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Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Emmy Tuenter, Kenn Foubert, Luc Pieters
Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
Jae H Kang, Kerry L Ivey, Tahani Boumenna, Bernard Rosner, Janey L Wiggs, Louis R Pasquale
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between flavonoid intake and incident primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: We followed 65 516 women from the Nurses' Health Study (from 1984) and 42 156 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (from 1986) biennially to 2012, who were 40+ years old, free of POAG, and reported eye examinations. Dietary flavonoid intake was assessed with validated repeated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Incident POAG cases (n = 1575) were confirmed with medical record review...
March 14, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
David Álvarez-Cilleros, Sonia Ramos, Luis Goya, María Ángeles Martín
Oxidative stress is involved in endothelial dysfunction, the key player in the development of vascular events. Flavanols, the major antioxidants in cocoa have been related to vascular protection and lower cardiovascular risk. However, the bioavailability of cocoa flavanols is very low and their bioactivity in vivo seems to be greatly mediated by the derived phenolic metabolites formed by intestinal microbiota. Hence, we investigated whether microbial-derived flavanol metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DHPAA), 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (HPPA) and a mix of them could influence endothelial function and prevent oxidative stress in human endothelial cells (Ea...
March 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Vanessa Andreu, Annabel Levert, Anaïs Amiot, Anaïs Cousin, Nicolas Aveline, Cédric Bertrand
Five plant extracts traditionally used in organic and biodynamic farming for pest control and antifungal (downy mildew) disease management were selected after a farmer survey and analyzed for their chemical composition in LC-PDA-MS-MS and using adapted analytical method from food chemistry for determination of class of component (e.g., protein, sugar, lipids…). Their antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis allii, brown rot causing agents (Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena), and grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) was examined in vitro...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aytaç Karabay, Jefta D Saija, David T Field, Elkan G Akyürek
In this study, we investigated how the acute physiological effects of cocoa flavanols might result in specific cognitive changes, in particular in temporal and spatial attention. To this end, we pre-registered and implemented a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and baseline-controlled crossover design. A sample of 48 university students participated in the study and each of them completed the experimental tasks in four conditions (baseline, placebo, low dose, and high-dose flavanol), administered in separate sessions with a 1-week washout interval...
March 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Oana-Crina Bujor, Christian Ginies, Valentin I Popa, Claire Dufour
Fruits and aerial parts of lingonberry could be better developed as dietary supplements if the composition in bioactive phenolic compounds and the best period for collection were known. UPLC/MS analysis revealed the predominant presence of arbutin in leaf and that of flavanols in stems harvested in May, July and September. Anthocyanins, flavanols and benzoic acid derivatives were equally present in fruits. Stem and leaf are highly homologous with (+)-catechin, A- and B-type dimers/trimers, and two quercetin glycosides as major contributors...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Marie J Zwetsloot, André Kessler, Taryn L Bauerle
Root-soil interactions fundamentally affect the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and thereby ecosystem feedbacks to climate change. This study addressed the question of whether the secondary metabolism of different temperate forest tree species can affect soil microbial respiration. We hypothesized that phenolics can both increase and decrease respiration depending on their function as food source, mobilizer of other soil resources, signaling compound, or toxin. We analyzed the phenolic compounds from root exudates and root tissue extracts of six tree species grown in a glasshouse using high-performance liquid chromatography...
February 23, 2018: New Phytologist
Rita Celano, Luca Campone, Imma Pagano, Sonia Carabetta, Rosa Di Sanzo, Luca Rastrelli, Anna Lisa Piccinelli, Mariateresa Russo
Consumers are aware of diet causing health problems and therefore there is an increased demand for natural ingredients that are expected to be safe and health-promoting. Many of these compounds belong to the class of flavonoids and can be divided into these five groups: flavanones, flavones, flavonols, flavanols, isoflavones and anthocyanidins. Extracts from citrus fruits are usually used as functional ingredients for several products. The aim of this paper was to develop an UHPLC-UV-ESI-HRMS method to define the metabolite profile of different parts of citrus fruit, of a particular cultivar called 'Ovale Calabrese', and in its main by-products...
February 23, 2018: Natural Product Research
George Pounis, Simona Costanzo, Marialaura Bonaccio, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Amalia de Curtis, Emilia Ruggiero, Mariarosaria Persichillo, Chiara Cerletti, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Licia Iacoviello
OBJECTIVES: The effect of the polyphenol content of the human diet on mortality risk is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of a polyphenol-rich diet with mortality rate and a possible mediation effect by inflammation, in what we believe to be a novel, holistic approach. METHODS: We analyzed 21 302 participants (10 980 women and 10 322 men, aged ≥35 y) from the Moli-sani cohort. The participants were followed up for a median of 8...
November 28, 2017: Nutrition
M Heinrich, R Daniels, F C Stintzing, D R Kammerer
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of crucial process parameters, i.e. of light and temperature conditions, during the preparation of St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum L.) Arachis oil macerates. Extracts were prepared according to a standardized protocol over a period of 28 days. For this purpose, flowering tops of H. perforatum were macerated with Arachis oil (drug extract ratio, DERnative 1:4) under different light and temperature conditions. Spectrophotometric measurements were carried out to quantitate naphthodianthrones and to characterize extract color in the CIE L*C*h° system...
March 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Javier I Ottaviani, Christian Heiss, Jeremy P Spencer, Malte Kelm, Hagen Schroeter
The last 8 years have seen significant developments in our understanding of dietary flavanols and procyanidins in the context of human health and nutrition. During the same time, recognition of the importance of nutrition in primary disease prevention and health maintenance has increased. In addition, the concept of dietary bioactives (food constituents that although not essential to human life and procreation, may nevertheless play an important role in disease risk reduction, primary disease prevention, and healthy aging) has been created and developed...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Carlos Augusto Ledesma-Escobar, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Victor Jose Robles-Olvera, María Dolores Luque De Castro
Citrus possess a high content of phenolic compounds; however, few studies have focused on the changes occurring during fruit growth. The changes in the concentration of 20 flavonoids, 4 phenolic acids and their biosynthetic precursors phenylalanine and tyrosine have been evaluated during fruit maturation (14 weeks). Extracts from all samples, obtained by ultrasound assistance, were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with a triple quad system (LC-QqQ MS/MS). In general, the concentration of flavanones -which represented over 70% of the studied phenols- and flavones increased during fruit growth, reaching their maximum concentration around week 12...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Uzma Noor Shah, Javid Iqbal Mir, Nazeer Ahmed, Sumira Jan, Khalid Majid Fazili
The purpose of investigation was to assess the phytochemical and nutraceutical of walnut in leaf extracts through diverse quantitative and qualitative phytochemical tests followed by array of assays. The screening of 50 elite walnut genotypes which exhibited wide range of discrepancy in terms of phytochemicals as well as their anti-oxidant potential was done. Walnut genotypes displayed maximum divergence in quercetin content (2.86-5.78 mg/100 g) as represented by cluster analysis. The phenolic rich genotypes exhibiting total phenols (37...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Rui Yang, Wei-Xin Wang, Hong-Juan Chen, Zhao-Chun He, Ai-Qun Jia
Camellia nitidissima Chi (CNC), belonging to Camellia genus (Theaceae family), is a medicinal and edible plant in China. Among the whole plant, the CNC flowers are especially precious, but the biological activities and the compositions of the CNC flowers are unknown. In this study, inhibiting effects on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) of five CNC flowers fractions and three isolated compounds were investigated, these three compounds are two flavonoid glycosides and one flavanol, namely kaempferol 3-O-[2,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-2,4-di-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-[2,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-4-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and catechin...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Joanne Karam, Maria Del Mar Bibiloni, Josep A Tur
The aim was the assessment of the polyphenol estimated intake and dietary sources among older adults from Mallorca Island. The study was carried out (2013-2014) in 211 participants dwelling women (n = 112) and men (n = 99). Polyphenol intake was calculated from two non-consecutive 24-h recall diets using the Polyphenol Explorer. The mean daily intake of polyphenol was 332.7 mg/d (SD: 237.9; median: 299 mg/d). Highest polyphenol intake was observed among females, 64-67 y.o. people, higher income and educational level, alcohol consumers, and physically active people...
2018: PloS One
Panagiotis Arapitsas, Graziano Guella, Fulvio Mattivi
Wine has one of the broadest chemical profiles, and the common oenological practice of adding the antioxidant and antimicrobial sulfur dioxide has a major impact on its metabolomic fingerprint. In this study, we investigated novel discovered oenological reactions primarily occurring between wine metabolites and sulfur dioxide. The sulfonated derivatives of epicatechin, procyanidin B2, indole acetic acid, indole lactic acid and tryptophol were synthesized and for the first time quantified in wine. Analysis of 32 metabolites in 195 commercial wines (1986-2016 vintages) suggested that sulfonation of tryptophan metabolites characterised white wines, in contrast to red wines, where sulfonation of flavanols was preferred...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anuradha S Upadhye, Anagha Rajopadhye, Lourelle Dias
BACKGROUND: Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. commonly called as Rasna, Greater galangal or Kulinjan is a medicinally important rhizome used in Indian traditional system of medicine to cure a number of ailments. A. galanga is the main source of a galangin -a medicinally important flavanol which has a number of pharmacological properties viz. anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory. Due to the high demand for the rhizome of A. galanga traders are now substituting it with rhizomes of A. calcarata and A...
January 16, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Lieselot Decroix, Danusa Dias Soares, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman, Cajsa Tonoli
BACKGROUND: Cocoa flavanols (CFs) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities and can improve vascular function. It has recently been suggested that CF intake may improve exercise performance and recovery. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the literature on the effects of CF intake on exercise performance and recovery and exercise-induced changes in vascular function, cognitive function, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic parameters. METHODS: Two electronic databases (Pubmed and Web of Science) were searched for studies examining the combination of CF intake and exercise in humans (up to 28 March 2017)...
January 3, 2018: Sports Medicine
Hayato Tsukamoto, Tadashi Suga, Aya Ishibashi, Saki Takenaka, Daichi Tanaka, Yoshitaka Hirano, Takafumi Hamaoka, Kazushige Goto, Kumiko Ebi, Tadao Isaka, Takeshi Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE: Aerobic exercise is known to acutely improve cognitive functions, such as executive function (EF) and memory function (MF). Additionally, consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been reported to acutely improve cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine whether high cocoa flavanol (CF; HCF) consumption would enhance exercise-induced improvement in cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, we examined the combined effects of HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise on EF and MF during postexercise recovery...
February 2018: Nutrition
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