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Distance running

Samiksha Singh, Pat Doyle, Oona M R Campbell, G V R Rao, G V S Murthy
BACKGROUND: The transport of pregnant women to an appropriate health facility plays a pivotal role in preventing maternal deaths. In India, state-run call-centre based ambulance systems ('108' and '102'), along with district-level Janani Express and local community-based innovations, provide transport services for pregnant women. We studied the role of '108' ambulance services in transporting pregnant women routinely and obstetric emergencies in India. METHODS: This study was an analysis of '108' ambulance call-centre data from six states for the year 2013-14...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Stefano Lazzer
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in running mechanics during a six hours running race. METHODS: Twelve ultra-runners (age: 41.9±5.8 years; body mass: 68.3±12.6 kg; stature: 1.72±0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874 m flat loops as possible in six hours. Running speed, contact (tc) and aerial (ta) times were measured in the first lap and every 30±2 minutes during the race. Peak vertical ground reaction force (Fmax), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the centre of mass (Δz), leg length change (ΔL), vertical (kvert) and leg (kleg) stiffness were then estimated...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Nicholas J Hanson, Janet Buckworth
Time perception during exercise may be affected by chosen intensity, and may also affect enjoyment of exercise and subsequent long-term adherence. However, little is known about how individuals perceive the passage of time during exercise, or if factors such as sex are influential. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are sex related differences in perception of time during a bout of exercise in experienced runners. Twenty-two recreational runners (11 men, 11 women) participated in a bout of treadmill running where they were allowed to select their intensity...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Cory W Baumann, Dongmin Kwak
PURPOSE: Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood's oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation...
September 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Atsushi Imai, Koji Kaneoka
BACKGROUND: Although it is believed that trunk function is important for athletic performance, few researchers have demonstrated a significant relationship between the trunk function and athletic performance. Recently, the prone plank and side plank tests have been used to assess trunk function. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between trunk endurance plank tests and athletic performance tests, including whether there is a relationship between long distance running and trunk endurance plank tests in adolescent male soccer players...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Bérenger Bourgeois, Eduardo González, Anne Vanasse, Isabelle Aubin, Monique Poulin
The disruption of hydrological connectivity by human activities such as flood regulation or land-use changes strongly impacts riparian plant communities. However, landscape-scale processes have generally been neglected in riparian restoration projects as opposed to local conditions, even though such processes might largely influence community recovery. We surveyed plant composition of field edges and riverbanks in 51 riparian zones restored by tree planting (565 1-m(2) plots) within two agricultural watersheds in southeastern Québec, Canada...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Susana Vale, Jorge Mota
The aim of this study was to examine the association between motor fitness (MF) and obesity status in preschool children. The sample comprised 467 children aged 3-6 years. Preschool children body mass index was classified according to International Obesity Task Force and categorised into three levels, normal, overweight and obesity. Total physical activity was assessed by accelerometer and MF test was assessed through two MF tests 10 × 5m shuttle run test (SRT) and a 7 m jumping distance on 2 feet test (J2F)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Nathalie Goemans, Marleen Vanden Hauwe, James Signorovitch, Elyse Swallow, Jinlin Song
BACKGROUND: Deficits in ambulatory function progress at heterogeneous rates among individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The resulting inherent variability in ambulatory outcomes has complicated the design of drug efficacy trials and clouded the interpretation of trial results. We developed a prediction model for 1-year change in the six minute walk distance (6MWD) among DMD patients, and compared its predictive value to that of commonly used prognostic factors (age, baseline 6MWD, and steroid use)...
2016: PloS One
Avish P Sharma, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y Robertson, Philo U Saunders, Kevin G Thompson
PURPOSE: This investigation sought to determine the effect of training at 2100 metres natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. METHODS: In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD; Age, 25 ± 5 years; VO2 max, 71 ± 5 completed either 4-6 weeks of sea-level training (CON, n = 7), or a 4-5 week natural altitude training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400-2700 m (ALT, n = 12) following a period of sea-level training...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Kristin L Popp, William McDermott, Julie M Hughes, Stephanie A Baxter, Steven D Stovitz, Moira A Petit
PURPOSE: To determine differences in bone geometry, estimates of bone strength, muscle size and bone strength relative to load, in women runners with and without a history of stress fracture. METHODS: We recruited 32 competitive distance runners aged 18-35, with (SFX, n=16) or without (NSFX, n=16) a history of stress fracture for this case-control study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/mm(3)), total (ToA) and cortical (CtA) bone areas (mm(2)), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index; BSI, mg/mm(4)) at the distal tibia...
October 10, 2016: Bone
Hiroshi Nagahisa, Kazutaka Mukai, Hajime Ohmura, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Hirofumi Miyata
Hypoxic training is believed to increase endurance capacity in association with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a modulator of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and to influence activation of satellite cells (SCs). However, the effect of hypoxic training on SC activation and its relation to angiogenesis has not been thoroughly investigated. Eight Thoroughbred horses were subjected to normoxic (FIO2 = 21%) or hypoxic (FIO2 = 15%) training for 3 days/week (100%  [Formula: see text]) for 4 weeks...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Christian M Horvath, Stephan Zbinden, Sebastian R Ott, Anne-Kathrin Brill
A 43-year-old man was referred to our tertiary sleep center for the initiation of sleep apnea treatment. A prior diagnostic overnight polysomnography (Fig 1) had revealed an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 22/h of sleep. The apneas were predominantly central (central AHI, 18.2/h; obstructive AHI, 3.8/h), more pronounced in the supine position (AHI supine, 36.6/h; AHI nonsupine, 11/h) and during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep (REM, 15.8/h; non-REM, 23.5/h). A continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) trial in an outpatient setting had failed, as the fixed CPAP of 11 cm H2O was not tolerated by the patient because of a feeling of lightheadedness when wearing the mask...
October 2016: Chest
Tatsuro Amano, Masaki Ishitobi, Yukio Ogura, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Shunsaku Koga, Takeshi Nishiyasu, Narihiko Kondo
Changing stride frequency may influence oxygen uptake and heart rate during running as a function of running economy and central command. This study investigated the influence of stride frequency manipulation on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running. Seven healthy endurance runners ran on a treadmill at a velocity of 15km/h for 60min in a controlled environmental chamber (ambient temperature 27°C and relative humidity 50%), and stride frequency was manipulated. Stride frequency was intermittently manipulated by increasing and decreasing frequency by 10% from the pre-determined preferred frequency...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
S Srivastava, S B Lal, D C Mishra, U B Angadi, K K Chaturvedi, S N Rai, A Rai
BACKGROUND: Protein structure comparison play important role in in silico functional prediction of a new protein. It is also used for understanding the evolutionary relationships among proteins. A variety of methods have been proposed in literature for comparing protein structures but they have their own limitations in terms of accuracy and complexity with respect to computational time and space. There is a need to improve the computational complexity in comparison/alignment of proteins through incorporation of important biological and structural properties in the existing techniques...
2016: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
Lee Chan Jang, Sung Su Park
This is a case report that suggests the possible association between multiple splanchnic arterial aneurysms and long-distance running. The clinical features of one patient admitted at Chungbuk National University Hospital for treatment of multiple splanchnic arterial aneurysms were reviewed. A 54-year-old man had a recurrent, intermittent and epigastric pain for 2 months. There was no abnormality in gastroscopy and colonoscopy. An abdominal computed tomography angiography documented calcified superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and splenic artery aneurysms...
September 2016: Vascular Specialist International
Thijs Maria Anne Ackermans, Gaspar Epro, Christopher McCrum, Kai Daniel Oberländer, Frank Suhr, Maarten Robert Drost, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether there are different changes in Achilles tendon (AT) mechanical properties in middle-aged, compared to younger runners that might indicate that tendon fatigue, induced by long-distance running, is age-dependent. METHODS: 27 middle-aged (50-67 years) and 22 younger (21-29 years) participants ran a 21 km route at their own pace (mean and SD: old: 3.1 ± 0.3 m s(-1); young: 3.6 ± 0.5 m s(-1)). We tested for changes in the AT force-elongation relationship using dynamometry and ultrasonography during isometric voluntary ankle plantarflexion ramp contractions, conducted 20-28 h pre-run, immediately pre-run, immediately post-run and 20-28 h post-run...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Matthew D Mucha, Wade Caldwell, Emily L Schlueter, Carly Walters, Amy Hassen
OBJECTIVES: Determine the association between hip abduction strength and lower extremity running related injury in distance runners. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal and cross sectional studies that quantified hip abduction strength and provided diagnosis of running related injury in distance runners were included and assessed for quality. Effect size was calculated for between group differences in hip abduction strength...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Chelsea Starbuck, Victoria Stiles, Daniel Urà, Matt Carré, Sharon Dixon
OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of clay court frictional properties on tennis players' biomechanical response. DESIGN: Repeated measures. METHODS: Lower limb kinematic and force data were collected on sixteen university tennis players during 10×180° turns (running approach speed 3.9±0.20ms(-1)) on a synthetic clay surface of varying friction levels. To adjust friction levels the volume of sand infill above the force plate was altered (kg per m(2) surface area; 12, 16 and 20kgm(-2))...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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