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Mimi Ghosh, Mariel Jais, Roshni Biswas, Jason Jarin, Jason Daniels, Christopher Joy, Monika Juzumaite, Vanessa Emmanuel, Veronica Gomez-Lobo
PROBLEM: Adolescent girls are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, accounting for 22% of all new HIV infections globally. Yet little is known regarding the immune microenvironment of the adolescent female reproductive tract, especially regarding differences among sexually active and inactive girls, a critical parameter to evaluate HIV susceptibility associated with young age and sexual debut. METHODS: Cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) was collected from sexually active (10) and inactive (8) girls aged 11-19 years and analyzed by ELISA for inflammation-associated biomarkers IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MIP-3α, IL-1α, IL-1β, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9, as well as anti-HIV mediators, Elafin, SLPI, human beta-defensin 2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) 1 and 2...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Irene A Hurst, Gregory Webster, Kerri Z Machut, Nina Gotteiner, Ahmad Sami Chaouki, Elizabeth N Groothuis, Karna Murthy
OBJECTIVE(S): In well-appearing newborns with suspected cardiac ectopy, we sought to evaluate our practice and test whether initial electrocardiogram (ECG) findings were associated with neonatal arrhythmias (NA). STUDY DESIGN: We identified well-appearing, non-anomalous infants >34 weeks' gestation with suspected ectopy over 3.5 years. NA was defined as ≥10% premature atrial contractions (PAC), ≥5 beats of atrial tachycardia, ≥2% premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), or ≥3 beats of ventricular tachycardia...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Prabhpreet Singh, Amit Noheria
Invasive electrophysiology (EP) mapping and catheter ablation has increasingly become the standard of care for many cardiac arrhythmias like supraventricular tachycardias, atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular complexes (PVC), and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. In this review, we discuss the recent progress made in the mapping and ablation of ventricular fibrillation (VF). Ventricular activation during VF is apparently disorganized, making mapping and interpretation difficult. Prolonged mapping during VF would require mechanical circulatory support as VF causes complete hemodynamic collapse...
March 6, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Kirstine Calloe, Anders K Broendberg, Alex H Christensen, Lisbeth N Pedersen, Morten S Olesen, Maria de Los Angeles Tejada, Soren Friis, Morten B Thomsen, Henning Bundgaard, Henrik K Jensen
BACKGROUND: SCN5A mutations can lead to different cardiac diseases. Recently, SCN5A mutations have been linked to the clinical entity multifocal ectopic Purkinje-related premature contractions (MEPPC) characterized by ventricular ectopy and dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS & RESULTS: A family with a uniform MEPPC-like phenotype, associated with complex atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and dilated cardiomyopathy caused by a high frequency of ventricular ectopy was clinically assessed...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Adam Lee, Russell Denman, Haris M Haqqani
BACKGROUND: Ectopy-mediated cardiomyopathy (EMC) is a potentially reversible form of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Various risk factors for the development of EMC have been proposed in the literature. We aim to assess medium term outcomes of focal ventricular arrhythmia (VA) ablation in the setting of cardiomyopathy (CMP) and to validate published risk factors for EMC. METHODS: Medium term recovery of left ventricular (LV) function and freedom from VA recurrence was assessed and compared between patients undergoing focal VA ablation in the setting of CMP and a control group with normal LV function...
February 12, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Jonathan W Waks, Alfred E Buxton
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for ∼50% of mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). Most SCDs result from ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and the tachycardias that precipitate cardiac arrest result from multiple mechanisms. As a result, it is highly unlikely that any single test will identify all patients at risk for SCD. Current guidelines for use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) to prevent SCD are based primarily on measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Although reduced LVEF is associated with increased total cardiac mortality after MI, the focus of current guidelines on LVEF omits ∼50% of patients who die suddenly...
January 29, 2018: Annual Review of Medicine
Laurens P Bosman, Arjan Sammani, Cynthia A James, Julia Cadrin-Tourigny, Hugh Calkins, J Peter van Tintelen, Richard N W Hauer, Folkert W Asselbergs, Anneline S J M Te Riele
While many studies evaluate predictors for ventricular arrhythmias in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC), a systematic review consolidating this evidence is currently lacking. Therefore, we searched MEDLINE and Embase for studies analyzing predictors for ventricular arrhythmias (sustained ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF), appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, or sudden cardiac death) in definite ARVC patients, borderline ARVC patients, and ARVC-associated mutation carriers...
February 2, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Tyler J M Jordan, Page E Yaxley, Christine A Culler, Anusha Balakrishnan
CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old sexually intact female mixed-breed dog was evaluated at an emergency hospital approximately 5 hours after ingestion of an unknown amount of over-the-counter topical hair growth promoter containing 5% minoxidil foam. Vomiting and signs of lethargy were reported by the owner, and physical examination revealed tachycardia and hypotension. No treatments were performed, and the dog was transferred to a veterinary referral hospital for management of suspected minoxidil toxicosis. CLINICAL FINDINGS On arrival at the referral hospital, the dog was tachycardic (heart rate, 200 to 220 beats/min) and hypotensive (systolic arterial blood pressure, 70 mm Hg)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
L V Rozenshtraukh, V M Karimova, V S Kuzmin
Pulmonary vein (PV) myocardium is characterized by numerous electrophysiological properties which make this tissue highly prone to spontaneous, ectopic activity partially due to resting potential (RP) instability. PV derived ectopy frequently underlies supraventricular arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. It has also been demonstrated that adrenergic stimulation causes proarrhythmic alterations in PV. Selective α1- and β-adrenoreceptors stimulation causes RP depolarization and hyperpolarization, respectively, at least in rats...
November 2017: Kardiologiia
Rahul Dhawan, Rakesh Gopinathannair
Arrhythmia-induced cardiomyopathy (AIC) is a clinical condition in which a persistent tachyarrhythmia or frequent ectopy contribute to ventricular dysfunction leading to systolic heart failure. AIC can be partially or completely corrected with adequate treatment of the culprit arrhythmia. Several molecular and cellular alterations by which tachyarrhythmias lead to cardiomyopathy have been identified. AIC can affect children and adults, can be clinically silent in the form of asymptomatic tachycardia with cardiomyopathy, or can present with manifest heart failure...
October 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
Ewelina Szczepanek-Parulska, Aleksandra Hernik, Marek Ruchała
Despite TSH screening in newborns is currently conducted in most developed countries, patients with thyroid ectopy born before the procedure was introduced or those in whom the screening failed to establish diagnosis, might still appear. In the paper we revise the current state of knowledge regarding the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of patients with thyroid ectopy. As an example, we report diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties in our three patients with thyroid ectopy remaining undiagnosed and untreated during early childhood...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
Steve R Roof, Yukie Ueyama, Reza Mazhari, Robert L Hamlin, J Craig Hartman, Mark T Ziolo, John E Reardon, Carlos L Del Rio
The nitroxyl (HNO) prodrug, CXL-1020, induces vasorelaxation and improves cardiac function in canine models and patients with systolic heart failure (HF). HNO's unique mechanism of action may be applicable to a broader subset of cardiac patients. This study investigated the load-independent safety and efficacy of CXL-1020 in two rodent (rat) models of diastolic heart failure and explored potential drug interactions with common HF background therapies. In vivo left-ventricular hemodynamics/pressure-volume relationships assessed before/during a 30 min IV infusion of CXL-1020 demonstrated acute load-independent positive inotropic, lusitropic, and vasodilatory effects in normal rats...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Masaharu Masuda, Masashi Fujita, Osamu Iida, Shin Okamoto, Takayuki Ishihara, Kiyonori Nanto, Takashi Kanda, Akihiro Sunaga, Takuya Tsujimura, Yasuhiro Matsuda, Takuya Ohashi, Masaaki Uematsu
Aims: Before the discovery of contact-force guidance, eliminating pacing capture along the pulmonary vein (PV) isolation line had been reported to improve PV isolation durability and rhythm outcomes. DRAGON (UMIN-CTR, UMIN000015332) aimed to elucidate the efficacy of pace-capture-guided ablation following contact-force-guided PV isolation ablation in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods and results: A total of 156 paroxysmal AF patients with AF-trigger ectopies from any of the four PVs induced by isoproterenol were randomly assigned to undergo pace-capture-guided ablation along a contact-force-guided isolation line around AF-trigger PVs (PC group, n = 76) or contact-force-guided PV isolation ablation alone (control group, n = 80)...
November 17, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Joseph S Piktel, Aurelia Cheng, Matthew McCauley, Zack Dale, Michelle Nassal, Danielle Maleski, Gary Pawlowski, Kenneth R Laurita, Lance D Wilson
BACKGROUND: We designed an innovative porcine model of ischemia-induced arrest to determine dynamic arrhythmia substrates during focal infarct, global ischemia from ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF) and then reperfusion to determine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) on dynamic arrhythmia substrates and resuscitation outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anesthetized adult pigs underwent thoracotomy and regional plunge electrode placement in the left ventricle...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
Jan Waskowski, Daniel Ott, Joerg C Schefold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
Matthew A Christensen, Kaylin T Nguyen, Phyllis K Stein, Raymond B Fohtung, Elsayed Z Soliman, Thomas A Dewland, Eric Vittinghoff, Bruce M Psaty, Susan R Heckbert, Gregory M Marcus
BACKGROUND: Blacks have a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) despite having more AF risk factors, but the mechanism remains unknown. Premature atrial contraction (PAC) burden is a recently identified risk factor for AF. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the burden of PACs explains racial differences in AF risk. METHODS: PAC burden (number per hour) was assessed by 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring in a randomly selected subset of patients in the Cardiovascular Health Study...
December 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Helmut Pürerfellner, Prashanthan Sanders, Shantanu Sarkar, Erin Reisfeld, Jerry Reiland, Jodi Koehler, Evgeny Pokushalov, Luboš Urban, Lukas R C Dekker
Aims: Intermittent change in p-wave discernibility during periods of ectopy and sinus arrhythmia is a cause of inappropriate atrial fibrillation (AF) detection in insertable cardiac monitors (ICM). To address this, we developed and validated an enhanced AF detection algorithm. Methods and results: Atrial fibrillation detection in Reveal LINQ ICM uses patterns of incoherence in RR intervals and absence of P-wave evidence over a 2-min period. The enhanced algorithm includes P-wave evidence during RR irregularity as evidence of sinus arrhythmia or ectopy to adaptively optimize sensitivity for AF detection...
October 3, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
José Eleutério, Renata Mírian Nunes Eleutério, Leonardo Arruda Martins, Paulo César Giraldo, Ana Katherine Silveira Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) remains an enigmatic question. The term "osis" instead of "itis" is used because commonly, there are no inflammatory process associated with BV. However, leukocytes are often observed in it. METHODS: In a transversal study, we evaluated 1178 cases with diagnosis of BV by liquid-based cytology (more than 20% of clue cells), attended in general gynecologic private clinic. Depending of the presence of more than five leukocytes on average per field in immersion objective (1000×), the cases were divided in two groups: few or no leukocytes (< 5 leukocytes per field) (BV) and with leukocytes (≥ 5 leukocytes per field) (BV-L)...
December 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Anne-Christine Ruwald, Mehmet K Aktas, Martin H Ruwald, Valentina Kutyifa, Scott McNitt, Christian Jons, Suneet Mittal, Jonathan S Steinberg, James P Daubert, Arthur J Moss, Wojciech Zareba
BACKGROUND: Frequent ventricular ectopy on preimplantation Holter has been associated with attenuated benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, it is unclear whether ectopic burden measured post-CRT implantation can be utilized to evaluate long-term prognosis. We aimed to describe the association between post-CRT implantation ectopic burden and subsequent risk of clinical outcomes. METHODS: At the 12-month follow-up visit, 24-hour Holter recordings were performed in 698 CRT-D patients from the MADIT-CRT study...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Petr Peichl, Jakub Baran, Dan Wichterle, Robert Čihák, Tomáš Skála, Bashar Aldhoon, Matevž Jan, Bor Antolič, Josef Kautzner
INTRODUCTION: Frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) may cause symptoms and/or lead to deterioration of LV systolic function. Although frequent VPCs may be abolished by catheter ablation, it may be challenging in case of their origin from the LV papillary muscles (PMs). Our collaborative study aimed to analyze in detail the site of origin and the outcome of ablation. METHODS: Consecutive 34 patients (males: 68%; aged 62 ± 12 years; LV ejection fraction: 50 ± 9%) undergoing catheter ablation of VPCs originating from PMs were included...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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