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Management of MDR TB

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130630/a-structure-based-strategy-toward-the-development-of-novel-candidates-for-antimycobacterial-activity-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-docking-study
#1
Linhu Li, Yuanyuan Jin, Bin Wang, Zhaoyong Yang, Mingliang Liu, Huiyuan Guo, Jun Zhang, Yu Lu
Bacterial resistance to most of the available antibiotics has stimulated the discovery of novel efficacious antibacterial agents. Bedaquiline is first of its type that has been specifically introduced for the management of MDR-TB in combination with other drugs. In the current study, a series of isoniazid/ethambutol/pyrazinamide -quinoline conjugates based on the structures of Bedaquiline were designed and synthesized. Biological activity tests revealed that some of isoniazid/ethambutol-quinoline conjugates have useful antibiotic activity against MTB H37Rv (MIC: 2...
November 11, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116637/epidemiology-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#2
Anna S Dean, Helen Cox, Matteo Zignol
As we move into the era of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the End TB strategy 2016-2035 with a goal to end the global epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. Achieving the targets laid out in the Strategy will require strengthening of the whole TB diagnosis and treatment cascade, including improved case detection, the establishment of universal drug susceptibility testing and rapid treatment initiation. An estimated 3.9% of new TB cases and 21% of previously treated cases had rifampicin-resistant (RR) or multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in 2015...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098997/adverse-drug-reactions-and-treatment-outcome-analysis-of-dots-plus-therapy-of-mdr-tb-patients-at-district-tuberculosis-centre-a-four-year-retrospective-study
#3
Arif I Dela, Nitish Kumar D Tank, Anil P Singh, Kiran G Piparva
BACKGROUND: Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires the use of expensive and toxic second-line anti-tubercular drugs which are given for a longer duration. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of second-line antitubercular drugs affect compliance and thereby treatment outcome. We set out to analyze ADRs and treatment outcome of MDR-TB patients receiving directly observed treatments plus therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of registered MDR-TB cases at district tuberculosis center during 2010-2014 was performed...
November 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094039/host-directed-therapeutic-strategies-for-tuberculosis
#4
REVIEW
Afsal Kolloli, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Currently, the standard treatment for TB involves multiple antibiotics administered for at least 6 months. Although multiple antibiotics therapy is necessary to prevent the development of drug resistance, the prolonged duration of treatment, combined with toxicity of drugs, contributes to patient non-compliance that can leads to the development of drug-resistant Mtb (MDR and XDR) strains...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061336/management-of-mdr-tb-in-hiv-co-infected-patients-in-eastern-europe-results-from-the-tb-hiv-study
#5
A M W Efsen, A Schultze, R F Miller, A Panteleev, A Skrahin, D N Podlekareva, J M Miro, E Girardi, H Furrer, M H Losso, J Toibaro, J A Caylà, A Mocroft, J D Lundgren, F A Post, O Kirk
OBJECTIVES: Mortality among HIV patients with tuberculosis (TB) remains high in Eastern Europe (EE), but details of TB and HIV management remain scarce. METHODS: In this prospective study, we describe the TB treatment regimens of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). RESULTS: A total of 105 HIV-positive patients had MDR-TB (including 33 with extensive drug resistance) and 130 pan-susceptible TB...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050672/genetic-diversity-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-isolated-from-tuberculosis-patients-in-iran-using-miru-vntr-technique
#6
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Soolmaz Khandan Dezfuli, Mohammad Hashemzadeh, Hamed Goodarzi, Parviz Mohajeri
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as one of the most important infectious diseases in the world, and recent rise and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains, have made the matter worsened. Due to the importance of TB prevalence in Iran, this study was designed to investigate the genetic diversity among MDR strains of MTB by MIRU-VNTR typing scheme. A total of 88 drug resistant M. tuberculosis isolates belong to pulmonary TB cases were collected from several TB reference centers of Iran...
November 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033301/characterization-of-gyra-and-gyrb-mutations-associated-with-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-morocco
#7
Imane Chaoui, Amal Oudghiri, Mohammed El Mzibri
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are the cornerstone for treatment of drug-resistant TB, there are the most effective second-line anti-mycobacterial drugs and are recommended for the treatment of MDR-TB. However, it's widely accepted that FQs resistance is high among MDR-TB. Thus, characterization of mutations conferring resistance to FQs will be of a great interest for an effective and efficient management of TB resistance in Morocco. METHODS: A laboratory collection of 30 MTB isolates already characterized as phenotypically and genotypically MDR and 20 pan-susceptible isolates randomly selected were enrolled in this retrospective study...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027495/monitoring-and-managing-antibiotic-resistance-in-refugee-children
#8
Helena C Maltezou, Dana Elhadad, Daniel Glikman
The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962599/predictors-of-unsuccessful-interim-treatment-outcomes-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients
#9
Muhammad Atif, Arslan Bashir, Nafees Ahmad, Razia Kaneez Fatima, Sehar Saba, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND: Interim treatment outcomes at 6-months for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment are among the most basic performance monitoring and key evaluation indicators in the Stop and End TB strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the interim treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients in Pakistan. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Programmatic Management Unit for Drug-resistance TB (PMDT) site of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP), Pakistan...
September 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946683/usability-of-a-medication-event-reminder-monitor-system-merm-by-providers-and-patients-to-improve-adherence-in-the-management-of-tuberculosis
#10
Xiaoqi Liu, Terrence Blaschke, Bruce Thomas, Sabina De Geest, Shiwen Jiang, Yongxin Gao, Xinxu Li, Elizabeth Whalley Buono, Stacy Buchanan, Zhiying Zhang, Shitong Huan
Poor initiation and implementation and premature discontinuation of anti-tuberculous therapy, all forms of nonadherence, are major reasons for treatment failure, the development of drug-resistant tuberculosis, and transmission to other non-infected individuals. Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) has been the worldwide standard, but implementation of DOT is burdensome for providers and patients, especially in resource-limited settings, where most of the burden of active TB is located. Among the alternatives to DOT is electronic monitoring (EM) of drug dosing histories...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941848/drug-development-against-tuberculosis-past-present-and-future
#11
REVIEW
Mahesh S Vasava, Manoj N Bhoi, Sanjay K Rathwa, Mayuri A Borad, Sneha G Nair, Hitesh D Patel
Infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was observed as early as 5000 years ago with evidence, which is a primeval enemy of the humanoid race. MTB is the pathogen which is responsible for causing the infectious disease tuberculosis; it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in poor low-income countries as well as in developing countries because of non-availability of reliable laboratory facilities. The current treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is lengthy, complex, and connected with severe harmful side effects and poor outcomes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905529/who-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update-applicability-in-south-korea
#12
REVIEW
Doosoo Jeon
Despite progress made in tuberculosis control worldwide, the disease burden and treatment outcome of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients have remained virtually unchanged. In 2016, the World Health Organization released new guidelines for the management of MDR-TB. The guidelines are intended to improve detection rate and treatment outcome for MDR-TB through novel, rapid molecular testing and shorter treatment regimens. Key changes include the introduction of a new, shorter MDR-TB treatment regimen, a new classification of medicines and updated recommendations for the conventional MDR-TB regimen...
October 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903800/predicting-treatment-failure-death-and-drug-resistance-using-a-computed-risk-score-among-newly-diagnosed-tb-patients-in-tamaulipas-mexico
#13
B E Abdelbary, M Garcia-Viveros, H Ramirez-Oropesa, M H Rahbar, B I Restrepo
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for identifying newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) patients at risk for TB adverse events in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Surveillance data between 2006 and 2013 (8431 subjects) was used to develop risk scores based on predictive modelling. The final models revealed that TB patients failing their treatment regimen were more likely to have at most a primary school education, multi-drug resistance (MDR)-TB, and few to moderate bacilli on acid-fast bacilli smear. TB patients who died were more likely to be older males with MDR-TB, HIV, malnutrition, and reporting excessive alcohol use...
October 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817723/sequence-analysis-of-the-rifampicin-resistance-determining-region-rrdr-of-rpob-gene-in-multidrug-resistance-confirmed-and-newly-diagnosed-tuberculosis-patients-of-punjab-pakistan
#14
Salma Hameed, Kartyk Moganeradj, Nasir Mahmood, Timothy D McHugh, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Catherine Arnold
Molecular screening of new patients suspected for TB could help in the effective control of TB in Pakistan as it is a high TB burden country. It will be informative to understand the prevalence of multi drug resistance for a better drug regimen management in this geographical area. The Rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) sequencing was used to identify mutations associated with drug resistance in DNA extracts from 130 known multidrug resistant (MDR) cultured strains and compared with mutations observed in DNA extracts directly from 86 sputum samples from consecutive newly diagnosed cases in Lahore, Pakistan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814276/treatment-outcomes-of-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-hunan-province-china
#15
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Hengzhong Yi, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Kunyun Yang, Liqiong Bai, Darren J Gray, Archie C A Clements, Zuhui Xu
BACKGROUND: The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has posed additional challenges for global tuberculosis (TB) control efforts, as limited treatment options are available and treatment outcomes are often sub-optimal. This study determined treatment outcomes among a cohort of MDR-TB and XDR-TB patients in Hunan Province, China, and identified factors associated with poor treatment outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using data obtained from medical records of TB patients in Hunan Chest Hospital, and from the internet-based TB management information system managed by the Tuberculosis Control Institute of Hunan Province, for the period 2011 to 2014...
August 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756826/frequency-of-multi-drug-resistance-and-mutations-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-punjab-state-of-india
#16
Ritu Singhal, Jyoti Arora, Grish C Sah, Manpreet Bhalla, Rohit Sarin, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
Data regarding prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and associated common mutations is scarce from Punjab region. The study was designed to determine rate of MDR-TB among presumptive MDR-TB from Punjab and mutation patterns using GenoType MTBDRplus assay. Total of 812 consecutive sputum samples were received from January 2012 to July 2013, from 14 districts of Punjab at the National Reference Laboratory at New Delhi for diagnosis of MDR-TB as hand holding activity. Presumptive MDR-TB patients were identified on basis of criterion B defined by the programme...
September 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749390/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-india-current-evidence-on-diagnosis-management
#17
REVIEW
Rajendra Prasad, Abhijeet Singh, Viswesvaran Balasubramanian, Nikhil Gupta
Emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has significantly threatened to jeopardize global efforts to control TB, especially in HIV endemic regions. XDR-TB is mainly an iatrogenically created issue, and understanding the epidemiological and risk factors associated with it is of paramount importance in curbing this menace. Emergence of this deadly phenomenon can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and effective treatment with second-line drugs in rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) as well as multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744149/determinants-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#18
Demelash Assefa, Berhanu Seyoum, Lemessa Oljira
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been jeopardizing the global effort to prevent and control tuberculosis (TB). However, data on MDR-TB in Ethiopia in general, and in our study area in particular, are very scarce. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of MDR-TB in a cohort of patients managed in two referral hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between April 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013. A health facility-based case-control study was conducted. A total of 710 TB patients (229 confirmed MDR-TB and 481 drug susceptible TB patients) were enrolled in this study...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743645/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-xdr-tb-in-morocco
#19
Wifak Ennassiri, Sanae Jaouhari, Wafa Cherki, Reda Charof, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Ouafae Lahlou
OBJECTIVES: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has recently been identified as a major global health threat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of XDR-TB among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Morocco and its association with demographic, clinical and epidemiological features. METHODS: A total of 524 patients from the Moroccan National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, representative of all of the geographic regions, were subject to first-line drug susceptibility testing (DST)...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743312/emergence-of-fluoroquinolone-resistance-among-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-at-a-tertiary-care-facility-in-karachi-pakistan
#20
Syed Mohammad Asad Zaidi, Abdul Haseeb, Shifa Salman Habib, Amyn Malik, Saira Khowaja, Nausheen SaifUllah, Nadeem Rizvi
BACKGROUND: Pakistan is classified as one of the high multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries. A poorly regulated private sector, over-prescription of antibiotics and self-medication has led to augmented rates of drug-resistance in the country. Pakistan's first national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey identified high prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance among MDR-TB patients. Further institutional evidence of fluoroquinolone drug-resistance can support re-evaluation of treatment regimens as well as invigorate efforts to control antibiotic resistance in the country...
July 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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