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Flavanols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522973/profiling-and-distribution-of-metabolites-of-procyanidin-b2-in-mice-by-uplc-dad-esi-it-tof-ms-n-technique
#1
Ying Xiao, Zhongzhi Hu, Zhiting Yin, Yiming Zhou, Taiyi Liu, Xiaoli Zhou, Dawei Chang
The metabolite profiles and distributions of procyanidin B2 were qualitatively described using UPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) without help of reference standards, and a possible metabolic pathway was proposed in the present study. Summarily, 53 metabolites (24 new metabolites) were detected as metabolites of procyanidin B2, and 45 of them were tentatively identified. Twenty seven metabolites were assigned as similar metabolites of (-)-epicatechin by scission of the flavanol interflavanic bond C4-C8, including 16 aromatic metabolites, 5 conjugated metabolites, 3 ring-cleavage metabolites, and 2 phenylvalerolactone metabolites...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501772/hyperoside-protects-against-chronic-mild-stress-induced-learning-and-memory-deficits
#2
Yeli Gong, Youhua Yang, Xiaoqing Chen, Min Yang, Dan Huang, Rong Yang, Lianying Zhou, Changlei Li, Qiuju Xiong, Zhe Xiong
Hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-b-d-galactosidepyranose) is a plant-derived flavonoid mainly found in fruits, fruit juices (most notably flavanols, flavanones, and anthocyanins) and Chinese traditional medicines. It has been applied to relieve pain and improve cardiovascular functions in clinic. However, the effects of hyperoside on cognitive impairment induced by chronic stress and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we used chronic mild stress (CMS) rats to investigate the effects of hyperoside on learning and memory and further explore the possible mechanisms...
May 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495603/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-biological-activities-and-therapeutic-applications-of-clinacanthus-nutans-burm-f-lindau-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin, Md Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Habsah Abdul Kadir, Long Chiau Ming
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau, a widely used medicinal plant, is extensively grown in tropical Asia and Southeast Asian countries. C. nutans, with its broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, has been traditionally used to treat cancer, inflammatory disorders, diabetes, insect bites, and skin problems, consumed as a vegetable, mixed with fresh juices, in concoctions, and as a whole plant. The present review analyzes the advances in the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of C...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490122/anthocyanin-condensed-forms-do-not-affect-color-or-chemical-stability-of-purple-corn-pericarp-extracts-stored-under-different-phs
#4
Diego Luna-Vital, Qian Li, Leslie West, Megan West, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia
Purple corn is rich in anthocyanins, some of which are condensed with flavanols. The aim was to determine the impact of anthocyanin condensed forms extracted from purple corn pericarp on color and chemical stability at different pHs compared with the complete extract, and an extract without condensed forms. Extracts were dissolved at pH values ranging from 2.0 to 6.0 and stored for 12weeks at 22°C. Color stability of anthocyanins decreased as the pH increased. Slight color differences were observed throughout time at pH 2 (ΔE from 0...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490118/study-of-phenolic-extractability-in-grape-seeds-by-means-of-atr-ftir-and-raman-spectroscopy
#5
Julio Nogales-Bueno, Berta Baca-Bocanegra, Abigail Rooney, José Miguel Hernández-Hierro, Hugh J Byrne, Francisco José Heredia
Near infrared hyperspectral imaging has been applied to grape seeds in order to select a representative subset of samples according to their spectral features in the 900-1700nm range. Afterwards, selected grape seeds have been classified according to their total phenol and flavanol extractabilities. In this way, samples were sorted in three different groups identified as low, medium and high extractability levels. In order to establish the chemical structures which can be responsible for the different extractabilities, vibrational spectroscopy has been applied to the non-extracted material after seed extractions...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474120/dietary-polyphenol-intake-and-risk-of-hypertension-in-the-polish-arm-of-the-hapiee-study
#6
Giuseppe Grosso, Urszula Stepaniak, Agnieszka Micek, Magdalena Kozela, Denes Stefler, Martin Bobak, Andrzej Pajak
PURPOSE: Dietary polyphenols have been studied for their potential effects on metabolic disorders, but studies on risk of hypertension are scarce. This study aimed to test the association between total and individual classes of dietary polyphenols and incidence of hypertension in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study. METHODS: A total of 2725 participants free of hypertension at baseline were tested for blood pressure or taking hypertensive medication within the last 2 weeks at 2-4-year follow-up visit...
May 4, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450008/flavanol-plasma-bioavailability-is-affected-by-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#7
Maria Margalef, Zara Pons, Lisard Iglesias-Carres, Francisca Isabel Bravo, Begoña Muguerza, Anna Arola-Arnal
Flavanols, which exert several health benefits, are metabolized after ingestion. Factors such as the host physiological condition could affect the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols, influencing their bioactivities. This study aimed to qualitatively evaluate whether a pathological state influenced flavanol plasma bioavailability. Standard and cafeteria (CAF) diet fed rats, a robust model of metabolic syndrome (MeS), were administered 1000mg/kg of flavanol enriched grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE)...
September 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446022/a-survey-of-anthocyanin-composition-and-concentration-in-diverse-maize-germplasm
#8
Michael Paulsmeyer, Laura Chatham, Talon Becker, Megan West, Leslie West, John Juvik
Increasing consumer demand for natural ingredients in foods and beverages justifies investigations into more economic sources of natural colorants. In this study, 398 genetically diverse pigmented accessions of maize were analyzed using HPLC to characterize the diversity of anthocyanin composition and concentration in maize germplasm. 167 accessions were identified that could produce anthocyanins in the kernel pericarp or aleurone and were classified into compositional categories. Total anthocyanin content was highest in pericarp-pigmented accessions with flavanol-anthocyanin condensed forms, similar to the Andean Maíz Morado landraces...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443520/recent-advances-on-3-hydroxyflavone-derivatives-structures-and-properties
#9
Burcu Butun, Gulacti Topcu, Turan Ozturk
Flavonoids are naturally occurring phenolic compounds named as 2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one and classified into several subclasses according to their basic chemical structures such as flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanonols, and flavanols. Among them, flavonols (3-hydroxyflavone), containing a 3-hydroxyl group in association with its 4-keto group and double bond between 2- and 3- carbon atoms, have the best electron conjugated skeleton in flavonoid family, providing several resonance structures and chelating ability, through which various pharmacological activities such as antiviral, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anticholinesterase, cytotoxicity, and particularly high antioxidant activity are demonstrated...
April 24, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439881/effect-of-cocoa-on-blood-pressure
#10
REVIEW
Karin Ried, Peter Fakler, Nigel P Stocks
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure...
April 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421745/molecular-approach-to-the-synergistic-effect-on-astringency-elicited-by-mixtures-of-flavanols
#11
Alba María Ramos-Pineda, Ignacio García-Estévez, Natércia F Brás, Eva M Martín Del Valle, Montserrat Dueñas, María Teresa Escribano Bailón
The interactions between salivary proteins and wine flavanols (catechin, epicatechin, and mixtures thereof) have been studied by HPLC-DAD, isothermal titration microcalorimetry, and molecular dynamics simulations. Chromatographic results suggest that the presence of these flavanol mixtures could facilitate the formation of precipitates to the detriment of soluble aggregates. Comparison between the thermodynamic parameters obtained showed remarkably higher negative values of ΔG in the system containing the mixture of both flavanols in comparison to the systems containing individual flavanols, indicating a more favorable scenario in the mixing system...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397240/relationship-between-hyperspectral-indices-agronomic-parameters-and-phenolic-composition-of-vitis-vinifera-cv-tempranillo-grapes
#12
Ignacio García-Estévez, Natalia Quijada-Morín, Julián C Rivas-Gonzalo, José Martínez-Fernández, Nilda Sánchez, Carlos M Herrero-Jiménez, M Teresa Escribano-Bailón
BACKGROUND: Phenolic composition of grapes is key when making decisions about harvest date in order to assure the quality of grapes. This work aimed to study the relation between the detailed phenolic composition of grapes and agronomic parameters and hyperspectral indices, these latter measured through field radiometry techniques. RESULTS: Good correlations were found between phenolic composition (both anthocyanin and flavanol composition) and some hyperspectral indices related to vigor, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391283/mothers-consumption-of-soy-drink-but-not-black-tea-increases-the-flavonoid-content-of-term-breast-milk-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-intervention-study
#13
Frank Jochum, Birgit Alteheld, Pamela Meinardus, Norbert Dahlinger, Antonia Nomayo, Peter Stehle
OBJECTIVE: We performed a pilot RCT to prove the hypothesis that a controlled ingestion of polyphenol-rich beverages (soy drink, decaffeinated black tea) in nutritive dosages by nursing women has an effect on the composition (flavonoid concentration, total antioxidant capacity) of breast milk. METHODS: Healthy nursing women were supplemented with either 250 mL of a soy drink (12 mg isoflavones; n = 18), 300 mL decaffeinated black tea (67 mg catechins; n = 18), or 300 mL water (n = 8, control) for 6 days...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388357/quercetin-inhibits-advanced-glycation-end-product-formation-via-chelating-metal-ions-trapping-methylglyoxal-and-trapping-reactive-oxygen-species
#14
Mohammad Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan, Shinya Mitsuhashi, Kengo Sigetomi, Makoto Ubukata
Physiological concentration of Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) accelerated AGE formation only in glucose-mediated conditions, which was effectively inhibited by chelating ligands. Only quercetin (10) inhibited MGO-mediated AGE formation as well as glucose- and ribose-mediated AGE formation among 10 polyphenols (1-10) tested. We performed an additional structure-activity relationship (SAR) study on flavanols (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14). Morin (12) and kaempherol (14) showed inhibitory activity against MGO-mediated AGE formation, whereas rutin (11) and fisetin (13) did not...
May 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382623/double-maturation-raisonn%C3%A3-e-the-impact-of-on-vine-berry-dehydration-on-the-berry-and-wine-composition-of-merlot-vitis-vinifera-l
#15
Denis Rusjan, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
BACKGROUND: Double Maturation Raisonnée (DMR) is a potential canopy measure that affects grape and wine composition. The aim of this work was to study for the first time the DMR impact on the physical, biochemical and sensorial characteristics of the berries and wines of Merlot, one of the world's fastest-expanding grapevine varieties. RESULTS: DMR significantly increased the content of soluble solids (1.2-fold), free amino nitrogen (1.8-fold) and acidity in berries but decreased the weight of 100 berries on harvest (approx...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353678/assessment-of-lipophilicity-indices-derived-from-retention-behavior-of-antioxidant-compounds-in-rp-hplc
#16
Ioana Anamaria Sima, Agata Kot-Wasik, Andrzej Wasik, Jacek Namieśnik, Costel Sârbu
Reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography was employed in order to evaluate the lipophilicity of antioxidant compounds from different classes, such as phenolic acids, flavanones, flavanols, flavones, anthocyanins, stilbenes, xantonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The retention time of each compound was measured using five different HPLC columns: RP18 (LiChroCART, Purosphere RP-18e), C8 (Zorbax, Eclipse XDBC8), C16-Amide (Discovery RP-Amide C16), CN100 (Saulentechnik, Lichrosphere), and pentafluorophenyl (Phenomenex, Kinetex PFP), and the mobile phase consisted of methanol and water (0...
March 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341432/development-validation-and-evaluation-of-an-analytical-method-for-the-determination-of-monomeric-and-oligomeric-procyanidins-in-apple-extracts
#17
Wendy J Hollands, Stefan Voorspoels, Griet Jacobs, Kjersti Aaby, Ane Meisland, Rocio Garcia-Villalba, Francisco Tomas-Barberan, Mariusz K Piskula, Deborah Mawson, Irena Vovk, Paul W Needs, Paul A Kroon
There is a lack of data for individual oligomeric procyanidins in apples and apple extracts. Our aim was to develop, validate and evaluate an analytical method for the separation, identification and quantification of monomeric and oligomeric flavanols in apple extracts. To achieve this, we prepared two types of flavanol extracts from freeze-dried apples; one was an epicatechin-rich extract containing ∼30% (w/w) monomeric (-)-epicatechin which also contained oligomeric procyanidins (Extract A), the second was an oligomeric procyanidin-rich extract depleted of epicatechin (Extract B)...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340743/linking-atr-ftir-and-raman-features-to-phenolic-extractability-and-other-attributes-in-grape-skin
#18
Julio Nogales-Bueno, Berta Baca-Bocanegra, Abigail Rooney, José Miguel Hernández-Hierro, Francisco José Heredia, Hugh J Byrne
The importance of wine phenolics on the sensory characteristic of red wines is well-known. Therefore, it is necessary to control the extractability of phenolic compounds from grape skins, which depends significantly on grape ripeness and hence, on cell wall degradation. In the present study, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectra of grape skin have been recorded. Then, these spectral matrices have been studied and the main spectral features have been linked to extractabilities of phenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavanols and total phenols)...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317766/first-evidences-of-interaction-between-pyranoanthocyanins-and-salivary-proline-rich-proteins
#19
Ignacio García-Estévez, Luís Cruz, Joana Oliveira, Nuno Mateus, Victor de Freitas, Susana Soares
The contribution of other classes of polyphenol compounds besides tannins to the overall perception of astringency is still poorly understood. So, this work aimed to study the interaction between a family of salivary proline-rich proteins (aPRPs) and representative pyranoanthocyanins in red wines [pyranomalvidin-3-glucoside (vitisin B), pyranomalvidin-3-glucoside-catechol, and pyranomalvidin-3-glucoside-epicatechin] using saturation transfer difference-NMR and MALDI-TOF. For vitisin B KD was of 1.74mM; for pyranomalvidin-3-glucoside-catechol was 1...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317253/correlation-between-the-potency-of-flavonoids-for-cytochrome-c-reduction-and-inhibition-of-cardiolipin-induced-peroxidase-activity
#20
Ricardo Lagoa, Alejandro K Samhan-Arias, Carlos Gutierrez-Merino
There are large differences between flavonoids to protect against apoptosis, a process in which cytochrome c (Cyt c) plays a key role. In this work, we show that 7 of 13 flavonoids studied have a capacity to reduce Cyt c similar or higher than ascorbate, the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, flavanol epigallocatechin-gallate, anthocyanidins cyanidin and malvidin, and the flavone luteolin. In contrast, the kaempferol 3(O)- and 3,4'(O)-methylated forms, the flavanone naringenin, and also apigenin and chrysin, had a negligible reducing capacity...
March 20, 2017: BioFactors
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