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Management of MDR TB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068907/hospitalized-care-for-mdr-tb-in-port-harcourt-nigeria-a-qualitative-study
#1
Kingsley Lezor Bieh, Ralf Weigel, Helen Smith
BACKGROUND: In Nigeria multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is prevalent in 2.9% of new TB cases and 14% of retreatment cases, and the country is one of 27 with high disease burden globally. Patients are admitted and confined to one of ten MDR-TB treatment facilities throughout the initial 8 months of treatment. The perspectives of MDR-TB patients shared on social media and in academic research and those of providers are limited to experiences of home-based care. In this study we explored the views of hospitalised MDR-TB patients and providers in one treatment facility in Nigeria, and describe how their experiences are linked to accessibility of care and support services, in line with international goals...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057041/rifampicin-resistance-pattern-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-associated-factors-among-presumptive-tuberculosis-patients-referred-to-debre-markos-referral-hospital-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Wondemagegn Mulu, Bayeh Abera, Mulat Yimer, Tadesse Hailu, Haimanot Ayele, Dereje Abate
BACKGROUND: Prevailing data on rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis is essential for early management of MDR-TB. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated factors among presumptive TB cases in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2014 to March 2015. Detection of M. tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin was performed using Gene Xpert MTB/RIF assay...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043788/comparison-of-bacteriological-conversion-and-treatment-outcomes-among-mdr-tb-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-in-mexico-preliminary-data
#3
M Muñoz-Torrico, J Caminero Luna, G B Migliori, L D'Ambrosio, J L Carrillo-Alduenda, H Villareal-Velarde, A Torres-Cruz, H Flores-Ergara, D Martínez-Mendoza, C García-Sancho, R Centis, M Á Salazar-Lezama, R Pérez-Padilla
: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) treated with second-line anti-TB drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion) and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City...
December 30, 2016: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043606/ethambutol-resistance-testing-by-mutation-detection-using-mtbdrsl
#4
H Margaryan, S Rüsch-Gerdes, A Hayrapetyan, A Mirzoyan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the successes in managing drug-susceptible TB, drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis is a major challenge to the effectiveness of National Tuberculosis Program in Armenia, placing the country in the list of 18 high-burden countries for MDR-TB in the WHO European Region. Estimated burden of MDR-TB in 2012 was 9.4 (7-12) and 43 (38-49) among retreatment TB cases. A total of 92 laboratory confirmed cases had been reported to the WHO (57 new and 35 previously treated) out of 511 cases tested for MDR-TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043599/genetic-diversity-transmission-dynamics-and-drug-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-luanda-angola
#5
João Perdigão, Sofia Clemente, Jorge Ramos, Pedro Masakidi, Diana Machado, Carla Silva, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros, Nuno Taveira, Isabel Portugal
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Despite the important role that the African region plays in a global tuberculosis (TB) epidemiological context, many countries in the region still lack data on the prevalence of specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and drug resistance. This is the case for Angola, which presently lacks any data concerning drug-resistance rates and prevalence of specific M. tuberculosis genotypes and respective population structure. In this study, we made the first characterization of the genetic diversity and drug resistance of M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043521/interleukin-10-gene-polymorphism-is-associated-with-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-during-the-intensive-phase-of-standard-chemotherapy
#6
Butov Dmytro, Kuzhko Mykhailo, Butova Tetyana Kuzhko
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To study whether interleukin (IL)-10 gene polymorphism is associated with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) during the intensive phase of standard chemotherapy. METHODS: The study comprised 170 individuals in Kharkiv region of Ukraine including 74 patients with pulmonary MDR TB (Group 1), 66 patients without MDR TB (Group 2), and 30 healthy donors (Group 3). Serum level of IL-10 was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pg/L)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043502/genotypic-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-isolates-from-extra-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases-in-tertiary-care-centers-in-northern-india
#7
Anand K Maurya, Vijaya L Nag, Surya Kant, Ramawadh S Kushwaha, Tapan N Dhole
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health problem. The diagnosis of MDR-TB is of paramount importance in establishing appropriate clinical management and infection control measures. Rapid detection of MDR-TB allows the establishment of an effective treatment regimen, minimizes the risk of further resistance, and limits the spread of drug-resistant strains. The aim of this study is to determine the genotypic characterization of MDR-TB isolates from extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in tertiary care centers in Northern India...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998752/drug-resistant-tb-uk-multicentre-study-drums-treatment-management-and-outcomes-in-london-and-west-midlands-2008-2014
#8
Amber Arnold, Graham S Cooke, Onn Min Kon, Martin Dedicoat, Marc Lipman, Angela Loyse, Philip D Butcher, Irina Chis Ster, Thomas Stephen Harrison
OBJECTIVES: Detailed information regarding treatment practices and outcomes of MDR-TB treatment in the UK is required as a baseline for care improvements. METHODS: 100 consecutive cases between 2008 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively at 4 MDR-TB treatment centres in England to obtain information on drug treatment choices, hospital admission duration and outcomes for MDR-TB. RESULTS: Initial hospital admission was long, median 62.5 (IQR 20-106, n = 92) days, and 13% (12/92) of patients lost their home during this period...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998730/tuberculosis-cases-caused-by-heterogeneous-infection-in-eastern-europe-and-their-influence-on-outcomes
#9
Irina Kontsevaya, Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy, Alexander Kovalyov, Olga Ignatyeva, Anna Sadykhova, Tatiana Simak, Olesya Tikhonova, Yulia Dubrovskaya, Edita Vasiliauskiene, Edita Davidaviciene, Girts Skenders, Olga Makurina, Yanina Balabanova, Francis Drobniewski
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium tuberculosis superinfection is known to occur in areas with high rates of tuberculosis (TB) and has a significant impact on overall clinical TB management. AIM: We aimed to estimate the superinfection rate in cohorts of drug sensitive and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) patients from Eastern Europe and the potential role of a second MDR TB strain infecting a patient with active non-MDR TB in treatment outcome. METHODS: The study population included 512 serial M...
December 18, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979786/exploring-tuberculosis-by-molecular-tests-on-dna-isolated-from-smear-microscopy-slides
#10
REVIEW
Niaina Rakotosamimanana, Marie Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo, Juan Carlos Palomino, Anandi Martin, Voahangy Rasolofo Razanamparany
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of global public health importance caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) worsened by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB strains. Timely diagnosis and treatment of TB remains a key public health priority with a critical role of laboratories for rapidly and accurately detecting TB and drug resistance. Molecular assays based on nucleic acid amplification techniques have been developed for rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis of TB with the possibility to determine the status of its drug sensitivity...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974543/evaluation-of-the-genotype%C3%A2-mtbdrsl%C3%A2-ver-2-0-assay-for-second-line-drug-resistance-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-south-africa
#11
Y Gardee, A W Dreyer, H J Koornhof, S V Omar, P da Silva, Z Bhyat, N A Ismail
Early detection of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs is important for the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. The Genotype® MTBDRsl VERSION 2.0 (VER 2.0) line probe assay has been redesigned for molecular detection of resistance-conferring mutations of fluoroquinolones (FLQ) (gyrA and gyrB genes) and second-line injectable drugs (SLID) (rrs and eis genes). The study evaluated the diagnostic performance of MTBDRsl VER 2.0 for the detection of second-line drug resistance compared with phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), using the Bactec™ MGIT 960 system on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from South Africa...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927822/clinical-implications-of-the-global-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-epidemic
#12
Kartik Kumar, Ibrahim Abubakar
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is a significant threat to global health estimated to account for nearly half a million new cases and over 200,000 deaths in 2013. The number of MDR TB cases in the UK has risen over the last 15 years, with ever more complex clinical cases and associated challenging public health and societal implications. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiology of MDR TB globally and in the UK, outline the clinical management of MDR TB and summarise recent advances in diagnostics and prospects for new treatment...
December 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865234/rapid-detection-of-extensively-drug-resistant-xdr-tb-strains-from-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-cases-isolated-from-smear-negative-pulmonary-samples-in-an-intermediate-reference-laboratory-in-india
#13
Himanshu Vashistha, M Hanif, Sanjeev Saini, Ashwani Khanna, Srashty Sharma, Zeeshan Sidiq, Vasim Ahmed, Manoj Dubey, K K Chopra, Divya Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: Direct sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). The objectives of the study were first, to determine the recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-negative sputum samples through liquid culture (using MGIT 960) and solid culture (using LJ slant) and second, to screen multidrug-resistant isolates through line probe assay and further third, to identify XDR isolates through MGIT second-line DST from these positive MDR cultures in Delhi region...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846235/population-based-drug-resistance-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-taiwan-2007-2014
#14
Pei-Hua Chuang, Mei-Hua Wu, Shin-Yuan Fan, Keng-Yu Lin, Ruwen Jou
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of drug resistance in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases, we conducted a retrospective, population-based analysis using drug susceptibility testing (DST) results of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates obtained from 2007-2014 in Taiwan. METHODS: M. tuberculosis isolates collected from 1,331 MDR-TB cases were included in this survey. Treatment histories, age, sex, chest radiograph and bacteriological results of patients were analyzed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836793/european-policies-in-the-management-of-tuberculosis-among-migrants
#15
Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Masoud Dara, Ivan Solovic, Giorgia Sulis, Alimuddin Zumla, Giovanni Battista Migliori
Globally 10.4 million new TB incident cases were estimated to have occurred in 2015, of which 3% were reported in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Importantly, about 25% of the global multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases are reported in the European Region, representing one of the greatest challenges of TB control particularly in Former Soviet Union Countries. Over a quarter of TB cases in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) are reported among foreign-born individuals...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818361/classifying-new-anti-tb-drugs-rationale-and-future-perspectives
#16
Simon Tiberi, Anna Scardigli, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Marcela Muñoz-Torrico, Miguel Ángel Salazar-Lezama, Antonio Spanevello, Dina Visca, Alimuddin Zumla, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Jose A Caminero Luna
The classification of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs is important as it serves the clinician in building an appropriate anti-TB regimen for multidrug (MDR-) and extensively drug resistant (XDR-) TB cases which do not fulfil criteria for the shorter MDR-TB regimen. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently approved a revision of the classification of new anti-TB drugs based on current evidence on each drug. In the previous WHO guidelines the drug choice was based on their efficacy and toxicity, in a step-down manner from Group 1, including first-line drugs and Group 2-5 including second- line drugs, to Group 5 including drugs with potentially limited efficacy or limited clinical evidence...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806714/the-emerging-threat-of-pre-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-west-africa-preparing-for-large-scale-tuberculosis-research-and-drug-resistance-surveillance
#17
Florian Gehre, Jacob Otu, Lindsay Kendall, Audrey Forson, Awewura Kwara, Samuel Kudzawu, Aderemi O Kehinde, Oludele Adebiyi, Kayode Salako, Ignatius Baldeh, Aisha Jallow, Mamadou Jallow, Anoumou Dagnra, Kodjo Dissé, Essosimna A Kadanga, Emmanuel Oni Idigbe, Catherine Onubogu, Nneka Onyejepu, Aissatou Gaye-Diallo, Awa Ba-Diallo, Paulo Rabna, Morto Mane, Moumine Sanogo, Bassirou Diarra, Zingue Dezemon, Adama Sanou, Madikay Senghore, Brenda A Kwambana-Adams, Edward Demba, Tutty Faal-Jawara, Samrat Kumar, Leopold D Tientcheu, Adama Jallow, Samba Ceesay, Ifedayo Adetifa, Assan Jaye, Mark J Pallen, Umberto D'Alessandro, Beate Kampmann, Richard A Adegbola, Souleymane Mboup, Tumani Corrah, Bouke C de Jong, Martin Antonio
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem. Adequate management requires baseline drug-resistance prevalence data. In West Africa, due to a poor laboratory infrastructure and inadequate capacity, such data are scarce. Therefore, the true extent of drug-resistant TB was hitherto undetermined. In 2008, a new research network, the West African Network of Excellence for Tuberculosis, AIDS and Malaria (WANETAM), was founded, comprising nine study sites from eight West African countries (Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo)...
November 3, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803747/multi-drug-resistant-tuberculous-spondylitis-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Quratulain Fatima Kizilbash, Barbara Joyce Seaworth
While tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis is an ancient scourge, multi-drug resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a modern major public health concern. The objective of this study was to review and summarize the data available on MDR-TB spondylitis. An extensive search of the PubMed database was conducted for articles in English relevant to MDR-TB spondylitis by December 2015. Tuberculous spondylitis accounts for 0.5-1% of all TB cases, and it is estimated that there are probably 5000 MDR-TB spondylitis cases each year worldwide...
October 2016: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776589/provider-perspectives-on-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-in-south-africa-a-qualitative-case-study
#19
A Daftary, N Padayatchi
OBJECTIVE: To examine influences on health care workers' (HCWs') capacity to deliver health care for multi- and/or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in South Africa. DESIGN: Qualitative data were collected via group and individual interviews with a purposive sample of 17 HCWs at a centralised, tertiary TB facility and analysed using grounded theory. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: 1) personal infection control practices among HCWs may be weakened by a workplace culture comprising low motivation, disparate risk perceptions and practices across workforce hierarchies, physical discomfort, and problems managing patients with treatment-induced hearing loss...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770535/conflict-in-eastern-ukraine-strategy-for-tuberculosis
#20
T Kuchuloria, T Akhvlediani, N Akhvlediani
This root cause analysis concerns the conflict in the Eastern Ukraine and its impact on healthcare delivery in the context of treating internally displaced persons (IDPs). Inadequate treatment of tuberculosis (TB) was selected as a major topic for intervention planning in conflict areas in Ukraine. With respect to treating TB among IDPs, rapid diagnosis and adequate nutrition and shelter are important components of care and disease control. The DOT, supported by trained primary healthcare providers equipped with rapid MDR TB diagnostic capacities, need to provide appropriate shelter and nutrition to IDPs...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
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