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Inflammation and Cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829810/extracellular-overhydration-linked-with-endothelial-dysfunction-in-the-context-of-inflammation-in-haemodialysis-dependent-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Nicos Mitsides, Tom Cornelis, Natascha J H Broers, Nanda M P Diederen, Paul Brenchley, Frank M van der Sande, Casper G Schalkwijk, Jeroen P Kooman, Sandip Mitra
BACKGROUND: Haemodialysis (HD) patients are predisposed to dysregulated fluid balance leading to extracellular water (ECW) expansion. Fluid overload has been closely linked with outcome in these patients. This has mainly been attributed to cardiac volume overload, but the relation between abnormalities in fluid status with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction has not been studied in detail. We studied the interaction of macro- and microvascular factors in states of normal and over- hydration in HD-dependent CKD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828963/soluble-tweak-may-predict-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-treated-hiv-infection
#2
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Abdus Sattar, Manjusha Kulkarni, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Weak Inducer of Apoptosis (sTWEAK) has been proposed as a novel biomarker of cardiovascular disease risk. This study compares levels of sTWEAK, sCD163 and the sCD163/sTWEAK ratio in HIV-infected and uninfected patients and their associations with cardiovascular and inflammatory factors. METHODS: The data for our analysis come from 274 HIV-infected adults and 59 controls. HIV participants were on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
August 22, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828539/dysfunctional-hdl-in-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-disease
#3
REVIEW
Rai Ajit K Srivastava
Coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death in the developed and developing countries, is prevalent in diabetes mellitus with 68% cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality. Epidemiological studies suggested inverse correlation between HDL and CVD occurrence. Therefore, low HDL concentration observed in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic individuals was thought to be one of the primary causes of increased risks of CVD. Efforts to raise HDL level via CETP inhibitors, Torcetrapib and Dalcetrapib, turned out to be disappointing in outcome studies despite substantial increases in HDL-C, suggesting that factors beyond HDL concentration may be responsible for the increased risks of CVD...
August 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828042/the-assessment-of-subclinical-cardiovascular-dysfunction-in-treated-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Stefania L Magda, Raluca I Mincu, Maria Florescu, Andrea O Ciobanu, Gabriela F Udrea, Mircea Cinteza, Dragos Vinereanu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes frequently cardiovascular complications, probably determined by early atherosclerosis in connection to chronic systemic inflammation. Purpose of our study was to assess subclinical cardiac and vascular dysfunction, and to evaluate the mechanisms of ventriculo-arterial interaction, in patients with correctly treated RA vs. normal subjects. METHODS: We evaluated 46 subjects (55±10 years, 2 men): 29 patients with seropositive treated RA (mean duration of 11±9 years), without documented cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, and 17 control subjects, matched for age, sex, and distribution of conventional major risk factors...
December 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826925/the-relationship-between-duration-of-psoriasis-vascular-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-events
#5
Alexander Egeberg, Lone Skov, Aditya A Joshi, Lotus Mallbris, Gunnar H Gislason, Jashin J Wu, Justin Rodante, Joseph B Lerman, Mark A Ahlman, Joel M Gelfand, Nehal N Mehta
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is associated with risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) and a major adverse CV event (MACE). Whether psoriasis duration affects risk of vascular inflammation and MACEs has not been well characterized. OBJECTIVES: We utilized two resources to understand the effect of psoriasis duration on vascular disease and CV events: (1) a human imaging study and (2) a population-based study of CVD events. METHODS: First, patients with psoriasis (N = 190) underwent fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography/computed tomography (duration effect reported as a β-coefficient)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822761/down-regulation-of-vascular-ppar-%C3%AE-contributes-to-endothelial-dysfunction-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice-exposed-to-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#6
Yanan Zhang, Chunlian Zhang, Haiou Li, Jingdong Hou
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is associated with endothelial dysfunction. The prevalence of OSA is linked to an epidemic of obesity. CIH has recently been reported to cause endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese animals by exaggerating oxidative stress and inflammation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. PPAR-γ, a ligand-inducible transcription factor that exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, is down-regulated in the peripheral tissues in diet-induce obesity...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819568/nebivolol-attenuates-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-a-marker-of-subclinical-inflammation-in-hypertensive-patients
#7
Mazhar Hussain, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Zafar Majeed Babar, Moazzam Ali Atif, Lubna Akhtar
BACKGROUND: High value of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a strong independent predictor and biomarker of ongoing vascular inflammation in various cardiovascular disorders. OBJECTIVE: The main focus of the study is to investigate the effect of nebivolol on NLR in mild to moderate hypertensive patients in comparison with metoprolol. In addition, BMI, blood pressure, TLC count, blood sugar, and lipid profile were also assayed before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this 12-week prospective double-blinded randomized study, 120 patients with mild to moderate hypertension were randomly divided into two groups to prescribed daily dose of tab nebivolol 5-10 mg and metoprolol 50-100 mg, respectively, for 12 weeks...
2017: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818791/low-density-lipoprotein-modified-by-myeloperoxidase-oxidants-induces-endothelial-dysfunction
#8
Adrian I Abdo, Benjamin S Rayner, David M van Reyk, Clare L Hawkins
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) is present in atherosclerotic lesions, where it is implicated in the propagation of inflammation and acceleration of lesion development by multiple pathways, including the induction of endothelial dysfunction. Thiocyanate (SCN(-)) ions are utilised by MPO to produce the oxidant hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN), which reacts with LDL in a different manner to HOCl. Whilst the reactivity of HOCl-modified LDL has been previously studied, the role of HOSCN in the modification of LDL in vivo is poorly defined, although emerging evidence suggests that these particles have distinct biological properties...
August 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818746/patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-coronary-artery-disease-double-trouble
#9
REVIEW
Ewelina Michniewicz, Elżbieta Mlodawska, Paulina Lopatowska, Anna Tomaszuk-Kazberuk, Jolanta Malyszko
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cardiovascular disease while atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Both diseases share associated risk factors - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, obesity and smoking. Moreover, inflammation plays a causative role in both diseases. The prevalence of CAD in patients with AF is from 17% to 46.5% while the prevalence of AF among patients with CAD is low and it is estimated from 0.2% to 5%. AF is a well-established factor of poor short- and long-term prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is associated with a marked increase in overall mortality...
August 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817706/hiv-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-and-measures-of-endothelial-function-inflammation-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress
#10
Andrew Dysangco, Ziyue Liu, James H Stein, Michael P Dubé, Samir K Gupta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Impaired endothelial function is an early risk factor for CVD in the general population. It is presumed that HIV infection is associated with impaired endothelial function, but results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the relationships between HIV infection, virologic suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART), in vivo measures of conduit artery and microvascular endothelial function, and circulating biomarkers of pathways associated with CVD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816105/thiazolidinedione-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-past-present-and-future
#11
Melissa A Davidson, Donald R Mattison, Laurent Azoulay, Daniel Krewski
Thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have proven effective in improving insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism. Though well tolerated by some patients, their mechanism of action as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) results in the activation of several pathways in addition to those responsible for glycemic control and lipid homeostasis. These pathways, which include those related to inflammation, bone formation, and cell proliferation, may lead to adverse health outcomes...
August 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811734/differential-response-to-exercise-in-african-americans-with-high-levels-of-inflammation
#12
Jan Kretzschmar, Dianne M Babbitt, Keith M Diaz, Deborah L Feairheller, Kathleen M Sturgeon, Amanda M Perkins-Ball, Sheara T Williamson, Chenyi Ling, Heather Grimm, Michael D Brown
PURPOSE: Systemic inflammation, measured by C-reactive protein (CRP), is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training (AEXT) affects African Americans with high inflammation (HI) the same way it does African Americans with low inflammation (LI) in terms of CVD risk factors. METHODS: 23 African Americans with CRP levels <3 mg/L (LI) and 14 African Americans with CRP ≥3 mg/L (HI) underwent six months of AEXT...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811706/therapeutic-potential-of-flavonoids-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-comprehensive-review
#13
REVIEW
Ali Salaritabar, Behrad Darvishi, Farzaneh Hadjiakhoondi, Azadeh Manayi, Antoni Sureda, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Leo R Fitzpatrick, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Anupam Bishayee
The inflammatory process plays a central role in the development and progression of numerous pathological situations, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders. IBDs involve inflammation of the gastrointestinal area and mainly comprise Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Both pathological situations usually involve recurring or bloody diarrhea, pain, fatigue and weight loss. There is at present no pharmacological cure for CD or UC...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811385/circulating-mir-200c-is-up-regulated-in-paediatric-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-and-correlates-with-mir-33a-b-levels-implication-of-a-zeb1-dependent-mechanism
#14
Marco D'Agostino, Francesco Martino, Sara Sileno, Francesco Barilla, Sara Beji, Lorenza Marchetti, Fabio Maria Gangi, Luca Persico, Mario Picozza, Anna Montali, Eliana Martino, Cristina Zanoni, Daniele Avitabile, Sandro Parrotto, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Alessandra Magenta
Hypercholesterolaemia provokes reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development. We previously showed that circulating microRNA(miR)-33a/b expression levels were up-regulated in children with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). miR-33a/b control cholesterol homoeostasis and recently miR-33b has been demonstrated to directly target the transcription factor ZEB1. The latter acts in a negative feedback-loop with miR-200 family. Our previous studies showed that the ROS-dependent miR-200c up-regulation induces endothelial dysfunction and provokes a ZEB1-dependent apoptosis and senescence...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811294/dihydrocapsiate-improved-age-associated-impairments-in-mice-by-increasing-energy-expenditure
#15
Kana Ohyama, Katsuya Suzuki
Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Capsinoids are capsaicin analogs that are found in non-pungent peppers and increase whole-body energy expenditure. However, their effect on energy expenditure has been reported only in young populations, and to date the effectiveness of DCT in increasing energy expenditure in aged populations has not been investigated...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808498/functional-cellular-and-molecular-remodeling-of-the-heart-under-influence-of-oxidative-cigarette-tobacco-smoke
#16
REVIEW
Abdullah Kaplan, Emna Abidi, Rana Ghali, George W Booz, Firas Kobeissy, Fouad A Zouein
Passive and active chronic cigarette smoking (CS) remains an international epidemic and a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. CS-induced cardiac damage is divided into two major and interchangeable mechanisms: (1) direct adverse effects on the myocardium causing smoking cardiomyopathy and (2) indirect effects on the myocardium by fueling comorbidities such as atherosclerotic syndromes and hypertension that eventually damage and remodel the heart. To date, our understanding of cardiac remodeling following acute and chronic smoking exposure is not well elucidated...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808190/cholesterol-crystal-embolization-following-plaque-rupture-a-systemic-disease-with-unusual-features
#17
Firas Ghanem, Deepthi Vodnala, Jagadeesh K Kalavakunta, Sridevi Durga, Noah Thormeier, Prem Subramaniyam, Scott Abela, George S Abela
Cholesterol crystal embolic (CCE) syndrome is often a clinically challenging condition that has a poor prognostic implication. It is a result of plaque rupture with release of cholesterol crystals into the circulation that embolize into various tissue organs. Plaque rupture seems to be triggered by an expanding necrotic core during cholesterol crystallization forming sharp tipped crystals that perforate and tear the fibrous cap. Embolizing cholesterol crystals then initiate both local and systemic inflammation that eventually lead to vascular fibrosis and obstruction causing symptoms that can mimic other vasculitic conditions...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807718/autonomic-regulation-of-systemic-inflammation-in-humans-a-multi-center-blinded-observational-cohort-study
#18
Gareth L Ackland, Gary Minto, Martin Clark, John Whittle, Robert C M Stephens, Thomas Owen, Pradeep Prabhu, Ana Gutierrez Del Arroyo
OBJECTIVE: Experimental animal models demonstrate that autonomic activity regulates systemic inflammation. By contrast, human studies are limited in number and exclusively use heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of cardiac autonomic regulation. HRV measures are primarily dependent on, and need to be corrected for, heart rate. Thus, independent autonomic measures are required to confirm HRV-based findings. Here, the authors sought to replicate the findings of preceding HRV-based studies by using HRV-independent, exercise-evoked sympathetic and parasympathetic measures of cardiac autonomic regulation to examine the relationship between autonomic function and systemic inflammation...
August 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804458/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-cigarette-smoke-induced-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction
#19
Yingmin Liang, Xiang Li, Yuelin Zhang, Sze Chun Yeung, Zhe Zhen, Mary S M Ip, Hung Fat Tse, Qizhou Lian, Judith C W Mak
The strong relationship between cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been well-documented, but the mechanisms by which smoking increases CVD risk appear to be multifactorial and incompletely understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regarded as an important candidate for cell-based therapy in CVD. We hypothesized that MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-MSCs) or bone marrow (BM-MSCs) might alleviate cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cardiac injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BM-MSCs or iPSC-MSCs on CS-induced changes in serum and cardiac lipid profiles, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as cardiac function in a rat model of passive smoking...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803127/direct-antioxidant-properties-of-methotrexate-inhibition-of-malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-protein-adduct-formation-and-superoxide-scavenging
#20
Matthew C Zimmerman, Dahn L Clemens, Michael J Duryee, Cleofes Sarmiento, Andrew Chiou, Carlos D Hunter, Jun Tian, Lynell W Klassen, James R O'Dell, Geoffrey M Thiele, Ted R Mikuls, Daniel R Anderson
Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant commonly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Recent observations have shown that patients treated with MTX also exhibit a reduced risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although MTX reduces systemic inflammation and tissue damage, the mechanisms by which MTX exerts these beneficial effects are not entirely known. We have previously demonstrated that protein adducts formed by the interaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetaldehyde (AA), known as MAA-protein adducts, are present in diseased tissues of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or CVD...
August 2, 2017: Redox Biology
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