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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119922/polyphenols-anti-platelet-nutraceutical
#1
Valeria Ludovici, Jens Barthelmes, Matthias P Nägele, Andreas J Flammer, Isabella Sudano
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a disease progressing over many years. Genetic factors, as well as the exposure to risk factors, are continuously leading to endothelial dysfunction, vascular alterations and, eventually, organ damage, major cardiovascular events and deaths. Oxidative stress, platelet hyperactivity and low-grade inflammation are important modulators in this context, contributing to plaque formation. Since platelet activation plays a critical role in the development and progression of atherothrombotic events, the inhibition of platelet hyperactivity may contribute to decreased atherothrombotic risk...
November 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115836/ros%C3%A3-wine-fining-using-polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-colorimetry-targeted-polyphenomics-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#2
Mélodie Gil, Fabian Avila-Salas, Leonardo S Santos, Nerea Iturmendi, Virginie Moine, Véronique Cheynier, Cédric Saucier
Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) is a fining agent polymer used in winemaking to adjust rosé wine color and to prevent organoleptic degradations by reducing polyphenol content. The impact of this polymer on color parameters and polyphenols of rosé wines was investigated, and the binding specificity of polyphenols toward PVPP was determined. Color measured by colorimetry decreased after treatment, thus confirming the adsorption of anthocyanins and other pigments. Phenolic composition was determined before and after fining by targeted polyphenomics (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC)-Electrospray Ionization(ESI)-Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS))...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057264/icariin-attenuates-synaptic-and-cognitive-deficits-in-an-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Chenxia Sheng, Panpan Xu, Kexin Zhou, Dan Deng, Chunhu Zhang, Zhe Wang
Icariin (ICA), a prenylated flavanol glycoside present in abundant quantities in Epimedium sagittatum, has shown promise in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Damage to synaptic plasticity induced by amyloid-beta-mediated neurotoxicity is considered a main pathological mechanism driving the learning and memory deficits present in patients with Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of icariin in an Aβ1-42-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Our results showed that Aβ1-42 injection induced loss of learning and memory behaviour in the Morris water maze, which could be reversed with intragastric administration of ICA...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034240/dark-chocolate-opportunity-for-an-alliance-between-medical-science-and-the-food-industry
#4
Ivan M Petyaev, Yuriy K Bashmakov
Dark chocolate (DC) was originally introduced in human nutrition as a medicinal product consumable in a liquid form. Century-long efforts of food industry transformed this hardly appealing product into a valuable modern culinary delight with clear predominance of confectionery brands of DC on the market. However, current epidemiological data as well as multiple experimental and clinical observations reveal that DC consumption may have a profound effect on cardiovascular, central nervous systems, hemostasis, and lipid metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023393/flavanol-rich-cocoa-powder-interacts-with-lactobacillus-rhamnossus-lgg-to-alter-the-antibody-response-to-infection-with-the-parasitic-nematode-ascaris-suum
#5
Saebyeol Jang, Sukla Lakshman, Ethiopia Beshah, Yue Xie, Aleksey Molokin, Bryan T Vinyard, Joseph F Urban, Cindy D Davis, Gloria I Solano-Aguilar
Consumption of the probiotic bacteria LactobacillusrhamnosusLGG and flavanol-rich cocoa have purported immune modulating effects. This study compared the host response to infection with Ascaris suum in three-month-old pigs fed a standard growth diet supplemented with a vehicle control: LGG, cocoa powder (CP) or LGG + CP. Pigs were inoculated with infective A. suum eggs during Week 5 of dietary treatment and euthanized 17 days later. Lactobacillus abundance was increased in pigs fed LGG or LGG + CP. Specific anti-A...
October 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994638/dendrimers-carotenoids-and-monoclonal-antibodies
#6
Yuriy K Bashmakov, Ivan M Petyaev
Dendrimers are unimolecular architectural nano- or microparticle entities that can accommodate various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals between their branches (dendrons) and provide targeted delivery of biomimetics into different tissues upon addition of functionalized groups to the dendrimer's surface. Covalent binding, hydrogen bonds, and electrostatic interactions between dendrimer-composing molecules are known to form and stabilize dendrimer structure. Carotenoids have recently been shown to form dendrimer-like structures and promote targeted delivery of "cargo" molecules into organs characterized by high-carotenoid uptake (adrenal glands, prostate, liver, and brain)...
October 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983192/the-role-of-polyphenols-in-modern-nutrition
#7
REVIEW
G Williamson
Polyphenols are found in plant-based foods and beverages, notably apples, berries, citrus fruit, plums, broccoli, cocoa, tea and coffee and many others. There is substantial epidemiological evidence that a diet high in polyphenol-rich fruit, vegetables, cocoa and beverages protects against developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The absorption and metabolism of these compounds have been well described and, for many, the gut microbiota play a critical role in absorption; taking into consideration the parent compound and the metabolites from colon bacteria catabolism, more than 80% of a dose can be absorbed and ultimately excreted in the urine...
September 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964367/characterization-of-phenolic-and-other-polar-compounds-in-peel-and-flesh-of-pink-guava-psidium-guajava-l-cv-criolla-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-and-mass-spectrometric-detection
#8
Carolina Rojas-Garbanzo, Benno F Zimmermann, Nadine Schulze-Kaysers, Andreas Schieber
Pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly consumed fruit in tropical countries. Despite of interesting research on health effects of this fruit, investigations into the profile of secondary plant metabolites are scarce. In this study, the phenolic compounds in the peel and flesh of pink guava were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection. Sixty phenolic compounds were characterized by MS(2) and classified as ellagitannins, flavones, flavonols, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, dihydrochalcones, and anthocyanidins, and non-flavonoids such as phenolic acid derivatives, stilbenes, acetophenones, and benzophenones...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963759/novel-flavones-from-the-root-of-phytolacca-acinosa-roxb
#9
Xiao-Pan Ma, Wen-Fang Zhang, Ping Yi, Jun-Jie Lan, Bin Xia, Sai Jiang, Hua-Yong Lou, Wei-Dong Pan
Two new flavones, 6, 7-methylenedioxy-4-hydroxypeltogynan-7'-one (1), cochliophilin B (2), as well as two known ones, cochliophilin A (3) and 6-methoxy-7-hydroxy flavone (4), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the root of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Compound 1 is a flavanol framework with one δ-lactone unit, which is rather rare in nature. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (IR, MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR) analyses, the absolute configuration of 1 was established by comparing experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra...
September 30, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948833/antibacterial-and-antifungal-activities-of-the-polyphenolic-fractions-isolated-from-the-seed-coat-of-abrus-precatorius-and-caesalpinia-crista
#10
Lubna Mobin, Syed Asad Saeed, Rashida Ali, Syed Ghufran Saeed, Rahil Ahmed
Crude seed coat extracts from Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista were purified into four different fractions namely phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanin which were then examined for their polyphenol contents and antimicrobial potentials. The fractions derived from seed coat of A. precatorius were found more potent with high phenolic and flavonoid contents as compared to C. crista fractions. The significant antibacterial activity was observed against all strain tested by the fractions of both samples apart from anthocyanin fraction...
September 26, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946277/the-matrix-of-fruit-vegetables-modulates-the-gastrointestinal-bioaccessibility-of-polyphenols-and-their-impact-on-dietary-protein-digestibility
#11
Claire Dufour, Michèle Loonis, Mylène Delosière, Caroline Buffière, Noureddine Hafnaoui, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier, Didier Rémond
Fruit and vegetables (F&V) polyphenols have numerous positive health effects, ascribed either to their antioxidant activity within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or to bioactivity of their absorbed metabolites. The effect of the F&V matrix on the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of polyphenols was investigated along with its possible interaction with protein digestion. Minipigs were fed a complete meal with either cubed F&V (apple, plum, artichoke) added, or the corresponding phenolic extract (PE). Gastric and ileal chymes were kinetically collected over the postprandial period...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941677/phenolic-profiling-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-calligonum-azel-maire-a-tunisian-desert-plant
#12
Marwa Bannour, Boutheina Fellah, Gabriele Rocchetti, Samira Ashi-Smiti, Dirk W Lachenmeier, Luigi Lucini, Ayda Khadhri
The comprehensive phenolic fingerprint of Calligonum azel Maire plant fractions, collected from the Tunisian Desert, have been assessed for the first time as a source of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content (TPC), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) in scavenging DPPH, ABTS(+) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) were determined. C. azel Maire showed a relevant content in phenolic compounds, which are related to the antioxidant activity. The flowers presented the highest antioxidant capacity against DPPH free radicals, while the leaves showed the highest scavenging capacity against ABTS...
November 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934913/flavonoid-compounds-related-to-seed-coat-color-of-wheat
#13
Noriko Kohyama, Makiko Chono, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Yosuke Matsuo, Hiroshi Ono, Hitoshi Matsunaka
In red wheat, reddish-brown pigments accumulate in testa of mature seeds. Half-cut wheat seeds were immersed in p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) reagent that stains flavanol structures blue. Testa of 10-40 days after flowering (DAF) in red wheat ("Norin 61" and "Satonosora") seeds were stained blue and the reagent color changed to blue with 10-25 DAF seeds. No blue staining was observed in white wheat ("Tamaizumi") seeds during maturation. "Norin 61" seed coats at 10 DAF contained dihydroquercetin, dihydromyricetin, (+)-catechin, procyanidin B3, and prodelphinidin B3, which were identified by HPLC-diode array detector and LC-MS/MS analyses...
November 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930147/profiling-of-polyphenol-composition-and-antiradical-capacity-of-erica-cinerea
#14
Alfredo Aires, Rosa Carvalho
The aim of the current study was to determine the profile and content of polyphenols present in Erica cinerea, an important plant species from Northern Portuguese flora and often reported as having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-radical activity. The analysis of polyphenols was performed by HPLC-DAD/UV-Vis, and the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) method was used to evaluate its radical scavenging activity. HPLC analysis showed that both plants presented a great diversity of compounds, with 33% flavones, 28% flavanols, and 26% hydroxycinnamic acids...
September 20, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895264/phenolic-compound-diversity-explored-in-the-context-of-photo-oxidative-stress-protection
#15
Kristóf Csepregi, Éva Hideg
INTRODUCTION: Phenolic compounds are a chemically diverse group of plant secondary metabolites with important roles both in plant stress defence and human nutrition. OBJECTIVE: To explore structure-function relations potentiating phenolic compounds to promote leaf acclimation to light stress by excess photosynthetically active radiation (photoinhibition) and by solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. METHODOLOGY: We report singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide antioxidant capacities and UV-absorbing properties of 27 flavonoids and 11 phenolic acids...
September 12, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893620/protective-effects-of-tea-red-wine-and-cocoa-in-diabetes-evidences-from-human-studies
#16
REVIEW
Maria Angeles Martin, Luis Goya, Sonia Ramos
Prevention of diabetes through the diet has recently received an increasing interest, and polyphenolic compounds, such as flavanols, have become important potential chemopreventive natural agents due to their proved benefits on health, with low toxicity and cost. Tea, red wine and cocoa are good sources of flavanols and these highly consumed foods might contribute to prevent diabetes. In this regard, there is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea, red wine and cocoa consumption against this disorder...
September 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873660/formation-of-polymeric-pigments-in-red-wines-through-sequential-fermentation-of-flavanol-enriched-musts-with-non-saccharomyces-yeasts
#17
Carlos Escott, Juan Manuel Del Fresno, Iris Loira, Antonio Morata, Wendu Tesfaye, María Del Carmen González, José Antonio Suárez-Lepe
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts may contribute to enrich wine aroma while promoting the formation of stable pigments. Yeast metabolites such as acetaldehyde and pyruvate participate in the formation of stable pigments during fermentation and wine aging. This work evaluated the formation of polymeric pigments in red musts added with (+)-Catechin, ProcyanidinB2 and ProcyanidinC1. The non-Saccharomyces yeasts used were Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Torulaspora delbrueckii in sequential fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863367/monomeric-cocoa-catechins-enhance-%C3%AE-cell-function-by-increasing-mitochondrial-respiration
#18
Thomas J Rowley, Benjamin F Bitner, Jason D Ray, Daniel R Lathen, Andrew T Smithson, Blake W Dallon, Chase J Plowman, Benjamin T Bikman, Jason M Hansen, Melanie R Dorenkott, Katheryn M Goodrich, Liyun Ye, Sean F O'Keefe, Andrew P Neilson, Jeffery S Tessem
A hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is β-cell dysfunction and the eventual loss of functional β-cell mass. Therefore, mechanisms that improve or preserve β-cell function could be used to improve the quality of life of individuals with T2D. Studies have shown that monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric cocoa flavanols have different effects on obesity, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that these cocoa flavanols may have beneficial effects on β-cell function. INS-1 832/13-derived β-cells and primary rat islets cultured with a monomeric catechin-rich cocoa flavanol fraction demonstrated enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while cells cultured with total cocoa extract and with oligomeric or polymeric procyanidin-rich fraction demonstrated no improvement...
November 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857163/phenolics-from-winemaking-by-products-better-decrease-vldl-cholesterol-and-triacylglycerol-levels-than-those-of-red-wine-in-wistar-rats
#19
Walkia Polliana de Oliveira, Aline Camarão Telles Biasoto, Valquíria Fernanda Marques, Ieda Maria Dos Santos, Kedma Magalhães, Luiz Claudio Correa, Melissa Negro-Dellacqua, Maria Spínola Miranda, Adriano Costa de Camargo, Fereidoon Shahidi
Winemaking by-products account for more than 30% of the grape production, but this inexpensive feedstock has not yet been fully exploited. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential biological activity of winemaking by-products produced with Syrah grapes in comparison with those of the wine produced using the same grape cultivar. Winemaking by-products showed higher contents of total anthocyanins, flavonols, stilbenes, and flavanols than red wine as evaluated by HPLC-DAD-FD (on a dry weight basis). In contrast, red wine was a better source of phenolic acids...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845147/polyphenols-of-carm%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-re-grapes
#20
Nils Leander Huamán-Castilla, María Salomé Mariotti-Celis, José Ricardo Pérez-Correa
Carménère is the emblematic grape of Chile. Recent studies indicate that it has a different polyphenolic profile than other commercial varieties of grape among other factors, due to its long maturation period. The grape and wine of Carménère stand out for having high concentrations of anthocyanins (malvidin), flavonols (quercetin and myricetin) and flavanols (catechin, epicatechin and epigallocatechin). These compounds are related to the distinctive characteristic of Carménère wine regarding astringency and color...
June 2017: Mini-reviews in Organic Chemistry
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