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Diabetes and inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346407/relaxin-reverses-inflammatory-and-immune-signals-in-aged-hearts
#1
Brian Martin, Beth Ann Gabris-Weber, Rajiv Reddy, Guillermo Romero, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Guy Salama
BACKGROUND: 'Healthy' aging drives structural and functional changes in the heart including maladaptive electrical remodeling, fibrosis and inflammation, which lower the threshold for cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Despite mixed results in recent clinical trials, Relaxin-therapy for 2-days could reduce mortality by 37% at 180-days post-treatment, in patients with acute decompensated HF. Relaxin's short life-span (hours) but long-lasting protective actions led us to test the hypothesis that relaxin acts at a genomic level to reverse maladaptive remodeling in aging and HF...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346331/growth-hormone-gh-and-cardiovascular-system
#2
REVIEW
Diego Caicedo, Oscar Díaz, Pablo Devesa, Jesús Devesa
This review describes the positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on the cardiovascular system. We analyze why the vascular endothelium is a real internal secretion gland, whose inflammation is the first step for developing atherosclerosis, as well as the mechanisms by which GH acts on vessels improving oxidative stress imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. We also report how GH acts on coronary arterial disease and heart failure, and on peripheral arterial disease, inducing a neovascularization process that finally increases flow in ischemic tissues...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343528/effect-of-intravitreal-triamcinolone-acetonide-injection-at-the-end-of-vitrectomy-for-vitreous-haemorrhage-related-to-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#3
Yoshihiro Takamura, Masahiko Shimura, Takashi Katome, Hideaki Someya, Masahiko Sugimoto, Takao Hirano, Taiji Sakamoto, Makoto Gozawa, Takehiro Matsumura, Masaru Inatani
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate whether intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) combined with vitrectomy prevents postoperative inflammation in patients with vitreous haemorrhage (VH) due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, randomised study conducted at seven sites in Japan enrolled patients diagnosed as having VH following PDR. Patients underwent vitrectomy with (IVTA+VIT group) or without (VIT group) IVTA at the end of the surgery...
January 17, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343164/inflammatory-and-oxidative-responses-in-pregnancies-with-obesity-and-periodontal-disease
#4
Marta Zambon, Chiara Mandò, Alessandra Lissoni, Gaia Maria Anelli, Chiara Novielli, Manuela Cardellicchio, Roberto Leone, Marta Noemi Monari, Maddalena Massari, Irene Cetin, Silvio Abati
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is related to immunologic and inflammatory systemic modifications that may worsen the pregnancy inflammatory status. Hormonal changes during pregnancy can adversely affect oral biofilms and oral health initiating or worsening periodontal diseases, with enhanced local and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between local salivary and systemic parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation in relation to obesity and periodontal diseases...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341448/beneficial-actions-of-microbiota-derived-tryptophan-metabolites
#5
REVIEW
J J Galligan
Tryptophan is an important dietary amino acid and it is the precursor for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the nervous system and by enterochromaffin cells in the gut mucosa. Tryptophan is also metabolized by enzymes in the gut mucosa and also by enzymes produced by the gut microbiome. Diet and the microbiome can contribute to metabolic disease in part by causing intestinal inflammation and increased permeability. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Jennis et al. test the hypothesis that indole tryptophan metabolites produced by gut bacteria might be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and beneficial metabolic effects of the gut microbiome and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for weight loss by obese patients...
February 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341443/stachyose-improves-inflammation-through-modulating-gut-microbiota-of-high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetes-in-rats
#6
Guimei Liu, Jia Bei, Li Liang, Guoyong Yu, Lu Li, Quanhong Li
SCOPE: The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of stachyose (STS) on type 2 diabetes in rats, and changes in the gut microbiota compared to metformin (MET). METHODS AND RESULTS: The type 2 diabetic model was successfully established via a high-fat diet (HFD) / streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats, and STS or MET was administered for 4 weeks. Blood was collected to analyze biochemical parameters, pancreas for mRNA expression of related gene and contents of colon for gut microbiota...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341349/peroxiredoxin-4-prdx4-its-critical-in-vivo-roles-in-animal-models-of-metabolic-syndrome-ranging-from-atherosclerosis-to-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Sohsuke Yamada, Xin Guo
The peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family, a new family of proteins with a pivotal antioxidative function, is ubiquitously synthesized and abundantly identified in various organisms. In contrast to the intracellular localization of other family members (PRDX1/2/3/5/6), PRDX4 is the only known secretory form and protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species in both the intracellular (especially the endoplasmic reticulum) compartments and the extracellular space. We generated unique human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice on a C57BL/6J background and investigated the critical and diverse protective roles of PRDX4 against diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as evaluated its role in the intestinal function in various animal models...
January 17, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341300/inflammatory-and-related-biomarkers-are-associated-with-post-transplant-diabetes-mellitus-in-kidney-recipients
#8
Torbjørn F Heldal, Thor Ueland, Trond Jenssen, Anders Hartmann, Anna V Reisaeter, Pål Aukrust, Annika Michelsen, Anders Åsberg
In this study we investigate the association between selected inflammatory related biomarkers and post transplant hyperglycemia in kidney transplant recipients. This retrospective analysis comprises 852 patients receiving a kidney transplant at the Norwegian national transplant centre between 2007 and 2012, all having a normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before transplantation. A diagnostic OGTT was performed 10 weeks post-transplant to examine the association between inflammation related biomarkers and two-hour plasma glucose (2HPG) by multivariable linear regression models adjusting for BMI, age, graft function, fasting insulin levels, dosage of prednisolone, and concentration of calcineurin inhibitors...
January 16, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340323/clinical-and-pathological-significance-of-autoantibodies-to-erythropoietin-receptor-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-ckd
#9
Akinori Hara, Kengo Furuichi, Akihiko Koshino, Haruka Yasuda, Trang Thi Thu Tran, Yasunori Iwata, Norihiko Sakai, Miho Shimizu, Shuichi Kaneko, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Takashi Wada
Introduction: We examined the impact of autoantibodies on the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A total of 112 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who had CKD were enrolled in this study and followed for a mean of 45 months. Sera from these patients were screened for anti-EPOR antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Anti-EPOR antibodies were detected in 26 patients (23%)...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339732/glyburide-and-retinoic-acid-synergize-to-promote-wound-healing-by-anti-inflammation-and-rip140-degradation
#10
Yi-Wei Lin, Pu-Ste Liu, Kasey Ah Pook, Li-Na Wei
Chronic inflammation underlies the development of metabolic diseases and individuals with metabolic disease often also suffer from delayed wound healing due to prolonged inflammation. Resolving inflammation provides a therapeutic strategy in treating metabolic diseases. We previously showed that during an anti-inflammatory response when macrophages were alternatively (M2) polarized, retinoic acid (RA) dramatically activated arginase 1 gene (Arg1), a gene crucial for wound healing. Here we report that a widely used sulfonylurea drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), glyburide, enhances the anti-inflammatory response and synergizes with RA to promote wound healing...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339445/bile-acids-in-glucose-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Hagit Shapiro, Aleksandra A Kolodziejczyk, Daniel Halstuch, Eran Elinav
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol-derived metabolites that facilitate the intestinal absorption and transport of dietary lipids. Recently, BAs also emerged as pivotal signaling molecules controlling glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism by binding to the nuclear hormone farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G protein receptor 5 (TGR5) in multiple organs, leading to regulation of intestinal incretin secretion, hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, energy expenditure, inflammation, and gut microbiome configuration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339146/microspheres-as-intraocular-therapeutic-tools-in-chronic-diseases-of-the-optic-nerve-and-retina
#12
Irene Bravo-Osuna, Vanessa Andrés-Guerrero, Alicia Arranz-Romera, Sergio Esteban-Pérez, Irene T Molina-Martínez, Rocío Herrero-Vanrell
Pathologies affecting the optic nerve and the retina are one of the major causes of blindness. These diseases include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and glaucoma, among others. Also, there are genetic disorders that affect the retina causing visual impairment. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases of the posterior segment are increased as most of them are related with the elderly. Even with the access to different treatments, there are some challenges in managing patients suffering retinal diseases...
January 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337679/the-effects-of-physical-activity-on-chronic-subclinical-systemic-inflammation
#13
Alba Maria Dalbello Tir, Marina Labor, Davor Plavec
Chronic subclinical systemic inflammation (CSSI) is a pathogenic event and a common risk factor for many noncommunicable diseases like atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, cancer, and obstructive lung disease. On the other hand, regular physical activity has been found to reduce this risk. Many studies of different design were conducted to assess the association between inflammatory mediators as markers of CSSI and regular physical activity. The aim of this review was to present the current level of evidence and understanding of potential mechanisms by which physical activity reduces inflammatory mediators involved in CSSI and the types of physical activity required for the expected effect...
December 20, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337308/rage-binds-preamyloid-iapp-intermediates-and-mediates-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-proteotoxicity
#14
Andisheh Abedini, Ping Cao, Annette Plesner, Jinghua Zhang, Meilun He, Julia Derk, Sachi A Patil, Rosa Rosario, Jacqueline Lonier, Fei Song, Hyunwook Koh, Huilin Li, Daniel P Raleigh, Ann Marie Schmidt
Islet amyloidosis is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in pancreatic islets, resulting in β cell toxicity, which exacerbates type 2 diabetes and islet transplant failure. It is not fully clear how IAPP induces cellular stress or how IAPP-induced toxicity can be prevented or treated. We recently defined the properties of toxic IAPP species. Here, we have identified a receptor-mediated mechanism of islet amyloidosis-induced proteotoxicity. In human diabetic pancreas and in cellular and mouse models of islet amyloidosis, increased expression of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) correlated with human IAPP-induced (h-IAPP-induced) β cell and islet inflammation, toxicity, and apoptosis...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337272/circulating-adipokines-and-mrna-expression-in-adipose-tissue-and-the-placenta-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Panayoula C Tsiotra, Panagiotis Halvatsiotis, Konstantinos Patsouras, Eirini Maratou, George Salamalekis, Sotirios A Raptis, George Dimitriadis, Eleni Boutati
Maternal adipose tissue and the placenta secrete various molecules commonly called adipokines such as chemerin, omentin-1, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin that are important players in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a state of glucose intolerance characterized by β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. To examine whether circulating adipokines and their mRNA expression in the adipose tissue and the placenta are altered in GDM pregnancy, we compared 15 GDM women [obese (BMI > 30) and non-obese (BMI < 30)] to 23 NGT (normal glucose tolerance) women [obese and non-obese], at the time of the Cesarean section...
January 11, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337002/hypothalamic-inflammation-and-malfunctioning-glia-in-the-pathophysiology-of-obesity-and-diabetes-translational-significance
#16
REVIEW
Md Habibur Rahman, Anup Bhusal, Won-Ha Lee, In-Kyu Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Preclinical studies have suggested that chronic inflammation in the brain might be associated with multiple metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. In particular, hypothalamic inflammation interferes with the endocrine system and modulates nutritional homeostasis, leading to metabolic alterations and consequent pathologies. With regard to the mechanisms underlying molecular and cellular pathogenesis, neurons, non-neuronal cells, and the crosstalk between them have gained particular attention. Specifically, malfunctioning glia have recently been implicated as an important component of pathological hypothalamic inflammation...
January 11, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336982/il-6-receptor-blockade-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-via-inhibiting-inflammasome-in-mice
#17
Rui Wu, Xuanchen Liu, Jianyong Yin, Huijuan Wu, Xiulei Cai, Niansong Wang, Youcun Qian, Feng Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been identified as a key mediator in inflammation, immune responses and glucose metabolism. In this study, we assessed the effects of an IL-6 receptor antibody on diabetic nephropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Twelve week old male db/db mice were treated with Tocilizumab (an IL-6 receptor antibody), normal IgG1 control antibody, insulin or normal saline for 12 weeks. Renal injury, inflammation and insulin resistance were assessed...
January 11, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335916/association-between-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Shanshan Jin, Suwen Jiang, Airong Hu
The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been an issue of great concern. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of OSA on the levels of liver enzymes including alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). The secondary purpose was to estimate the effect of OSA on the histological lesions of NAFLD, such as steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning degeneration, fibrosis, as well as NAFLD activity score (NAS)...
January 15, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334666/effects-of-berberine-chloride-on-the-liver-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-albino-wistar-rats
#19
Govindasami Chandirasegaran, Chakkaravarthy Elanchezhiyan, Kavisa Ghosh
The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effect of Berberine chloride (BC) on the liver of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat. Diabetic rats were treated with BC (50 mg/kg b.w) or glibenclamide (6 mg/kg b.w), daily for 45 days. After BC treatment in diabetic rats, there was a significant (P < 0.05) decline in the levels of hepatic markers, lipid peroxidation markers such as lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and pro-inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa-B-p65 (phospho-NF-κB p65), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as pro-apoptotic mediators such as Bax and cytochrome c...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334162/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-children-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-treated-with-tnf-inhibitors-in-comparison-to-conventional-agents
#20
Nawaf Al Mutairi, Dhuha Alrqobah, Nasser Haji Hussain
Association of childhood psoriasis with metabolic syndrome has not been studied well. TNF-alfa contributes to the inflammation seen in metabolic syndrome, and recently etanercept has shown to reduce the levels of inflammatory markers. Assessment of prevalence of metabolic syndrome in juvenile psoriasis patients in Kuwait. We included 236 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis below 18 years treated for at least 24 weeks with TNF inhibitors (Group A), and equal number of age and sex matched cases treated with conventional medications (Group B)...
January 15, 2018: Dermatologic Therapy
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