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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813024/cytomegalovirus-infection-in-immunocompetent-critically-ill-adults-literature-review
#1
REVIEW
Awad Al-Omari, Fadi Aljamaan, Waleed Alhazzani, Samer Salih, Yaseen Arabi
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is increasingly recognized in critically ill immunocompetent patients. Some studies have demonstrated an association between CMV disease and increased mortality rates, prolonged intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and nosocomial infections. However, there is a considerable controversy whether such association represents a causal relationship between CMV disease and unfavorable outcomes or just a marker of the severity of the critical illness...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733360/antenatal-corticosteroids-for-maturity-of-term-or-near-term-fetuses-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Gabriele Saccone, Vincenzo Berghella
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal corticosteroids given at ≥34 weeks' gestation. DESIGN:  Systematic review with meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES:  Electronic databases were searched from their inception to February 2016. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION:  Randomized clinical trials comparing antenatal corticosteroids with placebo or no treatment in women with a singleton pregnancy at ≥34 weeks' gestation...
October 12, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723018/the-effect-of-general-anaesthesia-and-neuromuscular-blockade-on-eustachian-tube-compliance-a-prospective-study
#3
Akeelesh Mungur, Guy Cochard, Yves Ozier, Pierre Lafère
OBJECTIVE: The most common complications of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) are related to pressure changes on gas-containing cavities. Therefore, inability to auto-inflate the middle ear may result in transient or permanent hearing loss. However, it seems that middle ear barotrauma (MEBt) does not develop more often in mechanically ventilated patients than in ambulatory patients. This might be explained by deep sedation of these patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether anaesthesia and/or neuromuscular blockade can influence Eustachian tube (ET) function...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677650/inhibitory-effect-of-high-frequency-greater-occipital-nerve-electrical-stimulation-on-trigeminovascular-nociceptive-processing-in-rats
#4
Olga A Lyubashina, Sergey S Panteleev, Alexey Y Sokolov
Electrical stimulation of the greater occipital nerve (GON) has recently shown promise as an effective non-pharmacological prophylactic therapy for drug-resistant chronic primary headaches, but the neurobiological mechanisms underlying its anticephalgic action are not elucidated. Considering that the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) is a key segmental structure playing a prominent role in pathophysiology of headaches, in the present study we evaluated the effects of GON electrical stimulation on ongoing and evoked firing of the dura-sensitive STN neurons...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635481/pantoprazole-or-placebo-for-stress-ulcer-prophylaxis-pop-up-randomized-double-blind-exploratory-study
#5
Shane P Selvanderan, Matthew J Summers, Mark E Finnis, Mark P Plummer, Yasmine Ali Abdelhamid, Michael B Anderson, Marianne J Chapman, Christopher K Rayner, Adam M Deane
OBJECTIVES: Pantoprazole is frequently administered to critically ill patients for prophylaxis against gastrointestinal bleeding. However, comparison to placebo has been inadequately evaluated, and pantoprazole has the potential to cause harm. Our objective was to evaluate benefit or harm associated with pantoprazole administration. DESIGN: Prospective randomized double-blind parallel-group study. SETTING: University-affiliated mixed medical-surgical ICU...
October 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626833/mechanical-ventilation-to-minimize-progression-of-lung-injury-in-acute-respiratory-failure
#6
Laurent Brochard, Arthur Slutsky, Antonio Pesenti
Mechanical Ventilation (MV) is used to sustain life in patients with acute respiratory failure. A major concern in mechanically ventilated patients is the risk of Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI), which is partially prevented by lung protective ventilation. Spontaneously breathing, non-intubated, patients with acute respiratory failure may have a high respiratory drive and breathe with large tidal volumes and potentially injurious transpulmonary pressure swings. In patients with existing lung injury, regional forces generated by the respiratory muscles may lead to injurious effects on a regional level...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591357/is-inhaled-prophylactic-heparin-useful-for-prevention-and-management-of-pneumonia-in-ventilated-icu-patients
#7
(no author information available yet)
PURPOSE: The purpose was to determine the efficacy of prophylactic inhaled heparin for the prevention and treatment of pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV). METHODS: A phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled trial stratified for study center and patient type (nonoperative, postoperative) was conducted in 3 university-affiliated intensive care units. Patients aged at least 18 years and requiring invasive MV for more than 48 hours were randomized to usual care, nebulization of unfractionated sodium heparin (5000 U in 2 mL), or nebulization with 0...
October 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571256/low-dose-dexmedetomidine-improves-sleep-quality-pattern-in-elderly-patients-after-noncardiac-surgery-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Xin-Hai Wu, Fan Cui, Cheng Zhang, Zhao-Ting Meng, Dong-Xin Wang, Jing Ma, Guang-Fa Wang, Sai-Nan Zhu, Daqing Ma
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after surgery often develop sleep disturbances. The authors tested the hypothesis that low-dose dexmedetomidine infusion could improve sleep architecture in nonmechanically ventilated elderly patients in the ICU after surgery. METHODS: This was a pilot, randomized controlled trial. Seventy-six patients age 65 yr or older who were admitted to the ICU after noncardiac surgery and did not require mechanical ventilation were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine (continuous infusion at a rate of 0...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568901/outcomes-associated-with-early-postoperative-noninvasive-ventilation-in-bariatric-surgical-patients-with-sleep-apnea
#9
Mihaela S Stefan, Nicholas S Hill, Karthik Raghunathan, Xiaoxia Liu, Penelope S Pekow, Stavros G Memtsoudis, Satya Krishna Ramachandran, Peter K Lindenauer
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship of early initiation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with postoperative outcomes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS: We included 5,266 patients with OSA undergoing bariatric surgeries at 161 hospitals in the United States. We defined early postoperative NIV as NIV used on the day of or the day after surgery; this could include prophylactic NIV or NIV used for early signs of respiratory deterioration...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402562/effect-of-betamethasone-surfactant-and-positive-end-expiratory-pressures-on-lung-aeration-at-birth-in-preterm-rabbits
#10
Jessica R Crawshaw, Stuart B Hooper, Arjan B Te Pas, Beth A Allison, Megan J Wallace, Lauren Kerr, Robert A Lewis, Colin J Morley, Andrew F Leong, Marcus John Kitchen
Antenatal glucocorticoids, exogenous surfactant and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation are commonly provided to preterm infants to enhance respiratory function after birth. It is unclear how these treatments interact to improve the transition to air-breathing at birth. We investigated the relative contribution of antenatal betamethasone, prophylactic surfactant and PEEP (3 cmH2O) on functional residual capacity (FRC) and dynamic lung compliance (CDL) in preterm (28d GA) rabbit kittens at birth...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388444/predictive-factors-for-efficacy-and-safety-of-prophylactic-theophylline-for-extubation-in-infants-with-apnea-of-prematurity
#11
Tomoko Kondo, Yuki Kondo, Yuji Orita, Fumi Mitarai, Yoichi Ishitsuka, Mitsuru Irikura, Yoshihiro Shimodozono, Tsutomu Douchi, Yasuo Takeda, Tetsumi Irie
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors involved in efficacy and safety in Japanese infants who received theophylline therapy to prevent apnea of prematurity (AOP) after weaning from mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of infants who were administered intravenous aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine) for AOP at the neonatal intensive care unit, Kagoshima University Hospital, Japan, between January 2009 and June 2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27288618/is-inhaled-prophylactic-heparin-useful-for-prevention-and-management-of-pneumonia-in-ventilated-icu-patients-the-iphivap-investigators-of-the-australian-and-new-zealand-intensive-care-society-clinical-trials-group
#12
Hiran Bandeshe, Rob Boots, Joel Dulhunty, Rachael Dunlop, Anthony Holley, Paul Jarrett, Charles D Gomersall, Jeff Lipman, Thomas Lo, Steven O'Donoghue, Jenny Paratz, David Paterson, Jason A Roberts, Therese Starr, Di Stephens, Janine Stuart, Jane Thomas, Andrew Udy, Hayden White
PURPOSE: To determine whether prophylactic inhaled heparin is effective for the prevention and treatment of pneumonia patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) in the intensive care unit. METHODS: A phase 2, double blind randomized controlled trial stratified for study center and patient type (non-operative, post-operative) was conducted in three university-affiliated intensive care units. Patients aged ≥18years and requiring invasive MV for more than 48hours were randomized to usual care, nebulization of unfractionated sodium heparin (5000 units in 2mL) or placebo nebulization with 0...
August 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279591/preoperative-intra-aortic-balloon-pump-improves-the-clinical-outcomes-of-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-in-left-ventricular-dysfunction-patients
#13
Feng Yang, Jinhong Wang, Dengbang Hou, Jialin Xing, Feng Liu, Zhi Chen Xing, Chunjing Jiang, Xing Hao, Zhongtao Du, Xiaofang Yang, Yanyan Zhao, Na Miao, Yu Jiang, Ran Dong, Chengxiong Gu, Lizhong Sun, Hong Wang, Xiaotong Hou
Severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) are often associated with a higher mortality. The efficacy and safety of the preoperative prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion is not well established. 416 consecutive patients with severe LV dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤35%) undergoing isolated OPCAB were enrolled in a retrospective observational study. 191 patients was enrolled in the IABP group; the remaining 225 patients was in control group...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27233040/clinical-factors-associated-with-inappropriate-prophylaxis-of-venous-thromboembolic-disease-in-critically-ill-patients-a-single-day-cross-sectional-study
#14
Pablo García-Olivares, Jose Eugenio Guerrero, Elena Keough, Pedro Galdos, Demetrio Carriedo, Francisco Murillo, Antonio Rivera
PURPOSE: A poor implementation of VTE prophylactic measures recommended for critically ill patients has been observed in several epidemiological studies. The clinical factors associated with this have not been clearly established. The objective of our study was to identify which factors could be related to the inappropriate use of VTE prophylaxis. METHODS: Analytic epidemiological study based on different aspects of VTE prophylaxis performed on Spanish ICU patients...
July 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221999/in-patients-with-a-tumour-invading-the-phrenic-nerve-does-prophylactic-diaphragm-plication-improve-postoperative-lung-function
#15
Gwyn W Beattie, William G Dunn, Mohammed Asif
A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'In patients with tumours involving the phrenic nerve, does prophylactic diaphragm plication improve lung function following tumour resection?' Using the reported search, 258 papers were found of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated...
September 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054844/effect-of-prophylactic-cpap-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-in-south-america
#16
J R Zubizarreta, S A Lorch, G Marshall, I D'Apremont, J L Tapia
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of prophylactic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on infants born in 25 South American neonatal intensive care units affiliated with the Neocosur Neonatal Network using novel multivariate matching methods. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort was constructed of infants with a birth weight 500 to 1500 g born between 2005 and 2011 who clinically were eligible for prophylactic CPAP. Patients who received prophylactic CPAP were matched to those who did not on 23 clinical and sociodemographic variables (N=1268)...
August 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051615/impact-of-chlorhexidine-mouthwash-prophylaxis-on-probable-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#17
Emmanuel N Enwere, Kathryn A Elofson, Rachel C Forbes, Anthony T Gerlach
BACKGROUND: Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia is a healthcare goal. Although data is inconsistent, some studies suggest that oral chlorhexidine may decrease rates of pneumonia in mechanically-ventilated patients. We sought to assess the rate of pneumonia in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) pre and post implementation of routine chlorhexidine mouthwash prophylaxis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, including patients between 1/1/2009 and 12/31/2009 who did not receive chlorhexidine mouthwash compared to patients that received prophylactic chlorhexidine mouthwash between 3/1/2010 and 2/28/2011...
January 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034777/best-practice-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-paediatric-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#18
REVIEW
Simon B Drysdale, Christopher A Green, Charles J Sande
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is ubiquitous with almost all infants having been infected by 2 years of age and lifelong repeated infections common. It is the second largest cause of mortality, after malaria, in infants outside the neonatal period and causes up to 200,000 deaths per year worldwide. RSV results in clinical syndromes that include upper respiratory tract infections, otitis media, bronchiolitis (up to 80% of cases) and lower respiratory tract disease including pneumonia and exacerbations of asthma or viral-induced wheeze...
April 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26923502/sustained-inflation-prophylactic-or-rescue-maneuver
#19
REVIEW
G Lista, F Cavigioli, F Castoldi, L J I Zimmermann
Application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in the delivery room is a valid alternative to mechanical ventilation in the management of respiratory failure of preterm infants, with reduced occurrence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and death. nCPAP at birth is still burdened by a high failure rate. Sustained inflation appears to be an intriguing approach to allow the respiratory transition at birth by clearing the lung fluid, thus obtaining an adequate functional residual capacity. This may enhance nCPAP success...
June 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908007/-depressive-anxiety-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorders-as-long-term-sequelae-of-intensive-care-treatment
#20
H-P Kapfhammer
Modern intensive care medicine has led to increased survival rates even after severe life-threatening medical conditions. In self-critical and multidimensional outcome research, however, it must be considered that beyond survival rates treatment on intensive care units (ICU) can also be associated with high long-term rates of depressive, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorders. Significant correlations with increased somatic morbidity and mortality, persisting cognitive impairments and significant deficits in health-related quality of life must also be taken into consideration...
March 2016: Der Nervenarzt
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