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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822329/changes-in-gluteal-muscle-forces-with-alteration-of-footstrike-pattern-during-running
#1
Charles Nathan Vannatta, Thomas W Kernozek, Naghmeh Gheidi
Gait retraining is a common form of treatment for running related injuries. Proximal factors at the hip have been postulated as having a role in the development of running related injuries. How altering footstrike affects hip muscles forces and kinematics has not been described. Thus, we aimed to quantify differences in hip muscle forces and hip kinematics that may occur when healthy runners are instructed to alter their foot strike pattern from their habitual rear-foot strike to a forefoot strike. This may gain insight on the potential etiology and treatment methods of running related lower extremity injury...
August 9, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819691/hypoxia-affects-tissue-oxygenation-differently-in-the-thigh-and-calf-muscles-during-incremental-running
#2
Takuya Osawa, Takuma Arimitsu, Hideyuki Takahashi
PURPOSE: The present study was performed to determine the impact of hypoxia on working muscle oxygenation during incremental running, and to compare tissue oxygenation between the thigh and calf muscles. METHODS: Nine distance runners and triathletes performed incremental running tests to exhaustion under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.15). Peak pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) were measured simultaneously in both the vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819051/the-effects-of-8-weeks-voluntary-wheel-running-on-the-contractile-performance-of-isolated-locomotory-soleus-and-respiratory-diaphragm-skeletal-muscle-during-early-ageing
#3
Jason Tallis, Matthew F Higgins, Frank Seebacher, Val M Cox, Michael J Duncan, Rob S James
Decreased skeletal muscle performance with increasing age is strongly associated with reduced mobility and quality of life. Increased physical activity is a widely prescribed method of reducing the detrimental effects of ageing on skeletal muscle contractility. The present study uses isometric and work loop testing protocols to uniquely investigate the effects of 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running on the contractile performance of isolated dynapenic soleus and diaphragm muscles of 38 week old CD1 mice. When compared to untrained controls, voluntary wheel running induced significant improvements in maximal isometric stress and work loop power, a reduced resistance to fatigue, but greater cumulative work during fatiguing work loop contractions in isolated muscle...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817655/assessing-experience-in-the-deliberate-practice-of-running-using-a-fuzzy-decision-support-system
#4
Maria Isabel Roveri, Edison de Jesus Manoel, Andrea Naomi Onodera, Neli R S Ortega, Vitor Daniel Tessutti, Emerson Vilela, Nelson Evêncio, Isabel C N Sacco
The judgement of skill experience and its levels is ambiguous though it is crucial for decision-making in sport sciences studies. We developed a fuzzy decision support system to classify experience of non-elite distance runners. Two Mamdani subsystems were developed based on expert running coaches' knowledge. In the first subsystem, the linguistic variables of training frequency and volume were combined and the output defined the quality of running practice. The second subsystem yielded the level of running experience from the combination of the first subsystem output with the number of competitions and practice time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817510/elite-distance-runners-a-45-year-follow-up
#5
Sarah Everman, James W Farris, R Curtis Bay, Jack T Daniels
PURPOSE: The present longitudinal study assessed cardiorespiratory capacity and running economy of Olympic athletes over several decades to measure changes in fitness in an elite group during aging. METHODS: Twenty-six male runners training for the 1968 Olympics were recruited. Heart rate, VO2max, ventilation, and running economy were measured in 1968, 1993, and 2013. In 2013, 22 of the original runners participated: three passed away between 1993 and 2013, and one declined to participate...
August 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808557/timing-and-pattern-of-annual-silver-eel-migration-in-two-european-watersheds-are-determined-by-similar-cues
#6
Odd Terje Sandlund, Ola H Diserud, Russell Poole, Knut Bergesen, Mary Dillane, Gerard Rogan, Caroline Durif, Eva B Thorstad, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
Many animals perform long-distance migrations in order to maximize lifetime reproductive success. The European eel migrates several thousand kilometers between their feeding habitats in continental waters (fresh-, brackish, and sea water) and their spawning area in the Sargasso Sea. Eels residing in freshwaters usually initiate their spawning migration as silver eels during autumn, triggered by diverse environmental cues. We analyzed the time series of silver eel downstream migration in Burrishoole, Ireland (1971-2015), and Imsa, Norway (1975-2015), to examine factors regulating the silver eel migration from freshwater to the sea...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808380/identification-and-analysis-of-jasmonate-pathway-genes-in-coffea-canephora-robusta-coffee-by-in-silico-approach
#7
Kosaraju Bharathi, H L Sreenath
BACKGROUND: Coffea canephora is the commonly cultivated coffee species in the world along with Coffea arabica. Different pests and pathogens affect the production and quality of the coffee. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone which plays an important role in plants growth, development, and defense mechanisms, particularly against insect pests. The key enzymes involved in the production of JA are lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase, allene oxide cyclase, and 12-oxo-phytodienoic reductase...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803134/age-related-changes-of-physiological-performance-and-survivorship-of-bank-voles-selected-for-high-aerobic-capacity
#8
Agata Marta Rudolf, Maciej Jan Dańko, Edyta Teresa Sadowska, Geoffrey Dheyongera, Paweł Koteja
Variation in lifespans is an intriguing phenomenon, but how metabolic rate influence this variation remains unclear. High aerobic capacity can result in health benefits, but also in increased oxidative damage and accelerated ageing. We tested these contradictory predictions using bank voles (Myodes=Clethrionomys glareolus) from lines selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A), which had about 50% higher maximum metabolic rate and a higher basal and routine metabolic rates, than those from unselected control lines (C)...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802455/from-control-to-causation-validating-a-complex-systems-model-of-running-related-injury-development-and-prevention
#9
A Hulme, P M Salmon, R O Nielsen, G J M Read, C F Finch
INTRODUCTION: There is a need for an ecological and complex systems approach for better understanding the development and prevention of running-related injury (RRI). In a previous article, we proposed a prototype model of the Australian recreational distance running system which was based on the Systems Theoretic Accident Mapping and Processes (STAMP) method. That model included the influence of political, organisational, managerial, and sociocultural determinants alongside individual-level factors in relation to RRI development...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800006/match-demands-of-senior-and-junior-players-during-international-rugby-league
#10
Gary M Dempsey, Neil V Gibson, Dave Sykes, Brad Pryjmachuk, Anthony P Turner
This study aims to quantify and compare the positional game demands of international junior and senior rugby league competition for the first time. Global Positioning System (GPS) and video analysis were used to track 118 elite male rugby league players (57 seniors aged 28.7 ± 4.4 y; 61 juniors aged 17.2 ± .5 y) over 10 international matches (6 senior; 4 junior) characterized as either forwards (n = 67) or backs (n = 51). There were significant increases in the offensive carries (0.18 cf. 0.09 n.min; r = ...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790928/enhanced-right-chamber-remodeling-in-endurance-ultra-trail-athletes-compared-to-marathon-runners-detected-by-standard-and-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#11
Kristian Ujka, Luca Bastiani, Gennaro D'Angelo, Bruna Catuzzo, Alessandro Tonacci, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Alessandra Vezzoli, Guido Giardini, Lorenza Pratali
Background: Strenuous and endurance exercise training have been associated with morphological and functional heart remodeling. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel technique that allows an accurate quantification of global myocardium deformation. Our aim was to evaluate together left and right cardiac remodeling in different long-distance running athletes: marathon runners (42 km) (M) and endurance mountain runners (>300 Km) (UT). Methods: A total of 92 athletes (70 males, 76%) including 47 M [age 45 ± 7 years; training: 18 (9-53) years(*)days/week], 45 UT [age 42 ± 9, training: 30 (15-66) years(*)days/week] underwent conventional echocardiography and STE (Beyond Diogenes 2...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783847/movement-patterns-of-a-u-20-national-women%C3%A2-s-soccer-team-during-competitive-matches-influence-of-playing-position-and-performance-in-the-first-half
#12
Guilherme Passos Ramos, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Lucas Adriano Pereira, Wanderley Brilhante Junior, Fábio Mahseredjian, Carolina Franco Wilke, Emerson Silami Garcia, Cândido Celso Coimbra
The aim of this study was to determine the match locomotor characteristics of a sample of U-20 Brazilian female soccer players. Seven international matches were analyzed during the 2015 U-20 South American Championship, using global positioning technology. During a typical match, fullbacks and forwards covered greater distances in high-intensity running and sprinting than central defenders and midfielders (effect size [ES]=1.42-3.69). In the final 15 min of a game, total and high-intensity running distance and player load were ≈20 to 35% (ES=0...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774707/2d-projection-based-software-application-for-mobile-c-arms-optimises-wire-placement-in-the-proximal-femur-an-experimental-study
#13
B Swartman, D Frere, W Wei, M Schnetzke, N Beisemann, H Keil, J Franke, P A Grützner, S Y Vetter
PURPOSE: A new software application can be used without fixed reference markers or a registration process in wire placement. The aim was to compare placement of Kirschner wires (K-wires) into the proximal femur with the software application versus the conventional method without guiding. As study hypothesis, we assumed less placement attempts, shorter procedure time and shorter fluoroscopy time using the software. The same precision inside a proximal femur bone model using the software application was premised...
July 25, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771038/classification-of-driving-workload-affected-by-highway-alignment-conditions-based-on-classification-and-regression-tree-algorithm
#14
Jiangbi Hu, Ronghua Wang
OBJECTIVE: Guaranteeing a safe and comfortable driving workload can contribute to reducing traffic injuries. In order to provide safe and comfortable threshold values, this study attempted to classify driving workload from the aspects of human factors mainly affected by highway geometric conditions, and to determine the thresholds of different workload classifications. This paper stated a hypothesis that the values of driver workload change within a certain range. METHODS: Driving workload scales were stated based on a comprehensive literature review...
August 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768223/predicting-pm10-concentration-in-seoul-metropolitan-subway-stations-using-artificial-neural-network-ann
#15
Sechan Park, Minjeong Kim, Minhae Kim, Hyeong-Gyu Namgung, Ki-Tae Kim, Kyung Hwa Cho, Soon-Bark Kwon
The indoor air quality of subway systems can significantly affect the health of passengers since these systems are widely used for short-distance transit in metropolitan urban areas in many countries. The particles generated by abrasion during subway operations and the vehicle-emitted pollutants flowing in from the street in particular affect the air quality in underground subway stations. Thus the continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM) in underground station is important to evaluate the exposure level of PM to passengers...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761721/preventing-running-related-injuries-using-evidence-based-online-advice-the-design-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Tryntsje Fokkema, Robert-Jan de Vos, John M van Ochten, Jan An Verhaar, Irene S Davis, Patrick Je Bindels, Sita Ma Bierma-Zeinstra, Marienke van Middelkoop
INTRODUCTION: Running-related injuries (RRIs) are frequent and can lead to cessation of health promoting activities. Several risk factors for RRIs have been identified. However, no successful injury prevention programme has been developed so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of an evidence-based online injury prevention programme on the number of RRIs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The INSPIRE trial is a randomised-controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759534/predicting-the-intensity-for-performing-supramaximal-incline-treadmill-interval-training-in-distance-runners
#17
Derek D Ferley, Matthew D Vukovich
Recent evidence highlights the effectiveness of 30-second bouts paired with level-grade supramaximal interval training (SMIT) and incline treadmill training (INC), respectively, in distance runners. While INC has been described as a form of SMIT, no investigation of INC involving a supramaximal intensity and 30-second bouts has occurred; hence, no established recommendation for prescribing a supramaximal intensity with 30-second bouts for INC exists. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation included reporting on the time-to-exhaustion (Tmax) response and test-retest reliability of running on a 5% grade using supramaximal intensities of 110, 115, 120, 125 and 130% of the velocity associated with maximum oxygen consumption (Vmax)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758397/calcium-mediated-control-of-s100-proteins-allosteric-communication-via-an-agitator-signal-blocking-mechanism
#18
Yiming Xiao, Gary Stephen Shaw, Lars Konermann
Allosteric proteins possess dynamically coupled residues for the propagation of input signals to distant target binding sites. The input signals usually correspond to "effector is present" or "effector is not present". Many aspects of allosteric regulation remain incompletely understood. This work focused on S100A11, a dimeric EF-hand protein with two hydrophobic target binding sites. An annexin peptide (Ax) served as target. Target binding is allosterically controlled by Ca2+ over a distance of ~26 Å. Ca2+ promotes formation of a [Ca4 S100 Ax2] complex, where the Ax peptides are accommodated between helices III/IV and III'/IV'...
July 31, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756622/fully-automatic-multi-organ-segmentation-in-normal-whole-body-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-using-classification-forests-cfs-convolutional-neural-networks-cnns-and-a-multi-atlas-ma-approach
#19
Ioannis Lavdas, Ben Glocker, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Daniel Rueckert, Henrietta Mair, Amandeep Sandhu, Stuart A Taylor, Eric O Aboagye, Andrea G Rockall
PURPOSE: As part of a programme to implement automatic lesion detection methods for whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in oncology, we have developed, evaluated and compared three algorithms for fully automatic, multi-organ segmentation in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The first algorithm is based on classification forests (CFs), the second is based on 3D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and the third algorithm is based on a multi-atlas (MA) approach...
July 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752340/importance-of-the-moskowitz-artery-in-the-laparoscopic-medial-approach-to-splenic-flexure-mobilization-a-cadaveric-study
#20
A Garcia-Granero, L Sánchez-Guillén, O Carreño, J Sancho Muriel, E Alvarez Sarrado, D Fletcher Sanfeliu, B Flor Lorente, M Frasson, F Martinez Soriano, E Garcia-Granero
BACKGROUND: The medial approach in laparoscopic splenic flexure mobilization is based on the entrance to the lesser sac just above the ventral edge of the pancreas (VEOP). The artery of Moskowitz runs through the base of the mesocolon, just above the VEOP. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of the artery of Moskowitz, its route and its distance from the VEOP. METHODS: We performed a cadaveric study on 27 human cadavers. The vascular arcades of the splenic flexure were dissected, the number of vascular arches, and the origin and localization of its terminal anastomosis were recorded...
July 27, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
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