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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793209/effect-of-thermal-pretreatment-on-chemical-composition-physical-structure-and-biogas-production-kinetics-of-wheat-straw
#1
Asad Ayub Rajput, Zeshan, Chettiyappan Visvanathan
Hard lignocellulosic structure of wheat straw is the main hindrance in its anaerobic digestion. Thus, a laboratory scale batch experiment was conducted to study the effect of thermal pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of wheat straw. For this purpose, different thermal pretreatment temperatures of 120, 140, 160 and 180 °C were studied and the results were compared with raw wheat straw. Significant differences in biogas production were observed at temperature higher than 160 °C. Highest biogas yield of 615 Nml/gVS and volatile solids reduction of 69% was observed from wheat straw pretreated at 180 °C...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793191/development-and-validation-of-a-prediction-model-for-functional-decline-in-older-medical-inpatients
#2
Toshihiko Takada, Shingo Fukuma, Yosuke Yamamoto, Yukio Tsugihashi, Hiroyuki Nagano, Michio Hayashi, Jun Miyashita, Teruhisa Azuma, Shunichi Fukuhara
OBJECTIVE: To prevent functional decline in older inpatients, identification of high-risk patients is crucial. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prediction model to assess the risk of functional decline in older medical inpatients. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients ≥65 years admitted acutely to medical wards were included. The healthcare database of 246 acute care hospitals (n = 229,913) was used for derivation, and two acute care hospitals (n = 1767 and 5443, respectively) were used for validation...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793157/energy-dissipation-in-quasi-linear-viscoelastic-tissues-cells-and-extracellular-matrix
#3
Behzad Babaei, A J Velasquez-Mao, Kenneth M Pryse, William B McConnaughey, Elliot L Elson, Guy M Genin
Characterizing how a tissue's constituents give rise to its viscoelasticity is important for uncovering how hidden timescales underlie multiscale biomechanics. These constituents are viscoelastic in nature, and their mechanics must typically be assessed from the uniaxial behavior of a tissue. Confounding the challenge is that tissue viscoelasticity is typically associated with nonlinear elastic responses. Here, we experimentally assessed how fibroblasts and extracellular matrix (ECM) within engineered tissue constructs give rise to the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of a tissue...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793101/-survey-of-wellbeing-of-young-children-swyc-how-does-it-fit-for-screening-developmental-delay-in-brazilian-children-aged-4-to-58-months
#4
R S Moreira, L C Magalhães, C M Siqueira, C R L Alves
OBJECTIVE: To replicate the original normative study of the SWYC's Milestones Questionnaires for children in Brazil. Our goals were to compare the performance of Brazilian and North American children using this screening tool and to verify the reliability and validity of the Brazilian version. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study with children aged 1-65 months and their guardians, recruited in southern Brazil. Parents were interviewed using the Developmental Milestones questionnaire, which contains 10 questions about cognitive, motor, social, and language abilities...
May 21, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793083/optimization-adsorption-of-norfloxacin-onto-polydopamine-microspheres-from-aqueous-solution-kinetic-equilibrium-and-adsorption-mechanism-studies
#5
Yibei Wan, Xiao Liu, Penglei Liu, Lei Zhao, Weihua Zou
Polydopamine microspheres (PDMPs) synthesized by a facile solution oxidation method were adopted as a potential adsorbent for the removal of Norfloxacin (NOR) from aqueous solution. The morphologies and properties of PDMPs were characterized using TEM, SEM, FTIR and pHPZC . Parameters effects such as contact time, initial pH, initial concentration and ionic strength on the adsorption capacity of NOR onto PDMPs were studied. To maximize NOR removal from liquid phase, Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD) combined with response surface modeling (RSM) was employed based on the 17 preliminary experiments at 308 K...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793002/rasch-analysis-suggested-that-items-from-the-template-for-intervention-description-and-replication-tidier-checklist-can-be-summed-to-create-a-score
#6
Tie P Yamato, Chris G Maher, Bruno T Saragiotto, Mark J Catley, Anne M Moseley
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to construct and evaluate a summary score of reporting completeness based on the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We included 200 reports published in 2013 randomly selected from the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). We summed the scores for the 12 items for the intervention and control groups for each trial in order to create a summary score from 0 to 24. Rasch analysis was used to investigate the item hierarchy, category function and reliability of the TIDieR checklist and determine the extent to which the summary score can be considered an interval-level measure...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792944/enrichment-of-low-density-symbiont-dna-from-minute-insects
#7
Corinne M Stouthamer, Suzanne Kelly, Martha S Hunter
Symbioses between bacteria and insects are often associated with changes in important biological traits that can significantly affect host fitness. To a large extent, studies of these interactions have been based on physiological changes or induced phenotypes in the host, and the genetic mechanisms by which symbionts interact with their hosts have only recently become better understood. Learning about symbionts has been challenging in part due to difficulties such as obtaining enough high quality genomic material for high throughput sequencing technology, especially for symbionts present in low titers, and in small or difficult to rear non-model hosts...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792826/fast-evolving-human-specific-neural-enhancers-are-associated-with-aging-related-diseases
#8
Han Chen, Chunyan Li, Zhicheng Zhou, Han Liang
The antagonistic pleiotropy theory hypothesizes that evolutionary adaptations maximizing the fitness in early age increase disease burden after reproduction. This theory remains largely untested at the molecular level. Here, we analyzed enhancer evolution in primates to investigate the relationships between aging-related diseases and enhancers acquired after the human-chimpanzee divergence. We report a 5-fold increased evolutionary rate of enhancers that are activated in neural tissues, leading to fixation of ∼100 human-specific enhancers potentially under adaptation...
May 23, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792818/substrate-induced-formation-of-ribosomal-decoding-center-for-accurate-and-rapid-genetic-code-translation
#9
Michael Y Pavlov, Måns Ehrenberg
Accurate translation of genetic information is crucial for synthesis of functional proteins in all organisms. We use recent experimental data to discuss how induced fit affects accuracy of initial codon selection on the ribosome by aminoacyl transfer RNA in ternary complex ( T3 ) with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP). We define actual accuracy ([Formula: see text]) of a particular protein synthesis system as its current accuracy and the effective selectivity ([Formula: see text]) as [Formula: see text] in the limit of zero ribosomal binding affinity for T3 ...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792817/macroscopic-theory-for-evolving-biological-systems-akin-to-thermodynamics
#10
Kunihiko Kaneko, Chikara Furusawa
We present a macroscopic theory to characterize the plasticity, robustness, and evolvability of biological responses and their fluctuations. First, linear approximation in intracellular reaction dynamics is used to demonstrate proportional changes in the expression of all cellular components in response to a given environmental stress, with the proportion coefficient determined by the change in growth rate as a consequence of the steady growth of cells. We further demonstrate that this relationship is supported through adaptation experiments of bacteria, perhaps too well as this proportionality is held even across cultures of different types of conditions...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792567/effects-of-age-and-body-mass-index-on-breast-characteristics-a-cluster-analysis
#11
Celeste E Coltman, Julie R Steele, Deirdre E McGhee
Limited research has quantified variation in the characteristics of the breasts among women and determined how these breast characteristics are influenced by age and body mass. The aim of this study was to classify the breasts of women in the community into different categories based on comprehensive and objective measurements of the characteristics of their breasts and torsos, and to determine the effect of age and body mass index (BMI) on the prevalence of these breast categories. Four breast characteristic clusters were identified (X-Large, Very-ptotic & Splayed; Large, Ptotic & Splayed; Medium & Mildly-ptotic; and Small & Non-ptotic), with age and BMI shown to significantly affect the breast characteristic clusters...
May 24, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792504/measurement-invariance-of-tgmd-3-in-children-with-and-without-mental-and-behavioral-disorders
#12
Daniele Magistro, Giovanni Piumatti, Fabio Carlevaro, Lauren B Sherar, Dale W Esliger, Giulia Bardaglio, Francesca Magno, Massimiliano Zecca, Giovanni Musella
This study evaluated whether the Test of Gross Motor Development 3 (TGMD-3) is a reliable tool to compare children with and without mental and behavioral disorders across gross motor skill domains. A total of 1,075 children (aged 3-11 years), 98 with mental and behavioral disorders and 977 without (typically developing), were included in the analyses. The TGMD-3 evaluates fundamental gross motor skills of children across two domains: locomotor skills and ball skills. Two independent testers simultaneously observed children's performances (agreement over 95%)...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792485/telephone-assisted-parent-mediated-cbt-for-rural-latino-youth-with-anxiety-a-feasibility-trial
#13
Denise A Chavira, Cristina Bustos, Maritza Garcia, Francisco Reinosa Segovia, Afshan Baig, Bernardo Ng, Alvaro Camacho
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we tailor a child anxiety cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) program to fit the needs of rural Latino/a Spanish-speaking families and examine the feasibility, acceptability, tolerability, and safety of this intervention using 2 modes of service delivery. METHOD: Children (n = 31; age 8-13) with anxiety disorders were recruited from primary care settings and randomized to 1 of 2 modes of parent-mediated CBT bibliotherapy: (1) telephone-delivered, therapist-assisted bibliotherapy (TTB; n = 15), and (2) a more minimal contact, self-directed, bibliotherapy condition (SB; n = 16)...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792361/effect-of-blueberry-extract-carriers-and-combinations-on-the-growth-rate-of-probiotic-and-pathogenic-bacteria
#14
María Gretel Michel-Barba, Hugo Espinosa-Andrews, Rudy Antonio García-Reyes, Yves Desjardins, Marisela González-Ávila
The blueberry is recognised as a source of phenolic compounds that have beneficial effects on human health; however, they possess low bioavailability and can be degraded by gastrointestinal conditions. Encapsulation has been widely used to mitigate these disadvantages; Gum Arabic (GA) and Corn Syrup Solids (CSS) are common carriers used in this technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Blueberry Extract (BE), carriers and their mixtures on the kinetic growth and maximal growth rate of probiotics and pathogenic bacteria...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792336/evaluation-of-a-national-neurosurgical-formative-examination-the-uk-experience
#15
Ian Anderson, Robert Corns, Simon Thomson
INTRODUCTION: Formative assessment is a key component in medical education and that it is a helpful process for all involved. Until recently there was no national formative examination for neurosurgical trainees. The Neurosurgery Annual in Training Examination (NAiTE) is an annual online, formative assessment that was introduced in 2014. In this paper, we seek to discuss how well NAiTE relates to established educational practice and principles and its fitness for purpose by discussing its rationale, structure and utility...
May 24, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792320/modular-cavities-induced-fit-of-polar-and-apolar-guests-into-halogen-based-receptors
#16
Kentaro Aoki, Kazuya Otsubo, Garry S Hanan, Kunihisa Sugimoto, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Neutral triangular macrocyclic compounds, [PdX2 (4,7-phen)]3 ·(DMF)3 ·Et2 O (X = Cl, Br; 4,7-phen = 4,7-phenanthroline; DMF = N, N'-dimethylformamide; Et2 O = diethyl ether), were synthesized, and their molecular structures were characterized. Solution-state 1 H NMR results suggested the formation of metal-ligand bonds, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography revealed clear triangular structures. A detailed examination of the structures indicated the formation of two kinds of cavities in the solid state, where a triangular unit works as a halogen-based receptor for polar and apolar solvents through weak hydrogen-bonding and dipole-dipole interaction...
May 24, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792209/associations-of-discretionary-screen-time-with-mortality-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer-are-attenuated-by-strength-fitness-and-physical-activity-findings-from-the-uk-biobank-study
#17
Carlos A Celis-Morales, Donald M Lyall, Lewis Steell, Stuart R Gray, Stamatina Iliodromiti, Jana Anderson, Daniel F Mackay, Paul Welsh, Thomas Yates, Jill P Pell, Naveed Sattar, Jason M R Gill
BACKGROUND: Discretionary screen time (time spent viewing a television or computer screen during leisure time) is an important contributor to total sedentary behaviour, which is associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to determine whether the associations of screen time with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality were modified by levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, grip strength or physical activity. METHODS: In total, 390,089 participants (54% women) from the UK Biobank were included in this study...
May 24, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792195/histamine-activates-inflammatory-response-and-depresses-casein-synthesis-in-mammary-gland-of-dairy-cows-during-sara
#18
Guangjun Chang, Lailai Wang, Nana Ma, Wenwen Zhang, Huanmin Zhang, Hongyu Dai, Xiangzhen Shen
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidences observed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) induced by high concentration (HC) diet increases the translocation of histamine from digestive tract into circulation causing a diverse of diseases in dairy cows. However, it is largely unknown how it does affect the function of mammary gland and milk quality. Hence, this study aims to observe the effects of histamine derived from the digestive tract on the inflammatory response and casein synthesis in the mammary glands during SARA...
May 23, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792159/on-the-possibility-of-death-of-new-genes-evidence-from-the-deletion-of-de-novo-micrornas
#19
Guang-An Lu, Yixin Zhao, Zhongqi Liufu, Chung-I Wu
BACKGROUND: New genes are constantly formed, sometimes from non-genic sequences, creating what is referred to as de novo genes. Since the total number of genes remains relatively steady, gene deaths likely balance out new births. In metazoan genomes, microRNAs (miRs) genes, small and non-coding, account for the bulk of functional de novo genes and are particularly suited to the investigation of gene death. RESULTS: In this study, we discover a Drosophila-specific de novo miRNA (mir-977) that may be facing impending death...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792082/mining-concepts-of-health-responsibility-using-text-mining-and-exploratory-graph-analysis
#20
Sofia Kjellström, Hudson Golino
BACKGROUND: Occupational therapists need to know about people's beliefs about personal responsibility for health to help them pursue everyday activities. AIM: The study aims to employ state-of-the-art quantitative approaches to understand people's views of health and responsibility at different ages. METHODS: A mixed method approach was adopted, using text mining to extract information from 233 interviews with participants aged 5 to 96 years, and then exploratory graph analysis to estimate the number of latent variables...
May 24, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
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