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Flavanols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202499/dietary-phytochemical-intake-from-foods-and-health-outcomes-a-systematic-review-protocol-and-preliminary-scoping
#1
Yasmine C Probst, Vivienne X Guan, Katherine Kent
INTRODUCTION: Dietary phytochemicals are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables and grains and may be categorised in a nested hierarchical manner with many hundred individual phytochemicals identified to date. To associate phytochemical intakes with positive health outcomes, a fundamental step is to accurately estimate the dietary phytochemical intake from foods reported. The purpose of this systematic review protocol is to describe the process to be undertaken to summarise the evidence for food-based dietary phytochemical intakes and health outcomes for adults...
February 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188641/the-influence-of-plant-protection-by-effective-microorganisms-on-the-content-of-bioactive-phytochemicals-in-apples
#2
Barbara Kusznierewicz, Anna Lewandowska, Dorota Martysiak-Żurowska, Agnieszka Bartoszek
BACKGROUND: The phytochemicals of two apple cultivars (Yellow Transparent and Early Geneva) protected in two ways: conventionally with chemical pesticides or by effective organisms (EM), were compared. Two types of components were determined: lipids synthesized constitutively and generated via inducible pathways polyphenols along with antioxidant activity and profiles. RESULTS: The antioxidant activities assessed with ABTS, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu reagents were about twice higher in the case of microbiologically protected apples...
February 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182841/bioactive-components-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-fruits-from-nine-sorbus-genotypes
#3
Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Boris Krska, Biljana Kiprovski, Robert Veberic
In this study, biochemical profile of fruits of 9 Sorbus genotypes was analyzed. The content of total sugars ranged from 69.7 g/kg ('Titan') to 217.5 g/kg (Sorbus torminalis) and total organic acids from 17.7 g/kg ('Businka') to 40.2 g/kg (S. torminalis). The highest content of total anthocyanins had 'Burka' (871 mg/kg FW) and 'Businka' (856 mg/kg FW). Quercetin derivatives represented more than 95% of total flavonols. 'Alaja krupnaja' had 3.5- to 29-fold higher rutin content than other analyzed genotypes. S...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167273/mybs-affect-the-variation-in-the-ratio-of-anthocyanin-and-flavanol-in-fruit-peel-and-flesh-in-response-to-shade
#4
Yanfen Lu, Yufen Bu, Suxiao Hao, Yaru Wang, Jie Zhang, Ji Tian, Yuncong Yao
Fruit pigment accumulation, which represents an important indicator of nutrient quality and appearance value, is often affected by low light under rain, cloud, fog and haze conditions during the veraison period. It is not known whether continuous low light interferes with the production and accumulation of secondary metabolites in veraison fruit. In this paper, we measured pigments and the transcriptional level of genes related to secondary metabolites, i.e., flavonoid biosynthesis in the peel and flesh of Malus crabapple 'Radiant' fruit in response to normal light and shade from 10th July to 30th August...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159263/pre-fermentative-cold-maceration-saign%C3%A3-e-and-various-thermal-treatments-as-options-for-modulating-volatile-aroma-and-phenol-profiles-of-red-wine
#5
Igor Lukić, Irena Budić-Leto, Marijan Bubola, Kristijan Damijanić, Mario Staver
The effects of six maceration treatments on volatile aroma and phenol composition of Teran red wine were studied: standard maceration (control C), cold pre-fermentation maceration (CPM), saignée (S), pre-fermentation heating with extended maceration (PHT) or juice fermentation (PHP), and post-fermentation heating (POH). PHP wine contained the highest amounts of esters, fatty acids and anthocyanins, and the lowest content of other phenols. Alternative treatments decreased higher alcohols in relation to control C...
June 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158946/flavanol-quantification-of-grapes-via-multiple-reaction-monitoring-mass-spectrometry-application-to-the-differentiation-among-clones-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-rufete-grapes
#6
Ignacio García-Estévez, Cristina Alcalde-Eon, M Teresa Escribano-Bailon
The determination of the detailed flavanol composition in food matrices is not a simple task because of the structural similarities of monomers and, consequently, oligomers and polymers. The aim of this study was the development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method that would allow the accurate and precise quantification of catechins, gallocatechins and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. The high correlation coefficients of the calibration curves (>0.993), the recoveries not statistically different from 100%, the good intra- and inter-day precision (lower than 5%) and the LOD and LOQ values, low enough to quantify flavanols in grapes, are good results from the method validation procedure...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153244/cyclic-voltammetry-to-evaluate-the-antioxidant-potential-in-winemaking-by-products
#7
M José Jara-Palacios, M Luisa Escudero-Gilete, J Miguel Hernández-Hierro, Francisco J Heredia, Dolores Hernanz
Grape pomace is composed of seeds, skins and stems that are an important source of phenolic substances, which have antioxidant properties and potential benefits to human health. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been used to measure the total antioxidant potential of different winemaking by-products. The electrochemical behavior of pomace, seeds, skins and stems was measured by CV and lipid peroxidation inhibition by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method. Differences for the electrochemical parameter were found between the by-products, pomace and seeds, which presented the greatest voltammetric peak area...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117630/preventing-false-negatives-for-histochemical-detection-of-phenolics-and-lignins-in-peg-embedded-plant-tissues
#8
Bruno G Ferreira, Renan Falcioni, Lubia M Guedes, Sofia C Avritzer, Werner C Antunes, Luiz A Souza, Rosy M S Isaias
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a low-cost and advantageous embedding medium, which maintains the majority of cell contents unaltered during the embedding process. Some hard or complex plant materials are better embedded in PEG than in other usual embedding media. However, the histochemical tests for phenolics and lignins in PEG-embedded plant tissues commonly result in false negatives. We hypothesize that these false negatives should be prevented by the use of distinct fixatives, which should avoid the bonds between PEG and phenols...
February 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106217/flavanol-concentrations-do-not-predict-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitory-activities-of-four-cocoas-with-different-processing-histories
#9
Caroline M Ryan, Weslie Khoo, Amanda C Stewart, Sean F O'Keefe, Joshua D Lambert, Andrew P Neilson
Cocoa and its constituent bioactives (particularly flavanols) have reported anti-diabetic and anti-obesity activities. One potential mechanism of action is inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4), the enzyme that inactivates incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory peptide. The objective of this study was to determine the DPP4 inhibitory activities of cocoas with different processing histories, and identify processing factors and bioactive compounds that predict DPP4 inhibition...
January 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103873/masquelier-s-grape-seed-extract-from-basic-flavonoid-research-to-a-well-characterized-food-supplement-with-health-benefits
#10
REVIEW
Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast
Careful characterization and standardization of the composition of plant-derived food supplements is essential to establish a cause-effect relationship between the intake of that product and its health effect. In this review we follow a specific grape seed extract containing monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols from its creation by Jack Masquelier in 1947 towards a botanical remedy and nutraceutical with proven health benefits. The preparation's research history parallels the advancing insights in the fields of molecular biology, medicine, plant and nutritional sciences during the last 70 years...
January 19, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100284/role-of-flavonoids-and-nitrates-in-cardiovascular-health
#11
Julie A Lovegrove, Alex Stainer, Ditte A Hobbs
CVD remain the leading cause of death globally. Effective dietary strategies for their reduction are of high priority. Increasing evidence suggests that phytochemicals, particularly dietary flavonoids and nitrates, are key modulators of CVD risk reduction through impact on multiple risk factors. The aim of this review is to explore the evidence for the impact of flavonoid- and nitrate-rich foods and supplements on CVD risk, with specific reference to their importance as mediators of vascular health and platelet function...
January 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035345/high-flavonoid-intake-induces-cognitive-improvements-linked-to-changes-in-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-two-randomised-controlled-trials
#12
Sara Neshatdoust, Caroline Saunders, Sophie M Castle, David Vauzour, Claire Williams, Laurie Butler, Julie A Lovegrove, Jeremy P E Spencer
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies have indicated the beneficial impact of dietary flavonoid intake on human cognitive performance. Although the mechanisms that mediate such improvements are currently unclear, animal and human trial data suggest that changes in neurotrophin expression, and related signalling apparatus, may be involved. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the link between changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and changes in human cognitive performance following flavonoid intake. METHODS: The relationship between serum levels of BDNF and age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and cognition at baseline, and following flavonoid intake, was investigated in two distinct randomised, controlled clinical trials...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003203/methylxanthines-enhance-the-effects-of-cocoa-flavanols-on-cardiovascular-function-randomized-double-masked-controlled-studies
#13
Roberto Sansone, Javier I Ottaviani, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Yvonne Heinen, Dorina Noske, Jeremy P Spencer, Alan Crozier, Marc W Merx, Malte Kelm, Hagen Schroeter, Christian Heiss
BACKGROUND: Cocoa flavanol intake, especially that of (-)-epicatechin, has been linked to beneficial effects on human cardiovascular function. However, cocoa also contains the methylxanthines theobromine and caffeine, which may also affect vascular function. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether an interaction between cocoa flavanols and methylxanthines exists that influences cocoa flavanol-dependent vascular effects. DESIGN: Test drinks that contained various amounts of cocoa flavanols (0-820 mg) and methylxanthines (0-220 mg), either together or individually, were consumed by healthy volunteers (n = 47) in 4 different clinical studies-3 with a randomized, double-masked crossover design and 1 with 4 parallel crossover studies...
February 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983622/effect-of-tea-polyphenol-compounds-on-anticancer-drugs-in-terms-of-anti-tumor-activity-toxicology-and-pharmacokinetics
#14
REVIEW
Jianhua Cao, Jie Han, Hao Xiao, Jinping Qiao, Mei Han
Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed that properly-formulated drug combinations have greater therapeutic efficacy than single drugs. Tea is a popular beverage consumed by cancer patients and the general public for its perceived health benefits...
December 14, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979161/unravelling-effects-of-flavanols-and-their-derivatives-on-acrylamide-formation-via-support-vector-machine-modelling
#15
Mengmeng Huang, Qiao Wang, Xinyu Chen, Yu Zhang
This study investigated the effect of flavanols and their derivatives on acrylamide formation under low-moisture conditions via prediction using the support vector regression (SVR) approach. Acrylamide was generated in a potato-based equimolar asparagine-reducing sugar model system through oven heating. Both positive and negative effects were observed when the flavonoid treatment ranged 1-10,000μmol/L. Flavanols and derivatives (100μmol/L) suppress the acrylamide formation within a range of 59.9-78.2%, while their maximal promotion effects ranged from 2...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935129/performance-comparison-of-electrospray-ionization-and-atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionization-in-untargeted-and-targeted-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-analysis-of-grapeberry-metabolites
#16
Mauro Commisso, Andrea Anesi, Silvia Dal Santo, Flavia Guzzo
RATIONALE: Electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) are both used to generate ions for the analysis of metabolites by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). We compared the performance of these methods for the analysis of Corvina grapevine berry methanolic extracts, which are complex mixtures of diverse metabolites. METHODS: Corvina berries representing three ripening stages (veraison, early-ripening and full-ripening) were collected during two growing seasons, powdered and extracted with methanol...
February 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898046/pro-and-antioxidant-activity-of-three-selected-flavan-type-flavonoids-catechin-eriodictyol-and-taxifolin
#17
Vladimir Chobot, Franz Hadacek, Gert Bachmann, Wolfram Weckwerth, Lenka Kubicova
The flavanol (±)-catechin shows an OH group but no 4-keto group on ring C (C3), and no conjugation between ring A and B. The related flavanone (+)-eriodictyol has a keto group on C4 but no 3-OH group on ring C. (+)-Taxifolin, another flavanone, has an OH on C3 and a keto group on C4 of the C ring. Deoxyribose degradation assay systems, with hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid either added or omitted, were performed in variants in which Fe(III) was added in a complex with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)...
November 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897996/in-vitro-chemopreventive-properties-of-green-tea-rooibos-and-honeybush-extracts-in-skin-cells
#18
Tandeka U Magcwebeba, Pieter Swart, Sonja Swanevelder, Elizabeth Joubert, Wentzel C A Gelderblom
The chemopreventive properties of the herbal teas rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia spp.) have been demonstrated on mouse skin in vivo but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The aim of the current study was to determine the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of rooibos and two Cyclopia species in different skin cells, using green tea (Camellia sinensis) as a benchmark. Extracts were also characterised for their major individual polyphenols by high performance liquid chromatography and spectroscopically for the total polyphenol (TP) groups...
November 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855905/bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-potential-in-tomato-pastes-as-affected-by-hot-and-cold-break-process
#19
Hasim Kelebek, Serkan Selli, Pınar Kadiroğlu, Osman Kola, Songul Kesen, Burçak Uçar, Başak Çetiner
The effects of hot and cold break industrial tomato paste production steps on phenolic compounds, carotenoids, organic acids, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) and other quality parameters of tomato pastes were investigated in this study. Phenolic compounds, carotenoids, organic acids, and HMF analyses were performed with LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and LC-DAD-RID was used for the sugar analyses. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacities of tomato pastes were assessed via the DPPH and ABTS methods. The increase of phenol acids at the processing steps of cold break production method was higher than the hot break production method...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849355/acute-cocoa-flavanol-improves-cerebral-oxygenation-without-enhancing-executive-function-at-rest-or-after-exercise
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Danusa D Soares, Semah Tagougui, Elsa Heyman, Romain Meeusen
Acute exercise-induced improvements in cognitive function are accompanied by increased (cerebral) blood flow and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Acute cocoa flavanol (CF) intake may improve cognitive function, cerebral blood flow (in humans), and BNDF levels (in animals). This study investigated (i) the effect of CF intake in combination with exercise on cognitive function and (ii) cerebral hemodynamics and BDNF in response to CF intake and exercise. Twelve healthy men participated in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study...
December 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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