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# Fitness

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#1
Agnieszka Pluta, Tadeusz Robak, Agata Wrzesien-Kus, Bozena Katarzyna Budziszewska, Kazimierz Sulek, Ewa Wawrzyniak, Magdalena Czemerska, Malgorzata Zwolinska, Aleksandra Golos, Aleksandra Holowiecka-Goral, Slawomira Kyrcz-Krzemien, Jaroslaw Piszcz, Janusz Kloczko, Monika Mordak-Domagala, Andrzej Lange, Małgorzata Razny, Krzysztof Madry, Wieslaw Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Sebastian Grosicki, Aleksandra Butrym, Kazimierz Kuliczkowski, Krzysztof Warzocha, Jerzy Holowiecki, Sebastian Giebel, Richard Szydlo, Agnieszka Wierzbowska
Intensive induction chemotherapy using anthracycline and cytarabine backbone is considered the most effective upfront therapy in physically fit older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, outcomes of the standard induction in elderly AML are inferior to those observed in younger patients and they are still unsatisfactory. As addition of cladribine to the standard induction therapy is known to improve outcome in younger AML patients, the present randomized phase II study compares efficacy and toxicity of the DAC (daunorubicin plus cytarabine plus cladribine) regimen with the standard DA (daunorubicin plus cytarabine) regimen in the newly diagnosed AML patients over 60 years of age...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
#2
Stephan Benke, Daniel Nettels, Hagen Hofmann, Benjamin Schuler
Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful approach for probing biomolecular structure and dynamics, including protein folding. For the investigation of nonequilibrium kinetics, F��rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in combination with confocal multiparameter detection has proven particularly versatile, owing to the large number of observables and the broad range of accessible timescales, especially in combination with rapid microfluidic mixing. However, a comprehensive kinetic analysis of the resulting time series of transfer efficiency histograms and complementary observables can be challenging owing to the complexity of the data...
January 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
#3
Min Yang, Bo-Lin Chen, Jian-Bao Huang, Yan-Ni Meng, Xiao-Jun Duan, Lu Chen, Lin-Rui Li, Yan-Ping Chen
We characterized the expression profile of angiogenesis-related genes (ARG) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes in preterm infants, with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We reanalyzed a gene expression dataset for preterm infants from the Gene Expression Omnibus database using the Gene-Cloud of Biotechnology Information platform. A total of 1,652 genes were differentially (1.2-fold change) expressed: 811 were highly expressed in infants with BPD, and 841 were highly expressed in those without BPD...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
#4
Cristiano Cervellera, Danilo Maccio
In this paper, we discuss how the extreme learning machine (ELM) framework can be effectively employed in the unsupervised context of multivariate density estimation. In particular, two algorithms are introduced, one for the estimation of the cumulative distribution function underlying the observed data, and one for the estimation of the probability density function. The algorithms rely on the concept of $F$-discrepancy, which is closely related to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov criterion for goodness of fit. Both methods retain the key feature of the ELM of providing the solution through random assignment of the hidden feature map and a very light computational burden...
January 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
#5
Zhanghua Chen, Muhammad T Salam, Tanya L Alderete, Rima Habre, Theresa M Bastain, Kiros Berhane, Frank D Gilliland
RATIONALE: Asthma and obesity often occur together in children. It is unknown whether asthma contributes to the childhood obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of asthma and asthma medication use on the development of childhood obesity. METHODS: The primary analysis was conducted among 2,171 non-obese children who were 5-8 years of age at study enrollment in the Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS) and were followed for up to 10 years...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
#6
Rebecca K Sripada, Paul N Pfeiffer, Jessica Rampton, Dara Ganoczy, Sheila A M Rauch, Melissa A Polusny, Kipling M Bohnert
Although the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has prioritized care for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), many patients with PTSD remain symptomatic. Patterns of PTSD symptom change are not well understood. Thus, the current study was designed to categorize and investigate potential predictors of symptom trajectories in patients with PTSD. The sample comprised 2,237 VA patients who were diagnosed with PTSD in 2013 and completed at least 4 PTSD Checklist (PCL) assessments over 12 weeks. Latent trajectory analysis was used to identify latent classes of patients based on PCL scores...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
#7
Giuliano Grossi, Raffaella Lanzarotti, Jianyi Lin
In the sparse representation model, the design of overcomplete dictionaries plays a key role for the effectiveness and applicability in different domains. Recent research has produced several dictionary learning approaches, being proven that dictionaries learnt by data examples significantly outperform structured ones, e.g. wavelet transforms. In this context, learning consists in adapting the dictionary atoms to a set of training signals in order to promote a sparse representation that minimizes the reconstruction error...
2017: PloS One
#8
Faliang Huang, Xuelong Li, Shichao Zhang, Jilian Zhang
To automatically determine the number of clusters and generate more quality clusters while clustering data samples, we propose a harmonious genetic clustering algorithm, named HGCA, which is based on harmonious mating in eugenic theory. Different from extant genetic clustering methods that only use fitness, HGCA aims to select the most suitable mate for each chromosome and takes into account chromosomes gender, age, and fitness when computing mating attractiveness. To avoid illegal mating, we design three mating prohibition schemes, i...
January 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
#9
Ravini U Chandrasena, Weibing Yang, Qingyu Lei, Mario Ulises Delgado-Jaime, Kanishka D Wijesekara, Maryam Golalikhani, Bruce Davidson, Elke Arenholz, Keisuke Kobayashi, Masaaki Kobata, Frank M F de Groot, Ulrich Aschauer, Nicola A Spaldin, Xiaoxing Xi, Alexander X Gray
We demonstrate a novel pathway to control and stabilize oxygen vacancies in complex transition-metal oxide thin films. Using atomic layer-by-layer pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from two separate targets, we synthesize high-quality single-crystalline CaMnO3 films with systematically varying oxygen vacancy defect formation energies as controlled by coherent tensile strain. The systematic increase of the oxygen vacancy content in CaMnO3 as a function of applied in-plane strain is observed and confirmed experimentally using high-resolution soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in conjunction with bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES)...
January 19, 2017: Nano Letters
#10
Sebastiano Bernini, Francesco Puosi, Dino Leporini
We investigate by Molecular Dynamics simulations of a molecular liquid the thermodynamic scaling (TS) of the structural relaxation time $\tau_\alpha$ in terms of the quantity $T\rho^{-\gamma_{ts}}$ where T and rho are the temperature and the density, respectively. The liquid does not exhibit strong virial-energy correlations. We propose how to evaluate both the characteristic exponent $\gamma_{ts}$ and the TS master curve by resorting to experimentally accessible quantities characterising the anharmonic elasticity and no details about the microscopic interactions...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
#11
Krishna Nath, James P O'Donnell, Yan Lu
A previous study showed that Nitrogen-Fixing-subunit-U-type protein NFU3 may act an iron-sulfur scaffold protein in the assembly and transfer of 4Fe-4S and 3Fe-4S clusters in the chloroplast. Examples of 4Fe-4S and 3Fe-4S-requiring proteins and complexes include Photosystem I (PSI), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and ferredoxin-dependent glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferases. In this paper, the authors provided additional evidence for the role of NFU3 in 4Fe-4S and 3Fe-4S cluster assembly and transfer, as well as its role in overall plant fitness...
January 19, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
#12
Minming Shen, Yuyang Zhang, Kaizhou Chen, Siying Che, Jia Yao, Haoran Li
The ionicity value, which is a key property of protic ionic liquids, was obtained by the attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance respectively for a protic ionic liquid: n-propylammonium acetate. The method of potentiometric titration is found not suitable for such kind of ionic liquid as the ∆pKa of the compositing acid and base is relatively small. In the IR spectrum, molecular species can be directly observed in the range 1200-1800 cm-1, and the ratio of ionic and molecular species can be quantitatively calculated by the area of characteristic absorption peaks calibrated by standard curve from NaAc/HAc solutions...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
#13
Lennart A I Ramakers, Gordon Hithell, John J May, Gregory M Greetham, Paul M Donaldson, Michael Towrie, Anthony W Parker, Glenn A Burley, Neil T Hunt
The induced fit binding model describes a conformational change occurring when a small molecule binds to its biomacromolecular target. The result is enhanced non-covalent interactions between ligand and biomolecule. Induced fit is well-established for small molecule-protein interactions, but its relevance to small molecule-DNA binding is less clear. We investigate the molecular determinants of Hoechst33258 binding to its preferred A-tract sequence relative to a sub-optimal alternating A-T sequence. Results from 2-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, which is sensitive to H-bonding and molecular structure changes, show that Hoechst33258 binding results in loss of minor groove spine of hydration in both sequences, but an additional perturbation of the base propeller twists occurs in the A-tract binding region...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
#14
REVIEW
Carlos L Ballaré, Ronald Pierik
Plants use photoreceptor proteins to detect the proximity of other plants and to activate adaptive responses. Of these photoreceptors, phytochrome B (phyB), which is sensitive to changes in the red (R) to far-red (FR) ratio of sunlight, is the one that has been studied in greatest detail. The molecular connections between the proximity signal (low R:FR) and a model physiological response (increased elongation growth) have now been mapped in considerable detail in Arabidopsis seedlings. We briefly review our current understanding of these connections, and discuss recent progress in establishing the roles of other photoreceptors in regulating growth-related pathways in response to competition cues...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
#15
Louise Champoux, Monique Boily, Guy Fitzgerald
The exposure and effects of persistent environmental contaminants were investigated in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) nestlings sampled in 2001, 2002, 2006, and 2007 in freshwater and estuarine heronries along the St. Lawrence River, Québec (Canada). Biomarkers (retinoids, thyroid hormones, and clinical parameters) and contaminants (organochlorine contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and mercury (Hg)) were analyzed in blood, and Hg was analyzed in feathers (generally 9 nestlings per colony and 4 colonies per year)...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
#16
Qi Yang, Jing Ge, Xin Liu, Quan Shi, Hongshan Ke, Qing Wei, Gang Xie, Sanping Chen, Shengli Gao
A new 1D Cu(II) coordination polymer, formulated as {[Cu(TZA)(PNA)]·H2O}n (1) (HTZA = tetrazole-1-acetic acid, HPNA = p-nitrobenzoic acid), was synthesized and structurally characterized. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the main frame of 1 exhibited good thermostability up to 473 K. The non-isothermal kinetics for the first exothermic process of 1 were studied by Kissinger and Ozawa methods. The magnetic study revealed that 1 possessed antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between Cu(II) ions through the carboxyl-bridge...
January 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
#17
Jhih-An Yang, Stephen Parham, Daniel Dessau, Dmitry Reznik
Time dynamics of photoexcited electron-hole pairs is important for a number of technologies, in particular solar cells. We combined ultrafast pump-probe Raman scattering and photoemission to directly follow electron-hole excitations as well as the G-phonon in graphite after an excitation by an intense laser pulse. This phonon is known to couple relatively strongly to electrons. Cross-correlating effective electronic and phonon temperatures places new constraints on model-based fits. The accepted two-temperature model predicts that G-phonon population should start to increase as soon as excited electron-hole pairs are created and that the rate of increase should not depend strongly on the pump fluence...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
#18
Benjamin D Towbin, Yael Korem, Anat Bren, Shany Doron, Rotem Sorek, Uri Alon
Organisms adjust their gene expression to improve fitness in diverse environments. But finding the optimal expression in each environment presents a challenge. We ask how good cells are at finding such optima by studying the control of carbon catabolism genes in Escherichia coli. Bacteria show a growth law: growth rate on different carbon sources declines linearly with the steady-state expression of carbon catabolic genes. We experimentally modulate gene expression to ask if this growth law always maximizes growth rate, as has been suggested by theory...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
#19
Jinghan Sun, Chang Liu, Xiaobing Bai, Xiaoting Li, Jingyun Li, Zhiping Zhang, Yunpeng Zhang, Jing Guo, Yan Li
Protein homeostasis is critical for health and lifespan of animals. However, the mechanisms for controlling protein feeding remain poorly understood. Here we report that in Drosophila, protein intake-induced feeding inhibition (PIFI) is specific to protein-containing food, and this effect is mediated by a fat body (FB) peptide named female-specific independent of transformer (FIT). Upon consumption of protein food, FIT expression is greatly elevated. Secreted FIT peptide in the fly haemolymph conveys this metabolic message to the brain, thereby promoting the release of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (DILP2) and suppressing further protein intake...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
#20
Masahiro Shinya, Shinji Tsuchiya, Yousuke Yamada, Kimitaka Nakazawa, Kazutoshi Kudo, Shingo Oda
According to recent motor control studies, it is important to know probabilistic structure of his/her own motor errors to choose an optimal motor plan (i.e., where you aim at) to maximise the expected gain. In this study, we questioned if pitching form determines the probabilistic structure of pitching errors in baseball pitchers. Eighteen collegiate baseball pitchers with various pitching forms including right- and left-handed overarm, sidearm and underarm throwers threw 100 pitches aiming at a target located 90 cm above the ground...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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