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Flavanols

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299877/cocoa-flavanol-supplementation-and-exercise-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Lieselot Decroix, Danusa Dias Soares, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman, Cajsa Tonoli
BACKGROUND: Cocoa flavanols (CFs) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities and can improve vascular function. It has recently been suggested that CF intake may improve exercise performance and recovery. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the literature on the effects of CF intake on exercise performance and recovery and exercise-induced changes in vascular function, cognitive function, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic parameters. METHODS: Two electronic databases (Pubmed and Web of Science) were searched for studies examining the combination of CF intake and exercise in humans (up to 28 March 2017)...
January 3, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290363/flavanol-rich-cocoa-consumption-enhances-exercise-induced-executive-function-improvements-in-humans
#2
Hayato Tsukamoto, Tadashi Suga, Aya Ishibashi, Saki Takenaka, Daichi Tanaka, Yoshitaka Hirano, Takafumi Hamaoka, Kazushige Goto, Kumiko Ebi, Tadao Isaka, Takeshi Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE: Aerobic exercise is known to acutely improve cognitive functions, such as executive function (EF) and memory function (MF). Additionally, consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been reported to acutely improve cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine whether high cocoa flavanol (CF; HCF) consumption would enhance exercise-induced improvement in cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, we examined the combined effects of HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise on EF and MF during postexercise recovery...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288757/do-flavanols-rich-natural-products-relieve-obesity-related-insulin-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Ayse Basak Engin, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Dimitris Tsoukalas, Atilla Engin
Growing evidence support that insulin resistance may occur as a severe problem due to chronic energetic overfeeding and subsequent obesity. When an abundance of glucose and saturated fat enter the cell, impaired blood flow, hypoxia, inflammation and macrophage infiltration in obese adipose tissue may induce oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Excessive circulating saturated fatty acids ectopically accumulate in insulin-sensitive tissues and impair insulin action. In this context, excessive hepatic lipid accumulation may play a central, pathogenic role in insulin resistance...
December 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281341/functional-foods-and-nutraceuticals-as-dietary-intervention-in-chronic-diseases-novel-perspectives-for-health-promotion-and-disease-prevention
#4
Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha
Functional foods describe the importance of foods in promoting health and preventing diseases aside their primary role of providing the body with the required amount of essential nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats, and oils needed for its healthy survival. This review explains the interaction of functional food bioactive compounds including polyphenols (phenolic acids [hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids], flavonoids [flavonols, flavones, flavanols, flavanones, isoflavones, proanthocyanidins], stilbenes, and lignans), terpenoids, carotenoids, alkaloids, omega-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids, among others with critical enzymes (α- amylase, α- glucosidase, angiotensin-I converting enzyme [ACE], acetylcholinesterase [AChE], and arginase) linked to some degenerative diseases (type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases [hypertension], neurodegenerative diseases [Alzheimer's disease] and erectile dysfunction)...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213222/antiplasmodial-compounds-from-leaves-of-dodonaea-angustifolia
#5
Yadessa Melaku, Tefera Worku, Yemane Tadesse, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Juergen Schmidt, Norbert Arnold, Ermias Dagne
Background: Dodonaea angustifolia is used in Ethiopian traditional medicine to treat malaria. The objective of this work was to conduct bioassay guided fractionation of the leaves of D. angustifolia using Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Method: The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts and pure compounds was evaluated using the standard Peter's four-day suppressive method. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using chemi-cal and spectroscopic methods...
September 2017: Current Bioactive Compounds
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195939/profiling-and-quantification-of-phenolic-compounds-in-camellia-seed-oils-natural-tea-polyphenols-in-vegetable-oil
#6
Xiaoqin Wang, Qiumei Zeng, María Del Mar Contreras, Lijuan Wang
In Asia, tea seed oils (seed oils from Camellia oleifera, C. chekiangoleosa, and C. sinensis) are used in edible, medicinal, and cosmetic applications. However, these oils differ in their fatty acid contents, and there is little known about their phenolic compounds. Here we analyzed the phenolic compounds of seed oils from three species gathered from 15 regions of China. Twenty-four phenolic compounds were characterized by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS, including benzoic acids (6), cinnamic acids (6), a hydroxyphenylacetic acid, flavanols (4), flavonols (3), flavones (2), and dihydroflavonoids (2)...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193528/-epicatechin-induced-relaxation-of-isolated-human-saphenous-vein-roles-of-k-and-ca2-channels
#7
Marija Marinko, Goran Jankovic, Dragoslav Nenezic, Predrag Milojevic, Ivan Stojanovic, Vladimir Kanjuh, Aleksandra Novakovic
In this study, we aimed to investigate relaxant effect of flavanol (-)-epicatechin on the isolated human saphenous vein (HSV), as a part of its cardioprotective action, and to define the mechanisms underlying this vasorelaxation. (-)-Epicatechin induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of HSV pre-contracted by phenylephrine. Among K+ channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine, margatoxin, and iberiotoxin significantly inhibited relaxation of HSV, while glibenclamide considerably reduced effects of the high concentrations of (-)-epicatechin...
November 29, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181133/use-of-dark-chocolate-for-diabetic-patients-a-review-of-the-literature-and-current-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Syed Raza Shah, Richard Alweis, Najla Issa Najim, Amin Muhammad Dharani, Muhammad Ahmed Jangda, Maira Shahid, Ahmed Nabeel Kazi, Syed Arbab Shah
Dietary changes are a major lifestyle factor that can influence the progression of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Recently, flavanols, a subgroup of plant-derived phytochemicals called flavonoids, have gained increasing attention, due to studies showing an inverse correlation between dietary intake of flavanols and incidence of diabetes. Flavanoids in the cocoa plant may ameliorate insulin resistance by improving endothelial function, altering glucose metabolism, and reducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been proposed as the main culprit for insulin resistance...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168752/enological-tannin-effect-on-red-wine-color-and-pigment-composition-and-relevance-of-the-yeast-fermentation-products
#9
Ignacio García-Estévez, Cristina Alcalde-Eon, Víctor Puente, M Teresa Escribano-Bailón
Enological tannins are widely used in the winemaking process either to improve different wine characteristics (color stability, among others) or to compensate for low tannin levels. In this work, the influence of the addition of two different enological tannins, mainly composed of hydrolysable (ellagitannins) and condensed tannins, on the evolution of color and pigment composition of two different types of model systems containing the five main grape anthocyanins was studied. In addition, the effect of the addition of an enological tannin on the color and pigment composition of red wines made from Vitis vinifera L...
November 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119922/polyphenols-anti-platelet-nutraceutical
#10
Valeria Ludovici, Jens Barthelmes, Matthias P Nägele, Andreas J Flammer, Isabella Sudano
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a disease progressing over many years. Genetic factors, as well as the exposure to risk factors, are continuously leading to endothelial dysfunction, vascular alterations and, eventually, organ damage, major cardiovascular events and deaths. Oxidative stress, platelet hyperactivity and low-grade inflammation are important modulators in this context, contributing to plaque formation. Since platelet activation plays a critical role in the development and progression of atherothrombotic events, the inhibition of platelet hyperactivity may contribute to decreased atherothrombotic risk...
November 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115836/ros%C3%A3-wine-fining-using-polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-colorimetry-targeted-polyphenomics-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#11
Mélodie Gil, Fabian Avila-Salas, Leonardo S Santos, Nerea Iturmendi, Virginie Moine, Véronique Cheynier, Cédric Saucier
Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) is a fining agent polymer used in winemaking to adjust rosé wine color and to prevent organoleptic degradations by reducing polyphenol content. The impact of this polymer on color parameters and polyphenols of rosé wines was investigated, and the binding specificity of polyphenols toward PVPP was determined. Color measured by colorimetry decreased after treatment, thus confirming the adsorption of anthocyanins and other pigments. Phenolic composition was determined before and after fining by targeted polyphenomics (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC)-Electrospray Ionization(ESI)-Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS))...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057264/icariin-attenuates-synaptic-and-cognitive-deficits-in-an-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Chenxia Sheng, Panpan Xu, Kexin Zhou, Dan Deng, Chunhu Zhang, Zhe Wang
Icariin (ICA), a prenylated flavanol glycoside present in abundant quantities in Epimedium sagittatum, has shown promise in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Damage to synaptic plasticity induced by amyloid-beta-mediated neurotoxicity is considered a main pathological mechanism driving the learning and memory deficits present in patients with Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of icariin in an Aβ1-42-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Our results showed that Aβ1-42 injection induced loss of learning and memory behaviour in the Morris water maze, which could be reversed with intragastric administration of ICA...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034240/dark-chocolate-opportunity-for-an-alliance-between-medical-science-and-the-food-industry
#13
Ivan M Petyaev, Yuriy K Bashmakov
Dark chocolate (DC) was originally introduced in human nutrition as a medicinal product consumable in a liquid form. Century-long efforts of food industry transformed this hardly appealing product into a valuable modern culinary delight with clear predominance of confectionery brands of DC on the market. However, current epidemiological data as well as multiple experimental and clinical observations reveal that DC consumption may have a profound effect on cardiovascular, central nervous systems, hemostasis, and lipid metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023393/flavanol-rich-cocoa-powder-interacts-with-lactobacillus-rhamnossus-lgg-to-alter-the-antibody-response-to-infection-with-the-parasitic-nematode-ascaris-suum
#14
Saebyeol Jang, Sukla Lakshman, Ethiopia Beshah, Yue Xie, Aleksey Molokin, Bryan T Vinyard, Joseph F Urban, Cindy D Davis, Gloria I Solano-Aguilar
Consumption of the probiotic bacteria LactobacillusrhamnosusLGG and flavanol-rich cocoa have purported immune modulating effects. This study compared the host response to infection with Ascaris suum in three-month-old pigs fed a standard growth diet supplemented with a vehicle control: LGG, cocoa powder (CP) or LGG + CP. Pigs were inoculated with infective A. suum eggs during Week 5 of dietary treatment and euthanized 17 days later. Lactobacillus abundance was increased in pigs fed LGG or LGG + CP. Specific anti-A...
October 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994638/dendrimers-carotenoids-and-monoclonal-antibodies
#15
Yuriy K Bashmakov, Ivan M Petyaev
Dendrimers are unimolecular architectural nano- or microparticle entities that can accommodate various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals between their branches (dendrons) and provide targeted delivery of biomimetics into different tissues upon addition of functionalized groups to the dendrimer's surface. Covalent binding, hydrogen bonds, and electrostatic interactions between dendrimer-composing molecules are known to form and stabilize dendrimer structure. Carotenoids have recently been shown to form dendrimer-like structures and promote targeted delivery of "cargo" molecules into organs characterized by high-carotenoid uptake (adrenal glands, prostate, liver, and brain)...
October 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983192/the-role-of-polyphenols-in-modern-nutrition
#16
REVIEW
G Williamson
Polyphenols are found in plant-based foods and beverages, notably apples, berries, citrus fruit, plums, broccoli, cocoa, tea and coffee and many others. There is substantial epidemiological evidence that a diet high in polyphenol-rich fruit, vegetables, cocoa and beverages protects against developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The absorption and metabolism of these compounds have been well described and, for many, the gut microbiota play a critical role in absorption; taking into consideration the parent compound and the metabolites from colon bacteria catabolism, more than 80% of a dose can be absorbed and ultimately excreted in the urine...
September 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964367/characterization-of-phenolic-and-other-polar-compounds-in-peel-and-flesh-of-pink-guava-psidium-guajava-l-cv-criolla-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-and-mass-spectrometric-detection
#17
Carolina Rojas-Garbanzo, Benno F Zimmermann, Nadine Schulze-Kaysers, Andreas Schieber
Pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly consumed fruit in tropical countries. Despite of interesting research on health effects of this fruit, investigations into the profile of secondary plant metabolites are scarce. In this study, the phenolic compounds in the peel and flesh of pink guava were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection. Sixty phenolic compounds were characterized by MS(2) and classified as ellagitannins, flavones, flavonols, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, dihydrochalcones, and anthocyanidins, and non-flavonoids such as phenolic acid derivatives, stilbenes, acetophenones, and benzophenones...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963759/novel-flavones-from-the-root-of-phytolacca-acinosa-roxb
#18
Xiao-Pan Ma, Wen-Fang Zhang, Ping Yi, Jun-Jie Lan, Bin Xia, Sai Jiang, Hua-Yong Lou, Wei-Dong Pan
Two new flavones, 6, 7-methylenedioxy-4-hydroxypeltogynan-7'-one (1), cochliophilin B (2), as well as two known ones, cochliophilin A (3) and 6-methoxy-7-hydroxy flavone (4), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the root of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Compound 1 is a flavanol framework with one δ-lactone unit, which is rather rare in nature. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (IR, MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR) analyses, the absolute configuration of 1 was established by comparing experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra...
September 30, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948833/antibacterial-and-antifungal-activities-of-the-polyphenolic-fractions-isolated-from-the-seed-coat-of-abrus-precatorius-and-caesalpinia-crista
#19
Lubna Mobin, Syed Asad Saeed, Rashida Ali, Syed Ghufran Saeed, Rahil Ahmed
Crude seed coat extracts from Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista were purified into four different fractions namely phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanin which were then examined for their polyphenol contents and antimicrobial potentials. The fractions derived from seed coat of A. precatorius were found more potent with high phenolic and flavonoid contents as compared to C. crista fractions. The significant antibacterial activity was observed against all strain tested by the fractions of both samples apart from anthocyanin fraction...
September 26, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946277/the-matrix-of-fruit-vegetables-modulates-the-gastrointestinal-bioaccessibility-of-polyphenols-and-their-impact-on-dietary-protein-digestibility
#20
Claire Dufour, Michèle Loonis, Mylène Delosière, Caroline Buffière, Noureddine Hafnaoui, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier, Didier Rémond
Fruit and vegetables (F&V) polyphenols have numerous positive health effects, ascribed either to their antioxidant activity within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or to bioactivity of their absorbed metabolites. The effect of the F&V matrix on the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of polyphenols was investigated along with its possible interaction with protein digestion. Minipigs were fed a complete meal with either cubed F&V (apple, plum, artichoke) added, or the corresponding phenolic extract (PE). Gastric and ileal chymes were kinetically collected over the postprandial period...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
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