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Treadmill dopamine

Kaixuan Shi, Xiaoli Liu, Decai Qiao, Lijuan Hou
Exercise improves motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients but the underlying neuronal mechanism is poorly understood. Since the striatum is critical to motor function, we have investigated the potential effects of exercise on the spiking activity of the striatal neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Twenty-four hours after injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the right medial forebrain bundle, rats in exercise groups were trained to exercise on a treadmill. Twenty-eight days after 6-OHDA lesion, apomorphine induced fewer rotations in the PD rats with exercise than in PD + Ex rats...
April 25, 2016: Motor Control
Elena Brazhnik, Alex J McCoy, Nikolay Novikov, Christina E Hatch, Judith R Walters
UNLABELLED: Loss of dopamine is associated with increased synchronization and oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus and basal ganglia (BG) output nuclei in both Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of PD. We have previously observed substantial increases in spectral power in the 25-40 Hz range in LFPs recorded in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) and motor cortex (MCx) in the hemiparkinsonian rat during treadmill walking. The current study explores the hypothesis that SNpr output entrains activity in the ventral medial thalamus (VM) in this frequency range after loss of dopamine, which in turn contributes to entrainment of the MCx and BG...
April 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Giorgio Bergamini, Hannes Sigrist, Boris Ferger, Nicolas Singewald, Erich Seifritz, Christopher R Pryce
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, particularly the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens (VTA-NAcc) projection, underlies reward and aversion processing, and deficient DA function could underlie motivational impairments in psychiatric disorders. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection is an established method for chronic DA depletion, principally applied in rat to study NAcc DA regulation of reward motivation. Given the increasing focus on studying environmental and genetic regulation of DA function in mouse models, it is important to establish the effects of 6-OHDA DA depletion in mice, in terms of reward and aversion processing...
October 2016: Neuropharmacology
Roberta Marongiu, Margarita Arango-Lievano, Veronica Francardo, Peter Morgenstern, Xiaoqun Zhang, M Angela Cenci, Per Svenningsson, Paul Greengard, Michael G Kaplitt
Complications of dopamine replacement for Parkinson's disease (PD) can limit therapeutic options, leading to interest in identifying novel pathways that can be exploited to improve treatment. p11 (S100A10) is a cellular scaffold protein that binds to and potentiates the activity of various ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. We have previously reported that p11 can influence ventral striatal function in models of depression and drug addiction, and thus we hypothesized that dorsal striatal p11 might mediate motor function and drug responses in parkinsonian mice...
February 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anna Protzner, Márta Szmodis, Anna Udvardy, Edit Bosnyák, Emese Trájer, Zsolt Komka, István Györe, Miklós Tóth
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate complex hormonal response in ball game and cyclic sport elite athletes through an incremental treadmill test, since, so far, variables in experimental procedures have often hampered comparisons of data. METHODS: We determined anthropometric data, heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake, workload, plasma levels of lactate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, cortisol, angiontensinogen and endothelin in control (n = 6), soccer (n = 8), handball (n = 12), kayaking (n = 9) and triathlon (n = 9) groups based on a Bruce protocol through a maximal exercise type of spiroergometric test...
2015: PloS One
Miriam Kannebley Frank, Marco Tulio de Mello, Kil Sun Lee, Paulo Daubian-Nosé, Sergio Tufik, Andrea Maculano Esteves
The relationship between hypertension and sleep-related movement disorders has been hypothesized for humans, but the causes and mechanisms have not been elucidated. We investigated whether an alteration in blood pressure (BP) induced by physical exercise and/or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) could affect locomotor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats, with emphasis on the dopaminergic system. We used SHR and normotensive Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups for each strain: control, physical exercise, enalapril and physical exercise+enalapril...
February 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Xinyan Zheng, Hiroshi Hasegawa
We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA)...
January 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Jennifer C Arnold, Michael F Salvatore
Exercise may alleviate locomotor impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) or aging. Identifying molecular responses immediately engaged by exercise in the nigrostriatal pathway and allied tissue may reveal critical targets associated with its long-term benefits. In aging, there is loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor, GFR-α1, in the substantia nigra (SN). Exercise can increase GDNF expression, but its effect on GFR-α1 expression is unknown. Infusion of GDNF into striatum or GFR-α1 in SN, respectively, can increase locomotor activity and TH function in SN but not striatum in aged rats...
February 17, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Aderbal S Aguiar, Samantha C Lopes, Fabrine S M Tristão, Daniel Rial, Gisele de Oliveira, Cláudio da Cunha, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Rui D Prediger
The classical motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are preceded by non-motor symptoms in preclinical stages, including cognition impairment. The current drug treatment for PD is palliative and does not meet the clinical challenges of the disease, such as levodopa-induced dyskinesia, non-motor symptoms, and neuroprotection. We investigated the neuroprotective and disease-modifying potential of physical exercise in a preclinical animal model of PD. C57BL/6 mice (adult males) ran on a horizontal treadmill for 6 weeks (moderate intensity, 5 times/week) and were treated intranasally with 65 mg/kg of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
January 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Claire Delaville, Alex J McCoy, Colin M Gerber, Ana V Cruz, Judith R Walters
Oscillatory activity in both beta and gamma ranges has been recorded in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and linked to motor function, with beta activity considered antikinetic, and gamma activity, prokinetic. However, the extent to which nonmotor networks contribute to this activity is unclear. This study uses hemiparkinsonian rats performing a treadmill walking task to compare synchronized STN local field potential (LFP) activity with activity in motor cortex (MCx) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), areas involved in motor and cognitive processes, respectively...
April 29, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Claire Delaville, Ana V Cruz, Alex J McCoy, Elena Brazhnik, Irene Avila, Nikolay Novikov, Judith R Walters
Exaggerated beta range (15-30 Hz) oscillatory activity is observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients during implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. This activity has been hypothesized to contribute to motor dysfunction in PD patients. However, it remains unclear how these oscillations develop and how motor circuits become entrained into a state of increased synchronization in this frequency range after loss of dopamine. It is also unclear whether this increase in neuronal synchronization actually plays a significant role in inducing the motor symptoms of this disorder...
April 1, 2014: Basal Ganglia
Dae-Jung Baek, Chae-Bin Lee, Seung-Soo Baek
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves clinically heterogeneous dysfunctions of sustained attention, with behavioral hyper-activity and impulsivity. The exact underlying mechanisms of ADHD are not known, however, impairment of dopaminergic system in the nigrostriatal pathway was suggested as the one of the possible mechanisms of ADHD. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme that is involved in the synthesis of dopamine. Spontaneous hypertensive rats have been used as the animal model for ADHD...
October 2014: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Yi-Hsien Tsou, Ching-Ting Shih, Cheng-Hsin Ching, Jui-Yen Huang, Chauying J Jen, Lung Yu, Yu-Min Kuo, Fong-Sen Wu, Jih-Ing Chuang
Exercise induces oxidative stress, which may activate adaptive antioxidant responses. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in the defense of oxidative stress by regulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (γGCL) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We investigated whether treadmill exercise protects dopaminergic neurons by regulating the Nrf2 antioxidant system in a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+))-induced parkinsonian rat model. We found that MPP(+) induced early decreases in total glutathione level and Nrf2/γGCLC (catalytic subunit of γGCL) expression, but late upregulation of HO-1 expression in association with loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and downregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter expression in the striatum...
January 2015: Experimental Neurology
Li Zhou, Zhi-Yong Wang, Hui Lian, Hai-Yan Song, Yi-Min Zhang, Xiao-Li Zhang, Rui-Fang Fan, Li-Fei Zheng, Jin-Xia Zhu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that is often associated with weak tongue motility. However, the link between the degenerated dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and lingual dysfunction remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the localization of dopamine receptor 1 (D1) and dopamine receptor 2 (D2) and alternations in their expression in cholinergic motoneurons of the hypoglossal nucleus (HN) using double-label immunofluorescence, Western blotting and semi-quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (SqRT-PCR) in rats that received microinjections of 6-hydroxydopamine bilaterally into the SN (6-OHDA rats)...
September 26, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Elena Brazhnik, Nikolay Novikov, Alex J McCoy, Ana V Cruz, Judith R Walters
Exaggerated beta range (13-30Hz) synchronized activity is observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients during implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes and is thought to contribute to the motor symptoms of this disorder. To explore the translational potential of similar activity observed in a rat model of PD, local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity in basal ganglia output were characterized in rats with unilateral dopamine cell lesion during a range of behaviors. A circular treadmill was used to assess activity during walking; hemiparkinsonian rats could maintain a steady gait when oriented ipsiversive to the lesioned hemisphere, but were less effective at walking when oriented contraversive to lesion...
November 2014: Experimental Neurology
Damiano Azzinnari, Hannes Sigrist, Simon Staehli, Rupert Palme, Tobias Hildebrandt, German Leparc, Bastian Hengerer, Erich Seifritz, Christopher R Pryce
In neuropsychiatry, animal studies demonstrating causal effects of environmental manipulations relevant to human aetiology on behaviours relevant to human psychopathologies are valuable. Such valid models can improve understanding of aetio-pathophysiology and preclinical discovery and development of new treatments. In depression, specific uncontrollable stressful life events are major aetiological factors, and subsequent generalized increases in fearfulness, helplessness and fatigue are core symptoms or features...
October 2014: Neuropharmacology
Eun-Sang Ji, Chang-Ju Kim, Jun Heon Park, Geon Ho Bahn
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder, and its symptoms are hyperactivity and deficits in learning and memory. Physical exercise increases dopamine synthesis and neuronal activity in various brain regions. In the present study, we investigate the duration-dependence of the treadmill exercise on hyperactivity in relation with dopamine expression in ADHD. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were used for the ADHD rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were used for the control rats...
April 2014: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Xinyan Zheng, Satomi Takatsu, Hongli Wang, Hiroshi Hasegawa
The purpose of this study was to examine changes of thermoregulation, neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH), which is the thermoregulatory center, and endurance exercise performance after the intraperitoneal injection of caffeine in rats. Core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption (VO₂) and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the PO/AH, and samples for the measurements of extracellular dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were collected...
July 2014: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Jiamei Hou, Rachel Nelson, Nicole Nissim, Ronald Parmer, Floyd J Thompson, Prodip Bose
Spasticity and gait impairments are two common disabilities after cervical spinal cord injury (C-SCI). In this study, we tested the therapeutic effects of early treadmill locomotor training (Tm) initiated at postoperative (PO) day 8 and continued for 6 weeks with injury site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMSsc) on spasticity and gait impairments after low C6/7 moderate contusion C-SCI in a rat model. The combined treatment group (Tm+TMSsc) showed the most robust decreases in velocity-dependent ankle torques and triceps surae electromyography burst amplitudes that were time locked to the initial phase of lengthening, as well as the most improvement in limb coordination quantitated using three-dimensional kinematics and CatWalk gait analyses, compared to the control or single-treatment groups...
June 15, 2014: Journal of Neurotrauma
William A Toy, Giselle M Petzinger, Brian J Leyshon, Garnik K Akopian, John P Walsh, Matilde V Hoffman, Marta G Vučković, Michael W Jakowec
Exercise has been shown to be beneficial for Parkinson's disease (PD). A major interest in our lab has been to investigate how exercise modulates basal ganglia function and modifies disease progression. Dopamine (DA) depletion leads to loss of dendritic spines within the caudate nucleus and putamen (striatum) in PD and its animal models and contributes to motor impairments. Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) can be delineated into two populations, the dopamine D1 receptor (DA-D1R)-containing MSNs of the direct pathway and dopamine D2 receptor (DA-D2R)-containing MSNs of the indirect pathway...
March 2014: Neurobiology of Disease
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