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Inflammation and Cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049037/fractures-and-the-gut-microbiome
#1
Tara McGinty, Paddy W G Mallon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory, non-AIDS comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and liver disease has become a focus of recent research. Low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture incidence in people living with HIV (PLWH) is also widely reported, however, the relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and bone disease in PLWH has not been previously reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Murine models that manipulate the gut microbiome, either through breeding of 'germ-free' mice or antibiotic-depleted gut microbiome, show differences in bone mineral density and bone mass in those with altered gut microbiome...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046223/antibodies-to-receptors-are-associated-with-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-myocardial-damage-in-heart-failure
#2
Anders Lund, Lasse Melvaer Giil, Grete Slettom, Ottar Nygaard, Harald Heidecke, Jan Erik Nordrehaug
INTRODUCTION: Naturally occurring antibodies are linked to inflammation, tissue injury and apoptosis, processes also linked to heart failure. Associations between antibodies, inflammation and myocardial damage, have not been elucidated in heart failure. OBJECTIVE: We investigated if 25 antibodies to receptors expressed in the cardiovascular system were associated with troponin-T, biomarkers of inflammation and clinical measures of disease severity, in patients with heart failure...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046030/-immunopathology-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Nora Ernestina Martínez-Aguilar, María Eugenia Vargas-Camaño, Rogelio Ramsés Hernández-Pliego, Genny Margarita Chaia-Semerena, María Rosario Pérez-Chavira
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable and treatable condition that has a complex pathophysiology and an even more complex immunopathological process. The purpose of this review was to analyze COPD immunopathological aspects, which was addressed by undertaking a literature search for the most relevant documents indexed in the PubMed database over the last 10 years. Different conclusions could be drawn: in COPD immunopathology there are immune and non-immune inflammatory changes with oxidative stress imbalance, there are alterations in the protease/anti-protease ratio caused by direct and indirect genetic and epigenetic-environmental defects; COPD produces irreversible tissue damage and chronic inflammation with tissue repair alteration, which induces chronic obstruction of the airway, bronchitis and systemic damage...
July 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045335/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-and-renal-disease
#4
Vanessa R Williams, James W Scholey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a pivotal player in the physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal systems. Discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), capable of cleaving RAS effector peptide angiotensin (Ang) II into biologically active Ang-(1-7), has increased the complexity of our knowledge of the RAS. ACE2 expression is abundant in the kidney and is thought to provide protection against injury. This review emphasizes current experimental and clinical findings that examine ACE2 in the context of kidney injury and its potential therapeutic impact for treatment of kidney disease...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045288/effects-of-anti-inflammatory-medications-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-a-focus-on-losmapimod
#5
Bradley Tun, William H Frishman
Inflammation plays an integral role in atherogenesis and the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The question remains as to whether targeted inhibition of specific pathways of inflammation will have any clinical benefits in CAD. In this article we will review p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), one of the key sensors of cellular stress that plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade. In addition, we will review losmapimod, a reversible competitive inhibitor of the α and β isoforms of p38 MAPK, and its efficacy when added to standard of care in patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction...
October 17, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045253/gut-microbial-diversity-in-hiv-infection-post-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-a-key-target-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#6
Mohamed El-Far, Cécile L Tremblay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the HIV-infected population is living longer and getting older under current treatment regimens, significant challenges arise for health management as the infection is associated with various premature aging phenotypes, particularly increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Here we review the current understanding of HIV-related gut dysbiosis in association with CVD and advances in clinical trials aiming to restore gut microbial diversity. RECENT FINDING: Identification of a unique signature for gut dysbiosis in HIV infection between different cohorts remains challenging...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044636/an-inverse-association-between-serum-resistin-levels-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-intake-was-strongest-in-the-snp-420-g-g-genotype-in-the-japanese-cohort-the-toon-genome-study
#7
Yukinobu Noumi, Ryoichi Kawamura, Yasuharu Tabara, Koutatsu Maruyama, Yasunori Takata, Wataru Nishida, Ai Okamoto, Tatsuya Nishimiya, Hiroshi Onuma, Isao Saito, Takeshi Tanigawa, Haruhiko Osawa
OBJECTIVE: Resistin is secreted from monocytes/macrophages and is associated with insulin resistance, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. In the Japanese cohort, serum resistin is tightly associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at -420 (rs1862513) in the promoter region of the human resistin gene. However, interactions between SNP-420 and environmental factors remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum resistin levels and nutrient intake, and the effect of SNP-420 on this association...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044290/protease-activated-receptor-par-4-an-inducible-switch-between-thrombosis-and-vascular-inflammation
#8
Anke C Fender, Bernhard H Rauch, Tobias Geisler, Karsten Schrör
Thrombin triggers activation of platelets through protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) and PAR-4. Both receptors are widely expressed and exert multiple platelet-independent functions. PAR signalling contributes to healing responses after injury, by promoting cytokine activity and cellular growth and mobility. Uncontrolled PAR activation, however, can prevent timely resolution of inflammation, enhance thrombogenic endothelial function and drive adverse remodelling. The specific role of PAR-4 in thromboinflammatory vascular disease has been largely underestimated, given the relatively limited expression of PAR-4 in non-platelet cells under healthy conditions...
October 10, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043006/does-dietary-fat-affect-inflammatory-markers-in-overweight-and-obese-individuals-a-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials-from-2010-to-2016
#9
REVIEW
Vibeke H Telle-Hansen, Jacob J Christensen, Stine M Ulven, Kirsten B Holven
BACKGROUND: Obesity, a major cause of death and disability, is increasing worldwide. Obesity is characterized by a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state which is suggested to play a critical role in the development of obesity-related diseases like cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In fact, in the hours following consumption of a meal, a transient increase in inflammatory markers occurs, a response that is exaggerated in obese subjects. Dietary composition, including content of dietary fatty acids, may affect this inflammatory response both acutely and chronically, and thereby be predictive of progression of disease...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042934/intermittent-hypoxia-simulating-obstructive-sleep-apnea-causes-pulmonary-inflammation-and-activates-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#10
Yeying Wang, Yanling Chai, Xiaojie He, Li Ai, Xia Sun, Yiling Huang, Yongxia Li
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder with high morbidity in adults. OSA damages multiple organs and tissues, including the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, the metabolism system, the lungs, liver and heart. OSA-induced damage is earliest and greatest to the pulmonary tissue. The present study established a rat OSA model of differing severity by inducing intermittent hypoxia with different concentrations of O2 and it was determined that OSA caused a severe oxidative stress response and pulmonary inflammation in a dose-dependent manner...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040156/accelerated-atheromatosis-and-arteriosclerosis-in-primary-systemic-vasculitides-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#11
Ourania D Argyropoulou, Athanase D Protogerou, Petros P Sfikakis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary systemic vasculitides (PSV) encompass a subset of autoimmune diseases, characterized by inflammation of blood vessels. Atheromatosis and arteriosclerosis may be accelerated in several PSV and account for the increased rate of cardiovascular morbidity that some exhibit. We aimed to summarize recent studies reporting on the acceleration of atheromatosis and/or arteriosclerosis in each type of PSV, using state-of-the-art noninvasive vascular biomarkers with clinical value as end points...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036887/reference-intervals-for-non-fasting-cvd-lipids-and-inflammation-markers-in-pregnant-indigenous-australian-women
#12
Tracy L Schumacher, Christopher Oldmeadow, Don Clausen, Loretta Weatherall, Lyniece Keogh, Kirsty G Pringle, Kym M Rae
Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and provides some health services to pregnant Indigenous women. Three hundred and ninety-nine non-fasting samples provided by the study participants (206 pregnancies and 175 women) have been used to construct reference intervals for CVD biomarkers during this critical time...
October 14, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036612/cd40l-controls-obesity-associated-vascular-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-mice-translational-aspects-for-man
#13
Sebastian Steven, Mobin Dib, Michael Hausding, Fatemeh Kashani, Matthias Oelze, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Alina Hanf, Steffen Daub, Siyer Roohani, Yves Gramlich, Esther Lutgens, Eberhard Schulz, Christian Becker, Karl J Lackner, Hartmut Kleinert, Christoph Knosalla, Beate Niesler, Philipp S Wild, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Aims: CD40 ligand (CD40L) signaling controls vascular oxidative stress and related dysfunction in angiotensin-II-induced arterial hypertension by regulating vascular immune cell recruitment and platelet activation. Here we investigated the role of CD40L in experimental hyperlipidemia. Methods and Results: Male wild type and CD40L-/- mice (C57BL/6 background) were subjected to high fat diet for sixteen weeks. Weight, cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels, endothelial function (isometric tension recording), oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase expression, dihydroethidium fluorescence) and inflammatory parameters (inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6 expression) were assessed...
September 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036238/-a-phd-completed-periodontitis-diabetes-mellitus-cardiovascular-disease-a-bermuda-triangle
#14
W J Teeuw
The relationship among periodontitis, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is complex and can be thought of as a Bermuda triangle. A relationship has been demonstrated between periodontitis, a worsening in the condition of the vascular system and an increased total level of inflammatory markers. Patients with severe periodontitis also show raised levels of glycosylated haemoglobin. This means that severe periodontitis can be an early indication of diabetes mellitus. Periodontal treatment generally promotes improved blood sugar regulation in diabetes patients, an improved condition of the vascular system and a decrease in the total levels of inflammation...
October 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035945/the-functional-consequences-of-the-microbiome-in-hiv-insights-from-metabolomic-studies
#15
Sergio Serrano-Villar, Santiago Moreno, Manuel Ferrer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is critical to gain insight into the metabolic pathways by which the microbiota might influence HIV immunopathogenesis to exploit host-microbiota interactions. The aim of this review is to sketch a very broad picture of recent advances in our knowledge of how HIV might affect the microbiota, with a focus on specific gene products, particularly, metabolites produced by the microbiota that may affect HIV immunopathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: First, we describe the different approaches used to explore imbalances in effector microbial products during HIV infection...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035099/association-between-growth-differentiation-factor-15-and-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-in-hypertensive-patients-and-healthy-adults
#16
Huijuan Kou, Xin Jin, Dengfeng Gao, Rui Ma, Xin Dong, Jin Wei, Xin Wang
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) as an independent biomarker of cardiovascular diseases merits further evaluation. We studied the association between plasma GDF-15 levels and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients and healthy adults. Hypertensive LVH measurements were performed via echocardiography and analyzed using the cube formula, and human GDF-15 together with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) concentrations were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034327/high-fat-diet-changes-fungal-microbiomes-and-interkingdom-relationships-in-the-murine-gut
#17
Timothy Heisel, Emmanuel Montassier, Abigail Johnson, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Yi-Wei Lin, Li-Na Wei, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
Dietary fat intake and shifts in gut bacterial community composition are associated with the development of obesity. To date, characterization of microbiota in lean versus obese subjects has been dominated by studies of gut bacteria. Fungi, recently shown to affect gut inflammation, have received little study for their role in obesity. We sought to determine the effects of high-fat diet on fungal and bacterial community structures in a mouse model using the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034031/coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients
#18
REVIEW
Daijiro Hori, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Hideo Adachi
The number of patients requiring hemodialysis is continuously increasing around the world. Hemodialysis affects patient quality of life and it is also associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular events. In addition to traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, hemodialysis is associated with hyperphosphatemia, chronic inflammation, vascular calcification, and anemia which accelerate atherosclerosis, vascular stiffness, and cardiac ischemia. Treatment strategy for coronary revascularization in this progressive disease remains controversial...
June 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032767/metabonomics-uncovers-a-reversible-proatherogenic-lipid-profile-during-infliximab-therapy-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Jacob Tveiten Bjerrum, Casper Steenholdt, Mark Ainsworth, Ole Haagen Nielsen, Michelle Ac Reed, Karen Atkins, Ulrich Leonhard Günther, Fuhua Hao, Yulan Wang
BACKGROUND: One-third of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients show no response to infliximab (IFX) induction therapy, and approximately half of patients responding become unresponsive over time. Thus, identification of potential treatment response biomarkers are of great clinical significance. This study employs spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of serum from patients with IBD treated with IFX and healthy subjects (1) to substantiate the use of spectroscopy as a semi-invasive diagnostic tool, (2) to identify potential biomarkers of treatment response and (3) to characterise the metabolic changes during management of patients with tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors...
October 16, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032752/association-between-apolipoproteins-ai-and-b-and-ultrasound-indicators-of-carotid-atherosclerosis
#20
Zeljko Zivanovic, Ivana Divjak, Mirjana Jovicevic, Tamara Rabi-Zikic, Biljana Radovanovic, Svetlana Ruzicka-Kaloci, Djordje Stevan Popovic, Edita Stokic, Ksenija Gebauer-Bukurov, Katarina Zivanovic-Vujcic, Petar Slankamenac
BACKGROUND: Apolipoproteins A-I and B (apoA-I and apoB) may be better indicators of the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases than conventional risk factors (RFs). The onset of ischemic stroke (IS) may be preceded by the development of atherosclerotic changes in carotid arteries, which can be detected by ultrasound. Only a certain % of patients with IS have an (underlying) carotid etiology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the association between ultrasound indicators of carotid atherosclerosis and the presence of apolipoproteins and other biomarkers in patients with IS...
October 10, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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