks, Enrico Ascher
Objectives The use of postoperative anticoagulation is not uncommon for patients undergoing lower extremity arterial procedures as adjunctive therapy. Longer postoperative length of stay is necessary to achieve adequate therapeutic international normalized ratio with traditional protocols that call for the use of unfractionated heparin and warfarin therapy. We hypothesized the direct oral anticoagulants are an attractive alternative to provide adequate anticoagulation in patients who undergo lower extremity arterial procedures...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820269/reaction-phenotyping-to-assess-victim-drug-drug-interaction-risks
#20
Li Di
Reaction phenotyping provides critical information regarding the fraction metabolized (fm) of drug candidates. It has become increasingly important in drug discovery and development as it can be used to assess victim drug-drug interaction potential, guide structural modification to reduce fm, inform clinical study design, predict individual variability in pharmacokinetics, and evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms. Areas covered: The currently available in vitro and in vivo methods for reaction phenotyping are summarized along with their advantages, limitations and timings for application during the different stages of drug discovery and development...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
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