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Clinical Drug studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684822/sexual-dysfunction-among-nigerian-women-with-epilepsy
#1
Luqman Ogunjimi, Joseph Yaria, Akintomiwa Makanjuola, Adesola Ogunniyi
OBJECTIVES: Sexual dysfunction (SD) has been shown to be more prevalent among females with epilepsy (FWE) when compared with controls. Identified risk factors for SD among FWE include depression, antiepileptic drug (AED) type, epileptic lateralization, and temporal lobe involvement. Despite a huge population of FWE in sub-Saharan Africa and by extension Nigeria, there are limited studies on the effect of AEDs and epilepsy on sexual function among FWE in the region. We therefore studied predictors and patterns of SD among Nigerian FWE...
April 20, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684817/avermectin-toxicity-in-bovines-less-than-thirty-days-old
#2
Daniel de Castro Rodrigues, Carolina Buzullini, Tiago Arantes Pereira, Breno Cayeiro Curz, Lucas Vinicius Costa Gomes, Vando Edésio Soares, Thiago Souza Azeredo Bastos, Luiz Fellipe Monteiro Couto, Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes, Gilson Pereira de Oliveira, Alvimar José da Costa
The present study was designed to evaluate possible adverse effects of different dosages of avermectins (abamectin and a combination of ivermectin + abamectin) administered subcutaneously in calves less than one month of age. Clinical as well as biochemical parameters of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were evaluated for animals subjected to various treatments. Thirty-five calves were divided into seven groups of five animals each: T01 (control), T02 (abamectin 200 μg/kg), T03 (abamectin 400 μg/kg), T04 (abamectin 600 μg/kg), T05 (ivermectin 450 μg/kg + abamectin 250 μg/kg), T06 (ivermectin 900 μg/kg + abamectin 500 μg/kg) and T07 (ivermectin 1350 μg/kg + abamectin 750 μg/kg)...
April 16, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684680/licochalcone-a-an-effective-and-low-toxicity-compound-against-toxoplasma-gondii-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Hongfei Si, Chunyan Xu, Jili Zhang, Xukun Zhang, Bing Li, Xuzheng Zhou, Jiyu Zhang
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan, is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, which can cause serious public health problems. The current drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis have many limitations. This study evaluated the anti-T. gondii activity and potential mechanism of Licochalcone A (Lico A) in vitro and in vivo. The safe concentration of Lico A in HFF cells was determined by MTT cell viability assays. The presence of T. gondii was assessed by qPCR and Giemsa staining. Azithromycin and sulfadiazine, commonly used effective treatments, served as drug controls...
March 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684638/medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-a-survey-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-among-dentists-in-the-principality-of-asturias-spain
#4
M Escobedo, L García-Consuegra, S Junquera, S Olay, G Ascani, L Junquera
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge and capabilities of dentists and dental students in their last year of study in regard to risk factors of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in Spain. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of a questionnaire survey in Asturias, Spain. The study was divided into three groups: dentists who worked for the public dental health care system (n=32), dentists who worked exclusively as private health care practitioners (n= 136), and dental students in their last year (year five) of study (n= 38)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684498/multi-modal-characterization-of-vasculature-and-nanoparticle-accumulation-in-five-tumor-xenograft-models
#5
Einar Sulheim, Jana Kim, Annemieke van Wamel, Eugene Kim, Sofie Snipstad, Igor Vidic, Ingeborg Hovde Grimstad, Marius Widerøe, Sverre H Torp, Steinar Lundgren, David J Waxman, Catharina de Lange Davies
Preclinical research has demonstrated that nanoparticles and macromolecules can accumulate in solid tumors due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, drug loaded nanoparticles often fail to show increased efficacy in clinical trials. A better understanding of how tumor heterogeneity affects nanoparticle accumulation could help elucidate this discrepancy and help in patient selection for nanomedicine therapy. Here we studied five human tumor models with varying morphology and evaluated the accumulation of 100 nm polystyrene nanoparticles...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684472/reserpine-induced-depression-is-associated-in-female-but-not-in-male-adolescent-rats-with-heightened-fluoxetine-sensitive-ethanol-consumption
#6
Paul Ruiz, Aldo Calliari, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Depression usually emerges during adolescence, is significantly more frequent in women, and exhibits comorbidity with alcohol (ethanol) use disorders. Most of the pre-clinical studies assessing the link between depression and ethanol intake, however, have employed only males or relied on stress-induced depression, or induced the experimentally-induced, depressive-like phenotype, during adolescence yet measured ethanol intake at adulthood. This study assessed, in Wistar male and female adolescent rats, the effects of inducing experimental depression (via administration of 1...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684319/lipid-accumulation-product-index-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-marker-of-cardiovascular-risk
#7
Milena Maria Moreira Guimarães, Dirceu Bartolomeu Greco, Allyson Nogueira Moreira, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Cláudia Maria Vilas Freire, Bruna Guimarães Rolfs, Lucas José de Campos Machado
The lipid accumulation product (LAP) index is an emerging cardiovascular risk marker. We aimed to assess the accuracy of this index as a marker of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional study of 133 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral drugs and 20 non-infected controls was conducted at the outpatient clinic of a referral center of infectious and parasitic diseases. Evaluations included LAP index, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glucose tolerance test, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels...
April 20, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684277/immunopet-imaging-of-endogenous-and-transfected-prolactin-receptor-tumor-xenografts
#8
Sarah M Cheal, Shutian Ruan, Darren R Veach, Valerie A Longo, Blesida J Punzalan, Jiong Wu, Edward K Fung, Marcus P Kelly, Jessica R Kirshner, Jason T Giurleo, George Ehrlich, Amy Q Han, Gavin Thurston, William C Olson, Pat B Zanzonico, Steven M Larson, Jorge A Carrasquillo
OBJECTIVE: Antibodies labeled with positron-emitting isotopes have been used for tumor detection, predicting which patients may respond to tumor antigen-directed therapy, and assessing pharmacodynamic effects of drug interventions. Prolactin receptor (PRLR) is overexpressed in breast and prostate cancers and is a new target for cancer therapy. We evaluated REGN2878, an anti-PRLR monoclonal antibody, as an immunoPET reagent. METHODS: REGN2878 was labeled with Zr-89 after conjugation with desferrioxamine B or labeled with I-131/I-124...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684118/spontaneous-endometriosis-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-as-a-clinically-relevant-experimental-model
#9
A Nishimoto-Kakiuchi, S Netsu, S Okabayashi, K Taniguchi, H Tanimura, A Kato, M Suzuki, T Sankai, R Konno
STUDY QUESTION: Does spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys have the characteristics required of a good experimental model? SUMMARY ANSWER: Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar clinicopathological characteristics to the human disease and was useful as an experimental model. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The prevalence of endometriosis in autopsied cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a breeding colony was reported to be 28...
April 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683977/slco1b1-polymorphism-is-a-drug-response-predictive-marker-for-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-patients-treated-with-gemcitabine-s-1-or-gemcitabine-plus-s-1
#10
Yasunori Sato, Hideki Ueno, Tatsuya Ioka, Shinichi Ohkawa, Masafumi Ikeda, Tomotaka Shimamura, Akihito Tsuji, Yoshiaki Tsuchiya, Junji Furuse, Hiroshi Ishii, Ken Furuya, Haruo Iguchi, Yoshihiro Saito, Nahoko Kaniwa, Jun-Ichi Sawada, Hiromi Sakamoto, Akihiro Sekine, Takuji Okusaka, Teruhiko Yoshida
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on advanced pancreatic cancer risk and overall survival (OS) in a candidate-gene approach. METHODS: Overall, 5438 SNPs in 219 candidate genes encoding several drug-metabolizing enzymes or transporters were analyzed. In the screening study, 3 SNPs were found associated with OS (P ≤ 0.0005). We validated these SNPs as part of the randomized phase 3 study (GEST study)...
April 19, 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683873/eltrombopag-induced-acute-liver-failure-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacogenetic-analysis
#11
M Marano, J Serafinelli, S Cairoli, D Martinelli, M Pisani, G Palumbo, M G Cefalo, C Cecchetti, M Di Nardo, F S Falvella, B M Goffredo
Eltrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin-receptor-agonist (TPO-RA) approved for the treatment of patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), who are more than one year old, and show poor response to first-line therapy. ITP is a hematological disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia in the absence of secondary causes or disorders. Eltrombopag is generally well tolerated in the pediatric population, therefore therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is not usually performed in clinical practice...
April 20, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683791/is-clinical-assessment-of-addiction-severity-of-individuals-with-substance-use-disorder-using-the-addiction-severity-index-a-predictor-of-future-inpatient-mental-health-hospitalization-a-nine-year-registry-study
#12
Mojgan Padyab, Bengt-Åke Armelius, Kerstin Armelius, Siv Nyström, Björn Blom, Ann-Sofie Grönlund, Lena Lundgren
OBJECTIVE: In Sweden, the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare's recommended substance use disorder (SUD) assessment tool and used routinely for patient intakes. Our study of 213 individuals assessed for SUD with the ASI, used nine years of the National Patient Register, and examined if clinical social workers' assessments of addiction severity at baseline were associated with later hospitalizations for mental health disorder (MHD). METHODS: ASI Composite Scores (CS) and Interviewer severity rating were used to measure client's problems in seven areas (mental health, family and social relationships, alcohol, drug use, health and legal) at baseline...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683704/how-do-electronic-cigarettes-affect-cravings-to-smoke-or-vape-parsing-the-influences-of-nicotine-and-expectancies-using-the-balanced-placebo-design
#13
Amanda M Palmer, Thomas H Brandon
OBJECTIVE: Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are frequently initiated for smoking cessation, results from the first two clinical trials testing this suggest that the perceived benefits of vaping may be influenced by non-nicotine factors, including cognitive outcome expectancies. The current study investigated the separate and combined effects of nicotine delivery and outcome expectancies on cravings for cigarettes and e-cigarettes using a balanced-placebo experiment. METHOD: Drug dosage (contains nicotine or not) was crossed with instructional set (told nicotine or non-nicotine) during ad lib e-cigarette use sessions by 128 current e-cigarette users (52 identifying as current cigarette smokers or "dual users")...
May 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683474/antidepressants-for-the-treatment-of-depression-in-people-with-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Giovanni Ostuzzi, Faith Matcham, Sarah Dauchy, Corrado Barbui, Matthew Hotopf
BACKGROUND: Major depression and other depressive conditions are common in people with cancer. These conditions are not easily detectable in clinical practice, due to the overlap between medical and psychiatric symptoms, as described by diagnostic manuals such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Moreover, it is particularly challenging to distinguish between pathological and normal reactions to such a severe illness...
April 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683393/usefulness-and-correlation-with-clinical-response-of-serum-ustekinumab-levels-measured-at-6-weeks-versus-12-weeks
#15
M Toro-Montecinos, F Ballescá, C Ferrandiz, A Teniente-Serra, E Martinez-Caceres, J M Carrascosa
BACKGROUND: Monitoring serum drug levels has been proposed as a useful tool for improving and personalising the management of psoriasis. However, in the case of ustekinumab the usefulness of such monitoring was not demonstrated when drug levels were measured at week 12. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the correlation of serum ustekinumab levels measured at weeks 6 and 12 with clinical response. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we enrolled patients with psoriasis treated with ustekinumab 45 mg every 12 weeks for at least 24 weeks...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683383/lipid-nanoparticles-enabling-gene-therapies-from-concepts-to-clinical-utility
#16
Jayesh A Kulkarni, Pieter R Cullis, Roy van der Meel
Genetic drugs based on RNA or DNA have remarkable therapeutic potential as virtually any disease can be treated by silencing a pathological gene, expressing a beneficial protein, or by editing defective genes. However, therapies based on nucleic acid polymers require sophisticated delivery systems to deliver these macromolecules to the interior of target cells. In this study, we review progress in developing nonviral lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery systems that have attractive properties, including ease of manufacture, reduced immune responses, multidosing capabilities, larger payloads, and flexibility of design...
April 23, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683370/nutritional-supplement-bao-khi-khang-as-an-adjuvant-therapy-in-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Ba X Hoang, Bo Han, Hoang X Nguyen, Khanh T Dang
To investigate the effectiveness of nutritional supplement Bao Khi Khang as an adjuvant therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to conventional therapy alone. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label controlled trial in 60 patients presenting with acute exacerbation of COPD. Patients were randomized into two groups, the control and the experimental groups. The control group was treated with the standard therapeutic protocol (Antimicrobial+Corticosteroids+Bronchodilator+Mucolytic drugs)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683367/insights-into-apoptotic-proteins-in-chemotherapy-quantification-techniques-and-informing-therapy-choice
#18
Janine Naß, Thomas Efferth
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A hallmark of cancer is evasion of apoptosis leading to tumor progression and drug resistance. Biomarker research has become a sign of the times, and proteins involved in apoptosis may be used for clinical diagnostic or prognostic purposes in cancer treatment. The recent progress in proteomic technology has triggered an emerging number of researchers to study the molecular mechanisms that regulate the apoptotic signal transduction pathways in cancer...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683357/synthesis-screening-and-nanocrystals-preparation-of-rhein-amide-derivatives
#19
Lijiang Chen, Jinfeng Zhang, Jinghong Rong, Yu Liu, Jinhua Zhao, Qingguo Cui, Xin Wang, Xiao Liang, Hao Pan, Hongsheng Liu
Rhein (RH) have many bioactivities, but the application was limited of its poor solubility. The present study aimed to establish an efficient method for the synthesis of rhein amide derivatives (RAD) to increase the solubility and anti-tumor activity. RAD exhibited stronger anti-tumor activity than RH in MTT assay. The solubility and oil/water partition coefficient results indicated that rhein-phenylalanine and rhein-isoleucine have better absorption effect, which was consolidated in pharmacokinetic study. Then, rhein-phenylalanine and rhein-isoleucine were prepared into nanocrystals via the precipitation-high pressure homogenization method...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683356/is-current-smoking-status-and-its-relationship-to-anti-cyclic-citrullinated-peptide-antibodies-a-predictor-of-worse-response-to-biological-therapies-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#20
V Torrente-Segarra, S A Bergstra, K Salomon-Escoto, Jap Da Silva, D J Veale, S Al-Emadi, Twj Huizinga
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between smoking, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody status, and clinical efficacy of biological therapies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHOD: This retrospective clinical practice setting study included 1349 RA patients from the METEOR database (aged >18 years). We collected data on sociodemographics, smoking status (smoker, <10, 10-19, and >20 cigarettes/day; ex-smoker; non-smoker), baseline disease activity parameters and anti-CCP, previous disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), biological therapy, combined therapy (steroids and DMARDs), and follow-up disease activity...
April 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
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