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Flavanols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895264/phenolic-compound-diversity-explored-in-the-context-of-photo-oxidative-stress-protection
#1
Kristóf Csepregi, Éva Hideg
INTRODUCTION: Phenolic compounds are a chemically diverse group of plant secondary metabolites with important roles both in plant stress defence and human nutrition. OBJECTIVE: To explore structure-function relations potentiating phenolic compounds to promote leaf acclimation to light stress by excess photosynthetically active radiation (photoinhibition) and by solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. METHODOLOGY: We report singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide antioxidant capacities and UV-absorbing properties of 27 flavonoids and 11 phenolic acids...
September 12, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893620/protective-effects-of-tea-red-wine-and-cocoa-in-diabetes-evidences-from-human-studies
#2
REVIEW
Maria Angeles Martin, Luis Goya, Sonia Ramos
Prevention of diabetes through the diet has recently received an increasing interest, and polyphenolic compounds, such as flavanols, have become important potential chemopreventive natural agents due to their proved benefits on health, with low toxicity and cost. Tea, red wine and cocoa are good sources of flavanols and these highly consumed foods might contribute to prevent diabetes. In this regard, there is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea, red wine and cocoa consumption against this disorder...
September 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873660/formation-of-polymeric-pigments-in-red-wines-through-sequential-fermentation-of-flavanol-enriched-musts-with-non-saccharomyces-yeasts
#3
Carlos Escott, Juan Manuel Del Fresno, Iris Loira, Antonio Morata, Wendu Tesfaye, María Del Carmen González, José Antonio Suárez-Lepe
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts may contribute to enrich wine aroma while promoting the formation of stable pigments. Yeast metabolites such as acetaldehyde and pyruvate participate in the formation of stable pigments during fermentation and wine aging. This work evaluated the formation of polymeric pigments in red musts added with (+)-Catechin, ProcyanidinB2 and ProcyanidinC1. The non-Saccharomyces yeasts used were Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Torulaspora delbrueckii in sequential fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863367/monomeric-cocoa-catechins-enhance-%C3%AE-cell-function-by-increasing-mitochondrial-respiration
#4
Thomas J Rowley, Benjamin F Bitner, Jason D Ray, Daniel R Lathen, Andrew T Smithson, Blake W Dallon, Chase J Plowman, Benjamin T Bikman, Jason M Hansen, Melanie R Dorenkott, Katheryn M Goodrich, Liyun Ye, Sean F O'Keefe, Andrew P Neilson, Jeffery S Tessem
A hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is β-cell dysfunction and the eventual loss of functional β-cell mass. Therefore, mechanisms that improve or preserve β-cell function could be used to improve the quality of life of individuals with T2D. Studies have shown that monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric cocoa flavanols have different effects on obesity, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that these cocoa flavanols may have beneficial effects on β-cell function. INS-1 832/13-derived β-cells and primary rat islets cultured with a monomeric catechin-rich cocoa flavanol fraction demonstrated enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while cells cultured with total cocoa extract and with oligomeric or polymeric procyanidin-rich fraction demonstrated no improvement...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857163/phenolics-from-winemaking-by-products-better-decrease-vldl-cholesterol-and-triacylglycerol-levels-than-those-of-red-wine-in-wistar-rats
#5
Walkia Polliana de Oliveira, Aline Camarão Telles Biasoto, Valquíria Fernanda Marques, Ieda Maria Dos Santos, Kedma Magalhães, Luiz Claudio Correa, Melissa Negro-Dellacqua, Maria Spínola Miranda, Adriano Costa de Camargo, Fereidoon Shahidi
Winemaking by-products account for more than 30% of the grape production, but this inexpensive feedstock has not yet been fully exploited. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential biological activity of winemaking by-products produced with Syrah grapes in comparison with those of the wine produced using the same grape cultivar. Winemaking by-products showed higher contents of total anthocyanins, flavonols, stilbenes, and flavanols than red wine as evaluated by HPLC-DAD-FD (on a dry weight basis). In contrast, red wine was a better source of phenolic acids...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845147/polyphenols-of-carm%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-re-grapes
#6
Nils Leander Huamán-Castilla, María Salomé Mariotti-Celis, José Ricardo Pérez-Correa
Carménère is the emblematic grape of Chile. Recent studies indicate that it has a different polyphenolic profile than other commercial varieties of grape among other factors, due to its long maturation period. The grape and wine of Carménère stand out for having high concentrations of anthocyanins (malvidin), flavonols (quercetin and myricetin) and flavanols (catechin, epicatechin and epigallocatechin). These compounds are related to the distinctive characteristic of Carménère wine regarding astringency and color...
June 2017: Mini-reviews in Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826224/differential-impact-of-flavonoids-on-redox-modulation-bioenergetics-and-cell-signalling-in-normal-and-tumor-cells-a-comprehensive-review
#7
Asimina Kerimi, Gary Williamson
Flavonoids can interact with multiple molecular targets to elicit their cellular effects, leading to changes in signal transduction, gene expression and/or metabolism, which can subsequently affect the entire cell and organism. Immortalized cell lines, derived from tumors, are routinely employed as a surrogate for mechanistic studies, with the results extrapolated to tissues in vivo. Comparison of data with studies on primary cells or in vivo are essential not only to validate results obtained from cultured cell models, but also to highlight whether any differences may be further exploited in the clinical setting for chemoprevention...
August 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825618/impact-of-xanthylium-derivatives-on-the-color-of-white-wine
#8
Franziska Bührle, Anita Gohl, Fabian Weber
Xanthylium derivatives are yellow to orange pigments with a glyoxylic acid bridge formed by dimerization of flavanols, which are built by oxidative cleavage of tartaric acid. Although their structure and formation under wine-like conditions are well established, knowledge about their color properties and their occurrence and importance in wine is deficient. Xanthylium cations and their corresponding esters were synthesized in a model wine solution and isolated via high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) and solid phase extraction (SPE)...
August 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822144/-progress-in-research-for-pharmacological-effects-of-pu-erh-tea
#9
REVIEW
Xiao-Pan Gu, Bo Pan, Zhen Wu, Yun-Fang Zhao, Peng-Fei Tu, Jiao Zheng
Pu-erh tea has gradually aroused general concern with social development and people's enhanced awareness of health. Pu-erh tea is rich in multiple active constitute such as flavonoids, catechins, phenolic acids, flavanols polymer, purine alkaloids, and hydrolysable tannin as a microbial-fermented tea.It is reported that Pu-erh tea have a variety of pharmacologically activities, such as anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral effects. In this paper, the main pharmacological effects of Pu-erh tea are reviewed...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811749/acute-cocoa-flavanols-intake-has-minimal-effects-on-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-and-nitric-oxide-production-in-healthy-cyclists-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Danusa Dias Soares, Amandine Descat, Marie-José Drittij-Reijnders, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Wilhelm Stahl, Elsa Heyman, Romain Meeusen
BACKGROUND: Cocoa flavanols (CF) can stimulate vasodilation by improved nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. This study aimed to examine whether acute CF intake can affect exercise-induced changes in antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress, inflammation and NO production, as well as exercise performance and recovery in well-trained cyclists. METHODS: Twelve well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD age, VO2max: 30 ± 3 years, 63...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799519/dietary-polyphenol-intake-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-the-polish-arm-of-the-health-alcohol-and-psychosocial-factors-in-eastern-europe-hapiee-study
#11
Giuseppe Grosso, Urszula Stepaniak, Agnieszka Micek, Magdalena Kozela, Denes Stefler, Martin Bobak, Andrzej Pajak
This study aimed to test the association between dietary content of total and individual classes of polyphenols and incident cases of type 2 diabetes in Polish adults participating to the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe study. At baseline, diet by 148-item FFQ and health information were collected from 5806 participants free of diabetes. Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained at 2-4-year follow-up visit. OR and 95 % CI of type 2 diabetes comparing the various categories of polyphenol intake to the lowest one (reference category) and as 1 sd increase modelled as continuous variable were calculated by performing age-, energy-, and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792459/comment-on-chocolate-consumption-and-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-stroke-and-diabetes-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies-nutrients-2017-9-688
#12
Gilberto F Hurtado-Torres
Shen Yuan et al. [1] highlight the protective cardiometabolic effects of chocolate intake. Without doubt, their work contributes to support evidence about the salutary and wide protective effects of chocolate compounds, particularly flavanols and its derivatives.[...].
August 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764064/application-of-enzyme-preparations-for-extraction-of-berry-skin-phenolics-in-withered-winegrapes
#13
I Benucci, S Río Segade, M Cerreti, S Giacosa, M A Paissoni, K Liburdi, A B Bautista-Ortín, E Gómez-Plaza, V Gerbi, M Esti, L Rolle
Postharvest withering of grapes strongly affects the content and extractability of phenolic compounds in the production of sfursat, fortified and passito wines. This work evaluated the effectiveness of enzymes applied individually and/or in multi-enzyme blends, on the extraction of anthocyanins, oligomeric flavanols and polymeric flavanols from withered grape skins during simulated maceration. The study was performed on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Nebbiolo and Barbera because of their different skin phenolic profile and cell wall composition...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761622/flavonoids-as-putative-inducers-of-the-transcription-factors-nrf2-foxo-and-ppar%C3%AE
#14
Kathrin Pallauf, Nils Duckstein, Mario Hasler, Lars-Oliver Klotz, Gerald Rimbach
Dietary flavonoids have been shown to extend the lifespan of some model organisms and may delay the onset of chronic ageing-related diseases. Mechanistically, the effects could be explained by the compounds scavenging free radicals or modulating signalling pathways. Transcription factors Nrf2, FoxO, and PPARγ possibly affect ageing by regulating stress response, adipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. Using Hek-293 cells transfected with luciferase reporter constructs, we tested the potency of flavonoids from different subclasses (flavonols, flavones, flavanols, and isoflavones) to activate these transcription factors...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734036/-epicatechin-regulates-blood-lipids-and-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-in-rats-fed-high-fat-diet
#15
Hui Cheng, Na Xu, Wenxia Zhao, Jingjing Su, Mengru Liang, Zhongwen Xie, Xianli Wu, Qinglin Li
SCOPE: (-)-Epicatechin (EC) is a natural flavanol monomer found in cocoa, green tea, and a variety of other plant foods. In this study, effects of EC on blood lipids and hepatic steatosis, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: A hyperlipidemic rat model was induced by high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. EC was then administrated to the animals by gavage at doses of 10, 20, 40 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 12 weeks. Simvastatin was included as a positive control...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698131/white-grape-pomace-extracts-obtained-by-a-sequential-enzymatic-plus-ethanol-based-extraction-exert-antioxidant-anti-tyrosinase-and-anti-inflammatory-activities
#16
Maura Ferri, Greta Rondini, Maria Maddalena Calabretta, Elisa Michelini, Veronica Vallini, Fabio Fava, Aldo Roda, Giordano Minnucci, Annalisa Tassoni
The present work aimed at optimizing a two-step enzymatic plus solvent-based process for the recovery of bioactive compounds from white grape (Vitis vinifera L., mix of Trebbiano and Verdicchio cultivars) pomace, the winemaking primary by-product. Phenolic compounds solubilised by water enzyme-assisted and ethanol-based extractions of wet (WP) and dried (DP) pomace were characterised for composition and tested for antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Ethanol treatment led to higher phenol yields than water extraction, while DP samples showed the highest capacity of releasing polyphenols, most probably as a positive consequence of the pomace drying process...
July 8, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692264/phenolic-responses-to-esca-associated-fungi-in-differently-decayed-grapevine-woods-from-different-trunk-parts-of-cabernet-sauvignon
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Denis Rusjan, Martina Persic, Matevž Likar, Katerina Biniari, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
Alterations in phenolic contents were studied in Esca symptomatic (Sym) and asymptomatic (Asym) vines of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' based on wood conditions (healthy, HLT; necrotic, Nec; and rotten, Rot) and vine parts (head, trunk, and rootstock). In Asym vines, only Alternaria alternate was identified in Nec wood, while the HLT wood of Sym vines was colonized by Botryospaeriaceae sp. and Aureobasidium pullulans, Nec wood by Fomitiporia mediterranea, and Rot wood by Fomitiporia mediterranea and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658611/interventions-to-slow-cardiovascular-aging-dietary-restriction-drugs-and-novel-molecules
#18
REVIEW
Christian Heiss, Ioakim Spyridopoulos, Judith Haendeler
Cardiovascular aging is a highly dynamic process. Despite the fact that cardiovascular function and structure change with age, they can still be modulated even in aged humans. The most prominent approaches to improve age-dependent vascular changes include dietary restriction and pharmacologic agents interacting with signaling pathways implicated in this context. These include inhibition of TOR, glycolysis, and GH/IGF-1, activation of sirtuins, and AMPK, as well as modulators of inflammation, epigenetic pathways, and telomeres...
June 27, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633497/genome-wide-identification-and-functional-characterization-of-udp-glucosyltransferase-genes-involved-in-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-glycine-max
#19
Qinggang Yin, Guoan Shen, Shaokang Di, Cunying Fan, Zhenzhan Chang, Yongzhen Pang
Flavonoids, natural products abundant in the model legume Glycine max, confer benefits to plants and to animal health. Flavonoids are present in soybean mainly as glycoconjugates. However, the mechanisms of biosynthesis of flavonoid glycosides are largely unknown in G. max. In the present study, 212 putative UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes were identified in G. max by genome-wide searching. The GmUGT genes were distributed differentially among the 20 chromosomes, and they were expressed in various tissues with distinct expression profiles...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630292/tetrahydrobiopterin-regulates-monoamine-neurotransmitter-sulfonation
#20
Ian Cook, Ting Wang, Thomas S Leyh
Monoamine neurotransmitters are among the hundreds of signaling small molecules whose target interactions are switched "on" and "off" via transfer of the sulfuryl-moiety (-SO3) from PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) to the hydroxyls and amines of their scaffolds. These transfer reactions are catalyzed by a small family of broad-specificity enzymes-the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs). The first structure of a SULT allosteric-binding site (that of SULT1A1) has recently come to light. The site is conserved among SULT1 family members and is promiscuous-it binds catechins, a naturally occurring family of flavanols...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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