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prophylactic mechanical ventilation

Mark van den Boogaard, Arjen J C Slooter, Roger J M Brüggemann, Lisette Schoonhoven, Albertus Beishuizen, J Wytze Vermeijden, Danie Pretorius, Jan de Koning, Koen S Simons, Paul J W Dennesen, Peter H J Van der Voort, Saskia Houterman, J G van der Hoeven, Peter Pickkers
Importance: Results of studies on use of prophylactic haloperidol in critically ill adults are inconclusive, especially in patients at high risk of delirium. Objective: To determine whether prophylactic use of haloperidol improves survival among critically ill adults at high risk of delirium, which was defined as an anticipated intensive care unit (ICU) stay of at least 2 days. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigator-driven study involving 1789 critically ill adults treated at 21 ICUs, at which nonpharmacological interventions for delirium prevention are routinely used in the Netherlands...
February 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
E Guerra Hernández, A Rodríguez Pérez, J Freixinet Gilard, M N Martín Álamo, M Escudero Socorro, P Rodríguez Suárez, A M Esquinas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the prophylactic application of BiPAP previous to lung resection and 17 hours postoperatively improves respiratory function. In order to do this, we studied the results of arterial blood gases and portable spirometry in the immediate postoperative period and at the first and third postoperative day. Secondary objectives included evaluating whether this same pattern decreases the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) and hospital stay. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized clinical study...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Mehmet Deliktaş, Hacer Ergin, Aydın Demiray, Hakan Akça, Özmert M A Özdemir, Mehmet Bülent Özdemir
OBJECTIVE: Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) may cause neurotoxicity in preterm neonates due to immaturity of UGT1A1 leading to bilirubin accumulation in the brain. Caffeine used in the treatment of apnea of prematurity was reported to decrease mechanical ventilation requirement, the frequencies of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, cerebral palsy and neurodevelopmental disorders in very low birth weight infants. However, the effect of caffeine on hyperbilirubinemia was not yet clarified...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Robert S Ream, Eric S Armbrecht
INTRODUCTION: Reports of actual pediatric organ donor management practice among US organ procurement organizations are sparse, and the use of standardized management guidelines is unknown. A recent consensus statement from the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American College of Chest Physicians, and the Association of Organ Procurement Organizations offers guidelines for the management of the pediatric organ donor. RESEARCH QUESTION: To describe the use of guidelines and routine practices in the management of the pediatric organ donor with respect to hemodynamics, lung and ventilator management, fluid and electrolytes, hormonal replacement therapy, the use of blood products, thermoregulation, and prophylactic antibiotics...
January 1, 2017: Progress in Transplantation
Amaro Afrânio de Araújo-Filho, Manoel Luiz de Cerqueira-Neto, Lucas de Assis Pereira Cacau, Géssica Uruga Oliveira, Telma Cristina Fontes Cerqueira, Valter Joviniano de Santana-Filho
OBJECTIVE: During cardiac surgery, several factors contribute to the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Non-invasive ventilation is a promising therapeutic tool for improving the functionality of this type of patient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the functional capacity and length of stay of patients in a nosocomial intensive care unit who underwent prophylactic non-invasive ventilation after heart valve replacement. METHOD: The study was a controlled clinical trial, comprising 50 individuals of both sexes who were allocated by randomization into two groups with 25 patients in each group: the control group and experimental group...
October 2017: Clinics
Zainab Almooosa, Gasmelseed Y Ahmed, Abeer Omran, Ayah AlSarheed, Afnan Alturki, Abdulaziz Alaqeel, Mohammed Alshehri, Tariq Alfawaz, Dayel AlShahrani
To identify predisposing factors, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, and outcome. Methods: This study is a retrospective chart review that was conducted at a children's hospital at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. One hundred twenty-nine children with invasive candidiasis who were admitted between January 2010 and January 2015. Results: The statistical analysis results have revealed a group of risk factors; prematurity in 37 (28.7%) of patients, low birth weight in 42 (32...
November 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
Ishmael M Inocencio, Robert J Bischof, Sue D Xiang, Valerie A Zahra, Vy Nguyen, Tammy Lim, Domenic LaRosa, Jade Barbuto, Mary Tolcos, Magdalena Plebanski, Graeme R Polglase, Timothy J Moss
Mechanical ventilation of preterm neonates causes lung inflammation and injury, with potential life-long consequences. Inert 50-nm polystyrene nanoparticles (PS50G) reduce allergic inflammation in the lungs of adult mice. We aimed to confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of PS50G in a sheep asthma model, and investigate the effects of prophylactic administration of PS50G on ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) in preterm lambs. We assessed lung inflammatory cell infiltration, with and without PS50G, after airway allergen challenge in ewes sensitised to house dust mite...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Teresa C Rice, Amanda M Pugh, Aaron P Seitz, Erich Gulbins, Vanessa Nomellini, Charles C Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Bacterial lung infection is a leading cause of death for those 65 y or older, often requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation, which consumes considerable health care resources. Although administration of antibiotics is the standard of care for bacterial pneumonia, its overuse has led to the emergence of multidrug resistant organisms. Therefore, alternative strategies to help minimize the effects of bacterial pneumonia in the elderly are necessary...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
Ayesha Saleem
Role of prophylactic anticoagulation in acutely ill medical patients has been extensively probed with the development of guidelines which made it convenient for the physicians to adopt a particular anticoagulation regimen for thromboprophylaxis. Intermingled with the guidelines are the development of modern anticoagulants like direct factor Xa inhibitors which are being studied for their role in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medically ill patients and have been concluded so far with the positive note...
September 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Frederico Castro Costa Póvoa, Pablo Cardinal-Fernandez, Israel Silva Maia, Maycon Moura Reboredo, Bruno Valle Pinheiro
PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of antibiotics administered via the respiratory tract to prevent the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients. METHODS: We searched relevant articles for trials that evaluated the impact of prophylactic antibiotics administered through the respiratory tract on the occurrence of VAP. The end-point was the occurrence of VAP in MV patients. RESULTS: We included 6 comparative trials involving 1158 patients (632 received prophylactic antibiotic)...
February 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Jie Zhang, Taiqiang Zhao, Shanshan Long, Xin Liu, Hua Yu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative infection in Chinese lung cancer patients. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed in PubMed, EMbase, CNKI, and WanFang Data databases to identify studies investigating risk factors for postoperative infection in Chinese lung cancer patients. Meta-analysis was performed by using Revman 5.2 software. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that old age, male gender, diabetes, cigarette smoking, squamous cell carcinoma, pulmonary diseases, longer of mechanical ventilation, and longer time of surgery procedure were associated with increased risk of postoperative infection...
November 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Andreas Schwingshackl, Benjamin Lopez, Bin Teng, Charlean Luellen, Florian Lesage, John Belperio, Riccardo Olcese, Christopher M Waters
We previously proposed a role for the two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel TREK-1 in hyperoxia (HO)-induced lung injury. To determine whether redundancy among the three TREK isoforms (TREK-1, TREK-2, and TRAAK) could protect from HO-induced injury, we now examined the effect of deletion of all three TREK isoforms in a clinically relevant scenario of prolonged HO exposure and mechanical ventilation (MV). We exposed WT and TREK-1/TREK-2/TRAAK-deficient [triple knockout (KO)] mice to either room air, 72-h HO, MV [high and low tidal volume (TV)], or a combination of HO + MV and measured quasistatic lung compliance, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein concentration, histologic lung injury scores (LIS), cellular apoptosis, and cytokine levels...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Ajit P Limaye, Renee D Stapleton, Lili Peng, Scott R Gunn, Louise E Kimball, Robert Hyzy, Matthew C Exline, D Clark Files, Peter E Morris, Stephen K Frankel, Mark E Mikkelsen, Duncan Hite, Kyle B Enfield, Jay Steingrub, James O'Brien, Polly E Parsons, Joseph Cuschieri, Richard G Wunderink, David L Hotchkin, Ying Q Chen, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Michael Boeckh
Importance: The role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in mediating adverse clinical outcomes in nonimmunosuppressed adults with critical illness is unknown. Objective: To determine whether ganciclovir prophylaxis reduces plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in CMV-seropositive adults who are critically ill. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (conducted March 10, 2011-April 29, 2016) with a follow-up of 180 days (November 10, 2016) that included 160 CMV-seropositive adults with either sepsis or trauma and respiratory failure at 14 university intensive care units (ICUs) across the United States...
August 22, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Eleni Ischaki, Ioannis Pantazopoulos, Spyros Zakynthinos
Nasal high flow is a promising novel oxygen delivery device, whose mechanisms of action offer some beneficial effects over conventional oxygen systems. The administration of a high flow of heated and humidified gas mixture promotes higher and more stable inspiratory oxygen fraction values, decreases anatomical dead space and generates a positive airway pressure that can reduce the work of breathing and enhance patient comfort and tolerance. Nasal high flow has been used as a prophylactic tool or as a treatment device mostly in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, with the majority of studies showing positive results...
September 30, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Johanna Hummel, Gerta Rücker, Brigitte Stiller
BACKGROUND: Low cardiac output syndrome remains a serious complication, and accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality in the postoperative course of paediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Standard prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for low cardiac output syndrome are based mainly on catecholamines, which are effective drugs, but have considerable side effects. Levosimendan, a calcium sensitiser, enhances the myocardial function by generating more energy-efficient myocardial contractility than achieved via adrenergic stimulation with catecholamines...
August 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jan-Michael Van Gent, Richard Yee Calvo, Ashley L Zander, Erik J Olson, C Beth Sise, Michael J Sise, Steven R Shackford
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is typically reported as a composite measure of the quality of trauma center care. Given that recent data suggesting postinjury DVT and PE are distinct clinical processes, a better understanding may result from analyzing them as independent, competing events. Using competing risks analysis, we evaluated our hypothesis that the risk factors and timing of postinjury DVT and PE are different...
December 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jiyoung Chun, Se In Sung, Yo Han Ho, Jisook Kim, Ga Young Park, Shin Ae Yoon, So Yoon Ahn, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Prophylactic surfactant is known to be effective to reduce chronic lung disease in preterm infants compared with rescue surfactant treatment. In Korea, early prophylactic surfactant therapy was introduced in 2011. However, recently, the increased utilization of antenatal steroids and early stabilization through continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the delivery room may have changed the risks and benefits of prophylactic surfactant therapy of infants at high risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)...
August 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
G Ramos, W Cornistein, G Torres Cerino, G Nacif
OBJECTIVE: To review studies of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in burn patients. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for human clinical trials performed between 1966 and 2016 that compared prophylactic systemic antibiotics with placebo or no intervention. RESULTS: Nineteen trials met the selection criteria. Early postburn prophylaxis was assessed in non-severe burn patients (six trials) and severe burn patients (seven trials). Antimicrobial prophylaxis showed no effectiveness for the prevention of toxic shock syndrome or burn wound infection (Grade 1C), but could be useful in patients with severe burns and requirement for mechanical ventilation (Grade 2B)...
October 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
G Lista, I Bresesti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Acta Paediatrica
Eduardo Santos, Daniela Cardoso, Hugo Neves, Madalena Cunha, Manuel Rodrigues, João Apóstolo
BACKGROUND: Delirium is associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, unplanned removal of tubes and catheters, and increased morbidity and mortality. Prophylactic treatment with low-dose haloperidol may have beneficial effects for critically ill patients with a high risk of delirium. OBJECTIVES: To identify the effectiveness of haloperidol prophylaxis in critically ill patients with a high risk for delirium...
May 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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