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Inflammation and Cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676623/nicotine-downregulates-the-compensatory-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#1
Xinping Yue, Tyler M Basting, Thomas W Flanagan, Jiaxi Xu, Thomas D Lobell, Nicholas W Gilpin, Jason D Gardner, Eric Lazartigues
RATIONALE: Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease is well established. Angiotensin-II, by means of its type 1 receptor (angiotensin type 1 receptor, AT1 R), promotes increased sympathetic activity, salt and water reabsorption, vasoconstriction, inflammation, and aldosterone and vasopressin release, contributing to tissue fibrosis, endothelium dysfunction, and hypertension...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676517/impact-of-changes-in-inflammation-on-estimated-10-year-cardiovascular-risk-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Zhi Yu, Nicole Yang, Brendan M Everett, Michelle Frits, Christine Iannaccone, Jonathan Coblyn, Michael Weinblatt, Nancy Shadick, Daniel H Solomon, Katherine P Liao
BACKGROUND: Validated cardiovascular (CV) risk estimates were developed in populations with relatively stable inflammatory levels. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), patients routinely experience significant changes in inflammation. We tested whether changes in inflammation impact estimated CV risk as measured using validated population-based risk calculators. METHODS: We studied participants in a prospective RA cohort. We included participants who experienced a decrease (CRP decrease group) or increase (CRP increase group) of ≥10mg/L in C-reactive protein (CRP) at 2 consecutive time points, 1 year apart...
April 20, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675020/systemic-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-comorbidity-in-psoriasis-patients-causes-and-consequences
#3
REVIEW
Wolf-Henning Boehncke
Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by the appearance of red scaly plaques that can affect any part of the body. High prevalence, chronicity, disfiguration, disability, and associated comorbidity make it a challenge for clinicians of multiple specialties. Likewise, its complex pathogenesis, comprising inflammation, hyperproliferation, and angioneogenesis, intrigues numerous scientific disciplines, namely, immunology. From a clinical perspective, the severity of psoriasis is highlighted by its increased mortality, with cardiovascular diseases contributing the highest excess risk...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674996/association-between-thyroid-hormones-thyroid-antibodies-and-cardiometabolic-factors-in-non-obese-individuals-with-normal-thyroid-function
#4
Jia Liu, Yan Duan, Jing Fu, Guang Wang
Background: Hypothyroidism is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is the leading cause of hypothyroidism. Recent studies showed that even AIT patients with euthyroidism still had an increased number of early atherosclerotic lesions. However, the precise mechanism is not yet known. This study aimed to investigate the association of thyroid function, thyroid autoimmunity, and cardiometabolic risk factors in non-obese AIT patients with euthyroidism...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674943/maresins-specialized-proresolving-lipid-mediators-and-their-potential-role-in-inflammatory-related-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Shi Tang, Ming Wan, Wei Huang, R C Stanton, Yong Xu
Acute inflammatory responses are host-protective and normally self-limited; these responses can maintain cell homeostasis and promote defense against various infections and damage factors. However, when improperly managed or inappropriately activated, acute inflammation can lead to persistent and uncontrolled chronic inflammation, which is associated with many other chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease. Recently, studies have shown that resolution of acute inflammation is a biosynthetically active process...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674409/associations-of-adiponectin-leptin-levels-and-the-change-of-body-composition-in-patients-on-peritoneal-dialysis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Xiao Xu, Xue Tian, Yuan Chen, Zhi-Kai Yang, Zhen Qu, Jie Dong
BACKGROUND: Although the association between adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, and body composition has been noted, whether they could predict the change of fat mass and lean body mass is unknown. We aimed to examine these associations in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) through a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Body composition (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) including fat mass and lean body mass were examined at baseline and then at year 3. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were measured...
April 19, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671149/biological-scoring-system-for-early-prediction-of-acute-bowel-ischemia-after-cardiac-surgery-the-palm-score
#7
Elie Zogheib, Cyril Cosse, Charles Sabbagh, Simon Marx, Thierry Caus, Marc Henry, Joseph Nader, Mathurin Fumery, Michael Bernasinski, Patricia Besserve, Faouzi Trojette, Cedric Renard, Pierre Duhaut, Said Kamel, Jean-Marc Regimbeau, Hervé Dupont
BACKGROUND: Bowel ischemia is a life-threatening emergency defined as an inadequate vascular perfusion leading to bowel inflammation resulting from impaired colonic/small bowel blood supply. Main issue for physicians regarding bowel ischemia diagnosis lies in the absence of informative and specific clinical or biological signs leading to delayed management, resulting in a poorer prognosis, especially after cardiac surgery. The aim of the present series was to propose a simple scoring system based on biological data for the diagnosis of bowel ischemia...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670887/the-role-of-platelet-microparticle-associated-micrornas-in-cellular-crosstalk
#8
Luoxing Xia, Zhi Zeng, Wai Ho Tang
Platelet is an anucleate cell containing abundant messenger RNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs), and their functional roles in hemostasis and inflammation remain elusive. Accumulating evidence has suggested that platelets can actively transfer RNAs to hepatocytes, vascular cells, macrophages, and tumor cells. The incorporated mRNAs are translated into proteins, and miRNAs were found to regulate the gene expression, resulting in the functional change of the recipient cells. This novel intercellular communication opens up a new avenue for the pathophysiological role of platelet in platelet-associated vascular diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670627/sex-differences-in-adipose-tissue-cd8-t-cells-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-middle-aged-mice
#9
Hilda Ahnstedt, Meaghan Roy-O'Reilly, Monica S Spychala, Alexis S Mobley, Javiera Bravo-Alegria, Anjali Chauhan, Jaroslaw Aronowski, Sean P Marrelli, Louise D McCullough
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease has increased among middle-aged women in the United States, yet has declined in middle-aged men. In experimental stroke, middle-aged females have larger strokes and greater inflammation than age-matched males or younger females. The mechanism underlying this shift from an "ischemia-protected" to an "ischemia-sensitive" phenotype in aging females is unknown. One potential factor is an age-related increase in systemic factors that induce inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669993/myeloperoxidase-as-an-active-disease-biomarker-recent-biochemical-and-pathological-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Amjad A Khan, Mohammed A Alsahli, Arshad H Rahmani
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) belongs to the family of heme-containing peroxidases, produced mostly from polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The active enzyme (150 kDa) is the product of the MPO gene located on long arm of chromosome 17. The primary gene product undergoes several modifications, such as the removal of introns and signal peptides, and leads to the formation of enzymatically inactive glycosylated apoproMPO which complexes with chaperons, producing inactive proMPO by the insertion of a heme moiety. The active enzyme is a homodimer of heavy and light chain protomers...
April 18, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669944/neutrophil-subsets-and-their-gene-signature-associate-with-vascular-inflammation-and-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-lupus
#11
Philip M Carlucci, Monica M Purmalek, Amit K Dey, Yenealem Temesgen-Oyelakin, Simantini Sakhardande, Aditya A Joshi, Joseph B Lerman, Alice Fike, Michael Davis, Jonathan H Chung, Martin P Playford, Mohammad Naqi, Pragnesh Mistry, Gustavo Gutierrez-Cruz, Stefania Dell'Orso, Faiza Naz, Taufiq Salahuddin, Balaji Natarajan, Zerai Manna, Wanxia L Tsai, Sarthak Gupta, Peter Grayson, Heather Teague, Marcus Y Chen, Hong-Wei Sun, Sarfaraz Hasni, Nehal N Mehta, Mariana J Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with enhanced risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease not explained by Framingham risk score (FRS). Immune dysregulation associated to a distinct subset of lupus proinflammatory neutrophils (low density granulocytes; LDGs) may play key roles in conferring enhanced CV risk. This study assessed if lupus LDGs are associated with in vivo vascular dysfunction and inflammation and coronary plaque. METHODS: SLE subjects and healthy controls underwent multimodal phenotyping of vascular disease by quantifying vascular inflammation (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT [18F-FDG-PET/CT]), arterial dysfunction (EndoPAT and cardio-ankle vascular index), and coronary plaque burden (coronary CT angiography)...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669783/vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-ameliorates-acute-myocarditis-and-atherosclerosis-by-regulating-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-responses
#12
Raquel Benitez, Virginia Delgado-Maroto, Marta Caro, Irene Forte-Lago, Mario Duran-Prado, Francisco O'Valle, Andrew H Lichtman, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Mario Delgado
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide that exerts various vascular and cardioprotective functions and regulates immune function and inflammatory response at multiple levels. However, its role in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders is largely unknown. Myocarditis and atherosclerosis are two inflammatory and autoimmune cardiovascular diseases that cause important adverse circulatory events. In this study, we investigate the therapeutic effects of VIP in various well-established preclinical models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis and atherosclerosis...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669504/atrial-fibrillation-in-autoimmune-rheumatic-diseases-from-the-pathogenesis-to-the-treatment
#13
Giuseppe Ciconte, Manuel Conti, Martina Evangelista, Carlo Pappone
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia in the general population and is associated with an increased number of adverse outcomes. The onset and maintenance of this arrhythmia requires a trigger event and the presence of a predisposing substrate. Atrial fibrosis, a major characteristic of AF-related structural remodeling, represents a process closely related to inflammation as demonstrated by emerging evidence. Aim of this article is to review the evidence linking AF to systemic autoimmune diseases...
April 17, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669488/physical-activity-and-exercise-therapy-benefits-more-than-just-symptoms-and-impairments-in-people-with-hip-and-knee-osteoarthritis
#14
Søren T Skou, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, J Haxby Abbott, Brooke Patterson, Christian Barton
Synopsis Hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) are among the leading causes of global disability, highlighting the need for early, targeted, and effective treatments. The benefits on symptoms and impairments of exercise therapy in people with hip and knee OA are substantial and supported by high-quality evidence, underlining that it should be part of first line treatment offered to all people with hip and knee OA in clinical practice. Furthermore, unlike other treatments for OA such as analgesia and surgery, exercise therapy is not associated with risk of serious harm...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668463/changes-to-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-its-precursors-in-nascent-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Daniella Lent-Schochet, Ryan Silva, Matthew McLaughlin, Beverley Huet, Ishwarlal Jialal
Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cardio-metabolic cluster afflicting 35% of American adults, increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type-2 diabetes (T2DM) risk. Increased levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite derived from choline and L-carnitine, correlates with CVD and T2DM. However, the precise role of TMAO and its precursors in MetS remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that choline, L-carnitine and TMAO in MetS patients without CVD or T2DM would be altered and correlate with inflammatory markers...
April 18, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668450/comorbidities-of-copd-in-bulgarian-patients-prevalence-and-association-with-severity-and-inflammation
#16
Velin Stratev, Diana Petkova, Valentina Dimitrova, Jordan Petev
BACKGROUND: wis a disease with constantly rising economic and social burden; it is associated with multiple comorbidities which contribute to the disease severity. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of co-morbidities in COPD patients and their association with the disease severity and CRP levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study among 338 COPD patients (mean age 65.2±7.6 years) with assessment of comorbidities, spirometry measurements and serum levels of CRP...
March 1, 2018: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665821/plasma-proteomic-analysis-reveals-altered-protein-abundances-in-cardiovascular-disease
#17
Vasiliki Lygirou, Agnieszka Latosinska, Manousos Makridakis, William Mullen, Christian Delles, Joost P Schanstra, Jerome Zoidakis, Burkert Pieske, Harald Mischak, Antonia Vlahou
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) describes the pathological conditions of the heart and blood vessels. Despite the large number of studies on CVD and its etiology, its key modulators remain largely unknown. To this end, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of blood plasma, with the scope to identify disease-associated changes after placing them in the context of existing knowledge, and generate a well characterized dataset for further use in CVD multi-omics integrative analysis...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664315/potential-correlation-between-circulating-fetuin-a-and-pentraxin-3-with-biochemical-parameters-of-calcification-in-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Javad Hashemi, Hamid-Reza Joshaghani, Arash Akaberi, Zahra Hesari, Reza Ghanbari, Mohsen Mohammadzadeh, Ali-Reza Golshan
BACKGROUND: The strong correlation between vascular calcification and cardiovascular risk, which is a major cause of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients, has been well established. Fetuin-A is an inhibitor of vascular calcification, and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is produced at the site of inflammation, which is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The main purpose of this study was evaluating the correlation between fetuin-A and PTX3 with some biochemical parameters effective upon vascular calcification in HD patients...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663892/complement-components-c3-and-c4-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Melanie Copenhaver, Chack-Yung Yu, Robert P Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Increased systemic inflammation is engaged likely plays a significant role in the development of adult cardiometabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. The complement system is part of the innate immune system and plays a key role in in regulation inflammation. Of particular importance is the activation of complement components C3 and C4. C3 is produced primarily by the liver but is also produced in adipocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells, all of which are present in adipose tissue...
April 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663871/design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-zinc-supplementation-to-improve-markers-of-mortality-and-hiv-disease-progression-in-hiv-positive-drinkers-in-st-petersburg-russia
#20
Natalia Gnatienko, Matthew S Freiberg, Elena Blokhina, Tatiana Yaroslavtseva, Carly Bridden, Debbie M Cheng, Christine E Chaisson, Dmitry Lioznov, Sally Bendiks, Glory Koerbel, Sharon M Coleman, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
Background Russia continues to have an uncontrolled HIV epidemic and its per capita alcohol consumption is among the highest in the world. Alcohol use among HIV-positive individuals is common and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Alcohol use and HIV each lead to microbial translocation, which in turn results in inflammation. Zinc supplementation holds potential for lowering levels of biomarkers of inflammation, possibly as a consequence of its impact on intestinal permeability. This paper describes the protocol of a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of zinc supplementation in St...
April 17, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
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