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Gastrointestinal tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102562/chinese-consensus-on-prevention-of-colorectal-cancer-2016-shanghai-chinese-society-of-gastroenterology-and-the-committee-on-gastrointestinal-tumors-of-the-chinese-society-of-gastroenterology-chinese-medical-association
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101034/a-case-of-poorly-differentiated-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-cecum-a-rare-malignancy-with-review-of-the-literature
#2
Andrew T Mertz, Michelle A Ojemuyiwa
Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumors that can arise anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. They often present in advanced stage and portend a poor prognosis when compared to adenocarcinomas of the same stage. Characterization of these tumors is best accomplished with tissue biopsy, as peripheral tumor markers commonly used in NECs are of little utility. Therapeutic strategies often involve chemotherapeutic regimens that have been used to treat small-cell lung cancer. Recent studies have shown that programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression within poorly differentiated NECs is a poor prognostic indicator...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100249/intraoperative-radiation-therapy-iort-in-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#3
REVIEW
Falk Roeder, Robert Krempien
Soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) represent a rare tumor entity, accounting for less than 1% of adult malignancies. The cornerstone of curative intent treatment is surgery with free margins, although the extent of the surgical approach has been subject to change in the last decades. Multimodal approaches usually including radiation therapy have replaced extensive surgical procedures in order to preserve functionality while maintaining adequate local control. However, the possibility to apply adequate radiation doses by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) can be limited in some situation especially in case of directly adjacent organs at risk with low radiation tolerance...
January 19, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099249/immunohistochemical-antibody-panel-for-the-differential-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-ductal-carcinoma-from-gastrointestinal-contamination-and-benign-pancreatic-duct-epithelium-in-endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration
#4
Ayako Furuhata, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Hiroyuki Shirahase, Yuzo Kodama, Souichi Adachi, Takaki Sakurai, Hironori Haga
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can be challenging to distinguish tumor cells from benign epithelium (BE). The aim of the present study was to set a minimal antibody panel to differentiate PDAC from contaminated BE in EUS-FNA specimens. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using claudin 4, EZH2, Ki-67, maspin, p53, and S100P was performed on tissue microarray sections containing 53 PDACs and 33 BE as well as cell blocks of EUS-FNA including 53 PDACs and 22 BE...
January 18, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098915/somatic-mutational-spectrum-analysis-in-a-prospective-series-of-104-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#5
David Guenat, Olivier Deroo, Sandrine Magnin, Loïc Chaigneau, Franck Monnien, Christophe Borg, Christiane Mougin, Jean-François Emile, Jean-Luc Prétet
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal tumors distinguished by driver mutations in proto-oncogenes KIT or PDGFRA in 85-90% of cases. These mutations have been linked to the response to imatinib, a multikinase inhibitor, and have independent prognostic impact. Here, we describe the prospective study of the molecular characteristics of 104 GISTs from French adult patients analyzed routinely through the National Hospital Program of Molecular Cancer Diagnosis. All patients with GISTs diagnosed at the University Hospital of Besançon between August 2005 and October 2014 were prospectively included in the present study...
January 17, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097468/outcomes-of-primary-colorectal-sarcoma-a-national-cancer-data-base-ncdb-review
#6
Cornelius A Thiels, John R Bergquist, Adam C Krajewski, Hee Eun Lee, Heidi Nelson, Kellie L Mathis, Elizabeth B Habermann, Robert R Cima
INTRODUCTION: Primary colorectal sarcomas are a rare entity with anecdotally poor outcomes. We sought to inform surgeons, oncologists, and researchers of the characteristics and outcomes of these understudied and difficult-to-manage tumors. METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was queried for patients with pathologically confirmed primary sarcoma of the colon or rectum (1998-2012). Gastrointestinal stromal tumors were excluded. Unadjusted overall survival was reported using the Kaplan-Meier method...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096828/intramural-esophageal-tumors
#7
Mariusz P Łochowski, Katarzyna Kozak, Marek Rębowski, Józef Kozak
INTRODUCTION: Intramural esophageal tumors (IET) are located between unchanged mucous membrane and muscularis mucosae. They can be both benign and malignant. AIM: To evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties of IET. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the years 2010-2015, 11 patients with IET were treated in our clinic. Diagnostics included gastroscopy, computed tomography of the chest, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine needle biopsy, and positron emission tomography (PET) of the esophagus in cases with no histopathological confirmation...
December 2016: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096721/current-concepts-in-non-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-soft-tissue-sarcomas-a-primer-for-radiologists
#8
REVIEW
Akshay D Baheti, Jyothi P Jagannathan, Ailbhe O'Neill, Harika Tirumani, Sree Harsha Tirumani
Non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms whose classification and management continues to evolve with better understanding of their biologic behavior. The 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) has revised their classification based on new immunohistochemical and cytogenetic data. In this article, we will provide a brief overview of the revised WHO classification of soft tissue tumors, discuss in detail the radiology and management of the two most common adult non-GIST STS, namely liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma, and review some of the emerging histology-driven targeted therapies in non-GIST STS, focusing on the role of the radiologist...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096720/update-on-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-for-radiologists
#9
REVIEW
Sree Harsha Tirumani, Akshay D Baheti, Harika Tirumani, Ailbhe O'Neill, Jyothi P Jagannathan
The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has evolved significantly in the last two decades due to better understanding of their biologic behavior as well as development of molecular targeted therapies. GISTs with exon 11 mutation respond to imatinib whereas GISTs with exon 9 or succinate dehydrogenase subunit mutations do not. Risk stratification models have enabled stratifying GISTs according to risk of recurrence and choosing patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. Assessing response to targeted therapies in GIST using conventional response criteria has several potential pitfalls leading to search for alternate response criteria based on changes in tumor attenuation, volume, metabolic and functional parameters...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096693/gastric-and-colon-metastasis-from-breast-cancer-case-report-review-of-the-literature-and-possible-underlying-mechanisms
#10
J Carlos Villa Guzmán, J Espinosa, R Cervera, M Delgado, R Patón, J M Cordero García
Gastrointestinal metastases from breast cancer are not common. We present a 58-year-old female diagnosed with lobular breast cancer some years before whose relapses were gastric and colonic mucosal. Simultaneous metastases are extremely rare. To our knowledge, no cases of initial dual affectation have been reported. The patient also showed gastritis by Helicobacter pylori. Invasive lobular breast carcinoma is the most frequent special type of breast cancer and carries some specific molecular alterations such as loss of expression of E-cadherin...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095874/clinicopathological-study-of-9-cases-of-prostate-cancer-involving-the-rectal-wall
#11
Tao Tang, Zhengduo Yang, Dan Zhang, Jie Qu, Guang Liu, Shiwu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer involving the rectal wall is rare and may lead to diagnostic pitfalls. CASE PRESENTATION: Out of 9504 patients with rectal tumors between January 2003 and January 2015, 9 patients (elderly with a mean age of 74 years) with prostate cancer involving the rectal wall were clinically misdiagnosed with rectal cancer. The lesions were located in the rectum, and included 3 circumferential rectal masses, 1 ulceration lesion, 1 crater-like mass, and 4 protruding lesions...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093228/ndrg2-suppressed-expression-associates-with-poor-prognosis-in-pancreatic-cancer-is-hypermethylated-in-the-second-promoter-in-human-gastrointestinal-cancers
#12
Akihiro Yamamura, Koh Miura, Hideaki Karasawa, Fuyuhiko Motoi, Yasuhiko Mizuguchi, Yuriko Saiki, Shinichi Fukushige, Makoto Sunamura, Chikashi Shibata, Michiaki Unno, Akira Horii
Although N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is frequently downregulated in various cancers and is considered to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene, molecular mechanisms of the expressional suppression that lead to cancers are largely unknown. Recent studies indicated that epigenetic suppression of NDRG2 involved carcinogenesis and progression in several tumor types, and we demonstrated positive association with NDRG2 suppression and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we analyzed mRNA and protein expressions of NDRG2 in 26 cancer cell lines (20 colorectal and 6 gastric cancers) and found that many cell lines showed variously reduced NDRG2 expressions...
January 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092017/transanal-total-mesorectal-excision-for-a-large-leiomyosarcoma-at-the-lower-rectum-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Nobuaki Hoshino, Koya Hida, Kenji Kawada, Takaki Sakurai, Yoshiharu Sakai
BACKGROUND: Rectal leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is an extremely rare disease. Previously, LMS was not properly distinguishable from gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) until c-kit, a characteristic marker of GIST, was discovered in 1998. No standard therapeutic strategy for gastrointestinal LMS has been established except for surgical resection because of its rarity. Rectal LMS is often accompanied by symptoms, which can enable detection at a small size. However, when a large LMS is detected at the lower rectum, it is difficult to excise due to the narrow pelvic space...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091770/relevance-of-surgery-in-patients-with-non-variceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#14
S Dango, T Beißbarth, E Weiss, A Seif Amir Hosseini, D Raddatz, V Ellenrieder, J Lotz, B M Ghadimi, A Beham
INTRODUCTION: Upper GI bleeding remains one of the most common emergencies with a substantial overall mortality rate of up to 30%. In severe ill patients, death does not occur due to failure of hemostasis, either medical or surgical, but mainly from comorbidities, treatment complications, and decreased tolerated blood loss. Management strategies have changed dramatically over the last two decades and include primarily endoscopic intervention in combination with acid-suppressive therapy and decrease in surgical intervention...
January 14, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089540/aberrant-cdx2-expression-in-hepatocellular-carcinomas-an-important-diagnostic-pitfall
#15
Sejal S Shah, Tsung-Teh Wu, Michael S Torbenson, Vishal S Chandan
CDX2 is a sensitive and specific marker of intestinal differentiation. It is routinely used in surgical pathology, as its expression within a tumor favors an origin within the gastrointestinal tract. We had anecdotally encountered occasional hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) that were CDX2 positive. CDX2 expression in HCC has not yet been reported but it has also not been examined in detail. Therefore, we evaluated CDX2 expression in a large number of resected HCCs. Full tumor sections from 172 resected HCCs and 6 resected fibrolamellar carcinomas (FLC) were stained for CDX2...
January 12, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089436/the-significance-of-histologic-examination-of-gastrectomy-specimens-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-511-cases
#16
Pavel Kopach, Elizabeth M Genega, Sajani N Shah, Julie J Kim, Yvelisse Suarez
BACKGROUND: Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is quickly becoming the preferred procedure for bariatric surgery. According to the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery guidelines, routine preoperative upper gastrointestinal endoscopies are not recommended universally for bariatric surgery. Some studies have shown that the histologic examination of SG specimens is insignificant and not a cost-effective practice. However, some speculate SG examination may unveil pertinent findings and prevent further progression of precursor lesions...
November 15, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088838/re-evaluation-of-phenotypic-expression-in-differentiated-type-early-adenocarcinoma-of-the-stomach
#17
Masato Hayakawa, Ken Nishikura, Yoichi Ajioka, Yutaka Aoyagi, Shuji Terai
A total of 313 cases of differentiated-type early gastric adenocarcinomas, including 113 cases of small-sized carcinoma (5< × ≤10 mm) and 121 cases of microcarcinoma (0< × ≤5 mm), were examined immunohistochemically to clarify the phenotypic expressions. They were classified into four categories (gastric phenotype (G-type), intestinal phenotype, gastrointestinal phenotype, and null phenotype) by a two-step process: the phenotype based on an immunoprofile of mucin core proteins (MUCs) with CDX2 (w/...
January 15, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088790/intraperitoneal-immunotherapy-with-t-cells-stably-and-transiently-expressing-anti-epcam-car-in-xenograft-models-of-peritoneal-carcinomatosis
#18
Wei Xia Ang, Zhendong Li, Zhixia Chi, Shou-Hui Du, Can Chen, Johan C K Tay, Han Chong Toh, John E Connolly, Xue Hu Xu, Shu Wang
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is overexpressed in a wide variety of tumor types, including peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies. To develop a chimeric antigen receptor T (CART) cell therapy approach to treat patients with end-stage PC, we constructed third generation CARs specific to EpCAM using the 4D5MOC-B single chain variable fragment. CART cells were generated with lentiviral transduction and exhibited specific in vitro killing activity against EpCAM-positive human ovarian and colorectal cancer cells...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088460/ultrasound-mediated-delivery-of-rna-to-colonic-mucosa-of-live-mice
#19
Carl M Schoellhammer, Gregory Y Lauwers, Jeremy A Goettel, Matthias A Oberli, Cody Cleveland, June Y Park, Daniel Minahan, Yiyun Chen, Daniel G Anderson, Ana Jaklenec, Scott B Snapper, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is a challenge to deliver nucleic acids to gastrointestinal (GI) tissues due to their size and need for intracellular delivery. They are also extremely susceptible to degradation by nucleases, which are ubiquitous in the GI tract. We investigated whether ultrasound, which can permeabilize tissue through a phenomenon known as transient cavitation, can be used to deliver RNA to the colonic mucosa of living mice. METHODS: We investigated delivery of fluorescently labeled permeants to colon tissues of Yorkshire pigs ex vivo and mice in vivo...
January 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081292/the-utility-of-abbreviated-patient-reported-outcomes-for-predicting-survival-in-early-stage-colorectal-cancer
#20
Tina Hsu, Caroline H Speers, Hagen F Kennecke, Winson Y Cheung
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly used in clinical settings. Prior research suggests that PROs collected at baseline may be associated with cancer survival, but most of those studies were conducted in patients with breast or lung cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between prospectively collected PROs and cancer-specific outcomes in patients with early stage colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients who had newly diagnosed stage II or III colorectal cancer from 2009 to 2010 and had a consultation at the British Columbia Cancer Agency completed the brief Psychosocial Screen for Cancer (PSSCAN) questionnaire, which collects data on patients' perceived social supports, quality of life (QOL), anxiety and depression, and general health...
January 12, 2017: Cancer
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