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Lingjun Ma, Aude Annie Watrelot, Bennett Addison, Andrew L Waterhouse
Numerous monomeric and oligomeric flavanol sulfonation products were observed in 10 wines. Levels of 0.85-20.06 mg/L and 0-14.72 mg/L were quantified for two monomeric sulfonated flavan-3-ols, and surprisingly, were generally higher than the well-known native flavan-3-ol monomers. Increasing SO2 levels during wine aging increased the sulfonate modified flavan-3-ol monomers and dimers along with higher concentrations of native monomers. The results indicate that >10% of SO2 is reacting with the C4 carbocation, formed from acid cleavage of the interflavan bond, perhaps by a bimolecular SN2 type reaction, and as a reducing agent...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ran Wen, Haining Lv, Yong Jiang, Pengfei Tu
A phytochemical study of the roots of Pongamia pinnata afforded 29 flavanones and flavanols, including 7 previously undescribed compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopy data. The absolute configurations of the compounds were assigned via analysis of the specific rotations and electronic circular dichroism spectra, application of Mosher's method, and by comparing the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism spectra. The isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells...
May 18, 2018: Planta Medica
Xiao-Fei Guo, Yue Ruan, Zi-Hao Li, Duo Li
Epidemiological studies have suggested controversial associations between flavonoid subclasses and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to quantitatively estimate these associations with prospective cohort study. A systematic literature search in PubMed and Scopus databases was performed up to May 2018. Multivariate-adjust relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest versus the lowest category were pooled by using a random-effects model...
May 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Mohammad Shamsul Ola, Dalia Al-Dosari, Abdullah S Alhomida
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness in developed countries. Diabetes-induced metabolic disorder is believed to increase oxidative stress in the retina. This results in deleterious changes through dysregulation of cellular physiology that damages both neuronal and vascular cells. Here in this review, we first highlight the evidence of potential metabolic sources and pathways which increase oxidative stress that contributes to retinal pathology in diabetes...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
M Akhlaghi, S Ghobadi, M Mohammad Hosseini, Z Gholami, F Mohammadian
BACKGROUND: The anti-obesity potential of flavonoids has been shown by animal and human studies. In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed controlled clinical trials and quantified the effects of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses on obesity-related anthropometric measures. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest databases were searched to identify trials examining the effect of flavonoids on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat percentage...
April 13, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Lingxi Li, Minna Zhang, Shuting Zhang, Yan Cui, Baoshan Sun
Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers), are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study...
May 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Félix Vargas, Paola Romecín, Ana I García-Guillén, Rosemary Wangesteen, Pablo Vargas-Tendero, M Dolores Paredes, Noemí M Atucha, Joaquín García-Estañ
This review summarizes the latest advances in knowledge on the effects of flavonoids on renal function in health and disease. Flavonoids have antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antiinflammatory effects, among other therapeutic activities. Many of them also exert renoprotective actions that may be of interest in diseases such as glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, and chemically-induced kidney insufficiency. They affect several renal factors that promote diuresis and natriuresis, which may contribute to their well-known antihypertensive effect...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sérgio Henrique Brabo de Sousa, Rafaella de Andrade Mattietto, Renan Campos Chisté, Ana Vânia Carvalho
This research aimed to evaluate 32 genotypes of Oenocarpus distichus fruits regarding the contents of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, flavanols, monomeric anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity (ABTS and DPPH assays), and the phenolic compound profiles of the five genotypes that presented the highest yields of bioactive compounds. The genotypes were harvested in three different locations in Pará State, Northern Brazil, (Belém, São João do Araguaia and Marabá). Among the 32 genotypes, the highest bioactive compound contents and antioxidant capacity were found for three genotypes harvested in Belém (B-3, B-7 and B-8) and two harvested in São João do Araguaia (SJ-1 and SJ-4), and the total phenolic compounds varied from 131...
June 2018: Food Research International
Rosa M Ojeda-Amador, María Desamparados Salvador, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Giuseppe Fregapane
This study addresses the composition and properties of different walnut varieties (Chandler, Hartley and Lara), in particular their virgin oils and residual cakes obtained by screw pressing employing different cultivars. Among nuts, walnut (Juglans regia L.) exhibits interesting nutritional value, mainly due to their high content in linoleic acid, phenolic and tocopherol compounds, which show antioxidant and other healthy properties. Valuable results related to fatty acid profile and minor components were observed...
June 2018: Food Research International
Inal Bakhytkyzy, Oscar Nuñez, Javier Saurina
In this work, a new method based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) was established for the determination of catechins and related oligomeric proanthocyanidins (PACs) in cranberry-based pharmaceuticals. Compounds were recovered by liquid extraction using methanol/water/hydrochloric acid (60:39:1, v:v:v) as the extraction solvent. The chromatographic separation was carried out using a core-shell C18 column under an elution program based on 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol as the components of the mobile phase...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Yousef A Al-Dashti, Roberta R Holt, Charles L Stebbins, Carl L Keen, Robert M Hackman
An individual's diet affects numerous physiological functions and can play an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that dietary flavanols can be an important modulator of vascular risk. Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure, especially in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Flavanols may act in part through signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Jurga Bernatoniene, Dalia Marija Kopustinskiene
Catechins are polyphenolic compounds—flavanols of the flavonoid family found in a variety of plants. Green tea, wine and cocoa-based products are the main dietary sources of these flavanols. Catechins have potent antioxidant properties, although in some cases they may act in the cell as pro-oxidants. Catechins are reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and metal ion chelators, whereas their indirect antioxidant activities comprise induction of antioxidant enzymes, inhibition of pro-oxidant enzymes, and production of the phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidant enzymes...
April 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Asma Babar, Emmanuel Bujold, Vicky Leblanc, Élise Lavoie-Lebel, Joalee Paquette, Laurent Bazinet, Simone Lemieux, Isabelle Marc, Belkacem Abdous, Sylvie Dodin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this 2-group, parallel, double blind single-centre RCT was to evaluate the acute and chronic impacts of high flavanol high theobromine (HFHT) chocolate consumption on endothelial function, arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) in women at risk of preeclampsia. METHODS: 131 pregnant women considered at risk of preeclampsia based on uterine artery Doppler ultrasound were divided into two groups (HFHT or low flavanol and theobromine chocolate (LFLT)...
April 16, 2018: Hypertension in Pregnancy
Diego Rocha-Parra, Jorge Chirife, Clara Zamora, Sonia de Pascual-Teresa
Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF). More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified...
April 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eleonora Cremonini, Patricia I Oteiza
While diets rich in fruit and vegetables can decrease the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), diets rich in fat and carbohydrates can increase it. The flavanol-3-ol (-)-epicatechin (EC) can improve insulin sensitivity both in humans and animal models of T2D. NADPH oxidases and oxidative stress can contribute to the development of insulin resistance. This study investigated the capacity of EC and EC metabolites (ECM) to downregulate NADPH oxidases and oxidative stress, and its association to an improvement of insulin sensitivity...
March 30, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Jessica Tabart, Cyril Auger, Claire Kevers, Jacques Dommes, Brigitte Pollet, Jean-Olivier Defraigne, Valérie B Schini-Kerth, Joël Pincemail
OBJECTIVE: Polyphenol-rich products such as fruit juices have been found to have strong antioxidant capacities and to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxation. We evaluated whether the commercial blackcurrant juices induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated coronary arteries can be related to their antioxidant capacity and/or phenolic content. METHODS: Six different commercial blackcurrant juices were selected. Their main phenolic compounds were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and antioxidant capacity was evaluated by spectrometric methods...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
O Varela-Castillo, P Cordero, G Gutiérrez-Iglesias, I Palma, I Rubio-Gayosso, E Meaney, I Ramirez-Sanchez, F Villarreal, G Ceballos, N Nájera
BACKGROUND: Among malignancies, lung cancer is a leading cause of death. Platinum-based therapeutic compounds used to treat lung cancer have not been able to increase the survival of patients and such compounds have a high incidence of adverse and toxic effects. It has been proposed that flavonoids such as catechins may significantly reduce the risk of developing cancer, alongside with other health benefits. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of (-)-epicatechin, the main flavanol found in cocoa, on the proliferation of the lung non-small cell adenocarcinoma cancer cell line A549, and to determine its effects when added simultaneously with cisplatin...
March 2018: Experimental Oncology
Francisco Perez-Vizcaino, Cesar G Fraga
Herein we describe, based on some bibliometric data, how the field of research on flavonoids has evolved over the last 25 years. The number of papers on flavonoids has risen in an exponential manner over these years, much faster than other fields on food constituents. This increase appears to be related to the contemporary explosion of interest in healthy foods, supplements and nutraceuticals. It was also probably triggered by large epidemiological studies on fruits and vegetables, and particularly on flavonoids, consumption and incidence of cancer, stroke and coronary heart disease...
March 23, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Alessio Nocentini, Silvia Bua, Sonia Del Prete, Yeganeh Entezari Heravi, Ali A Saboury, Anastasia Karioti, Anna Rita Bilia, Clemente Capasso, Paola Gratteri, Claudiu T Supuran
Around 50 % of the worldwide population is affected by dandruff, which is triggered by a variety of factors. The yeast Malassezia globosa has been labeled as the most probable causative agent for the onset of dandruff. The β-carbonic anhydrase (CA) of MgCA was recently validated as an anti-dandruff target, with its inhibition being responsible for in vivo growth defects in the fungus. As classical CA inhibitors of the sulfonamide type give rise to permeability problems through biological membranes, finding non-sulfonamide alternatives for MgCA inhibition is of considerable interest in the cosmetic field...
March 25, 2018: ChemMedChem
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
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