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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161747/a-functional-mri-exploration-of-hamstring-activation-during-the-supine-bridge-exercise
#1
Matthew Bourne, Morgan Williams, Tania Pizzari, Anthony Shield
The single leg supine bridge (SLB) is a commonly employed strengthening exercise and is used as a clinical test for hamstring function in sports, however, little is known about the patterns of muscle activation in this task. To explore these activation patterns, nine healthy, recreationally active males underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of their thighs at rest and immediately after 5 sets of 10 repetitions of the SLB exercise. Exercise-induced increases in the transverse (T2) relaxation time of the biceps femoris long and short heads, semitendinosus and semimembranosus, were determined via signal intensity changes in pre- and post-exercise images and used as an index of muscle activation...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161715/management-of-biochemical-recurrence-after-primary-curative-treatment-for-prostate-cancer-a-review
#2
Walter Artibani, Antonio Benito Porcaro, Vincenzo De Marco, Maria A Cerruto, Salvatore Siracusano
How to manage patients with prostate cancer (PCa) with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following primary curative treatment is a controversial issue. Importantly, this prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-only recurrence is a surrogate neither of PCa-specific survival nor of overall survival. Physicians are therefore challenged with preventing or delaying the onset of clinical progression in those deemed at risk, while avoiding over-treating patients whose disease may never progress beyond PSA-only recurrence. Adjuvant therapy for radical prostatectomy (RP) or local radiotherapy (RT) has a role in certain at-risk patients, although it is not recommended in low-risk PCa owing to the significant side-effects associated with RT and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)...
November 21, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161400/the-evolution-of-robotic-surgery-surgical-and-anaesthetic-aspects
#3
H Ashrafian, O Clancy, V Grover, A Darzi
Robotic surgery pushes the frontiers of innovation in healthcare technology towards improved clinical outcomes. We discuss the evolution to five generations of robotic surgical platforms including stereotactic, endoscopic, bioinspired, microbots on the millimetre scale, and the future development of autonomous systems. We examine the challenges, obstacles and limitations of robotic surgery and its future potential including integrated real-time anatomical and immune-histological imaging and data assimilation with improved visualisation, haptic feedback and robot-surgeon interactivity...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161320/in-vivo-effects-of-intraocular-and-intracranial-pressures-on-the-lamina-cribrosa-microstructure
#4
Bo Wang, Huong Tran, Matthew A Smith, Tigran Kostanyan, Samantha E Schmitt, Richard A Bilonick, Ning-Jiun Jan, Larry Kagemann, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Joel S Schuman, Ian A Sigal, Gadi Wollstein
There is increasing clinical evidence that the eye is not only affected by intraocular pressure (IOP), but also by intracranial pressure (ICP). Both pressures meet at the optic nerve head of the eye, specifically the lamina cribrosa (LC). The LC is a collagenous meshwork through which all retinal ganglion cell axons pass on their way to the brain. Distortion of the LC causes a biological cascade leading to neuropathy and impaired vision in situations such as glaucoma and idiopathic intracranial hypertension...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161237/bilateral-visual-field-defects-in-a-patient-treated-with-the-mek-and-braf-inhibitors-trametinib-and-dabrafenib-for-melanoma-of-unknown-origin
#5
Jakob Siedlecki, Marc Mackert, Armin Wolf, Carola Berking, Siegfried G Priglinger, Kirsten Eibl-Lindner
INTRODUCTION: Although the introduction of BRAF and MEK inhibitors has greatly enhanced treatment possibilities in advanced BRAFV600-mutated melanoma, class-related toxicities are rather frequent and often involve the eye. Ophthalmologic side effects most commonly include central/diffuse serous retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion. Affection of the optic nerve head however has not been described clinically. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old man presented in our eye clinic with bilateral blurred vision...
April 17, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161236/quantitative-investigation-of-the-edge-enhancement-in-in-line-phase-contrast-projections-and-tomosynthesis-provided-by-distributing-microbubbles-on-the-interface-between-two-tissues-a-phantom-study
#6
Di Wu, Molly Donovan Wong, Yuhua Li, Laurie Fajardo, Bin Zheng, Xizeng Wu, Hong Liu
The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate the ability to distribute microbubbles along the interface between two tissues, in an effort to improve the edge and/or boundary features in phase contrast imaging. The experiments were conducted by employing a custom designed tissue simulating phantom, which also simulated a clinical condition where the ligand-targeted microbubbles are self-aggregated on the endothelium of blood vessels surrounding malignant cells. Four different concentrations of microbubble suspensions were injected into the phantom: 0%, 0...
November 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161194/intraoperative-ultrasound-in-oral-tongue-cancer-resection-feasibility-study-and-early-outcomes
#7
Osama Tarabichi, Vivek Kanumuri, Amy F Juliano, William C Faquin, Mary E Cunnane, Mark A Varvares
The current standard of care in oral tongue cancer surgery is complete resection with a target of 5-mm microscopic clearance at all margins on final pathologic review. While current methods of resection are often successful at determining the mucosal margins of the lesion, they may be limited when attempting to achieve an adequate deep margin. A number of previous studies suggested that ultrasound is superior to manual palpation and other imaging modalities (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) at demarcating the margins of tongue lesions...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161047/mapping-extracellular-matrix-proteins-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues-by-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#8
Peggi M Angel, Susana Comte-Walters, Lauren E Ball, Kacey Talbot, Anand Mehta, Kelvin G M Brockbank, Richard R Drake
Collagens and elastin form the fundamental framework of all tissues and organs and their expression and post-translational processing are tightly regulated in disease and health. Due to their unique structural composition and properties, it is a recognized challenge to access these protein structures within the complex tissue microenvironment to understand how localized changes modulate tissue health. We describe a new workflow using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption /ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) with collagenase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes to access and report on spatial localization of collagen and elastin sequences in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160858/hyperplanar-morphological-clustering-of-a-hippocampus-by-using-volumetric-computerized-tomography-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Sarawut Suksuphew, Paramate Horkeaw
Background: On diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD), most existing imaging-based schemes have relied on analyzing the hippocampus and its peripheral structures. Recent studies have confirmed that volumetric variations are one of the primary indicators in differentiating symptomatic AD from healthy aging. In this study, we focused on deriving discriminative shape-based parameters that could effectively identify early AD from volumetric computerized tomography (VCT) delineation, which was previously almost intangible...
November 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160788/reliability-of-confocal-white-light-fundus-imaging-for-measurement-of-retina-pigment-epithelial-atrophy-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#10
Jianqin Lei, Mayss Al-Sheikh, Yue Shi, Akihito Uji, Wenying Fan, Siva Balasubramanian, SriniVas R Sadda
PURPOSE: To assess the reproducibility of confocal white-light color fundus photography (C-CFP) for the measurement of retinal pigment epithelial atrophy in comparison with confocal blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging and flash color fundus photography (F-CFP). METHODS: In this prospective study, eyes with age-related macular degeneration associated with evidence of retinal pigment epithelial atrophy were imaged by C-CFP, F-CFP, and FAF. Intergrader reproducibility of each modality was assessed by comparison of manual measurements by two expert graders...
November 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160778/optical-coherence-tomography-2-diagnostic-tool-to-study-peripheral-vitreoretinal-pathologies
#11
Matteo G Cereda, Federico Corvi, Mariano Cozzi, Marco Pellegrini, Giovanni Staurenghi
PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of new wide-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) device in the evaluation of mid and far retinal periphery and to show its feasibility and advantages in clinical practice. METHODS: Consecutive patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including standard OCT and new prototype OCT2 derived from Heidelberg Spectralis. RESULTS: Thirty-one eyes of 31 patients were studied with a total of 44 lesions, including 18 retinal detachments, 15 retinal holes and tears, 9 retinoschisis, and 2 retinal tufts...
November 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160741/the-best-of-both-worlds-adaptation-during-natural-tasks-produces-long-lasting-plasticity-in-perceptual-ocular-dominance
#12
Min Bao, Bo Dong, Lijuan Liu, Stephen A Engel, Yi Jiang
In human vision, one eye is usually stronger than the other. This is called ocular dominance. Extremely imbalanced ocular dominance can be found among certain patient groups, for example, in patients with amblyopia. Here, we introduce a novel method to rebalance ocular dominance. We developed an altered-reality system that subjects used to interact with the natural world, the appearance of which was changed through a real-time image process. Several daily adaptation sessions lasting 3 hr each reduced sensory ocular dominance in adults who were not diagnosed with amblyopia and improved vision in patients with amblyopia...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160621/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-heart-failure-including-coronary-imaging-numbers-facts-and-challenges
#13
EDITORIAL
Lisa Adams, Michel Noutsias, Boris Bigalke, Marcus R Makowski
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major risk factor for the incidence and progression of heart failure (HF). HF is characterized by a substantial morbidity and mortality and its lifetime risk is estimated at approximately 20% for men and women. As patients are in most cases identified only after developing overt clinical symptoms, detecting early stages of CAD and HF is of paramount importance. Due to its non-invasiveness, excellent soft-tissue contrast, high spatial resolution, and multiparametric nature, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has emerged as a promising radiation-free technique to assess a wide range of cardiovascular diseases such as CAD or HF, enabling a comprehensive evaluation of myocardial anatomy, regional and global function, and viability with the additional benefit of in vivo tissue characterization...
November 21, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160600/current-evidence-of-cannabinoid-based-analgesia-obtained-in-preclinical-and-human-experimental-settings
#14
REVIEW
J Lötsch, I Weyer-Menkhoff, I Tegeder
Cannabinoids have a long record of recreational and medical use and become increasingly approved for pain therapy. This development is based on preclinical and human experimental research summarized in this review. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are widely expressed throughout the nociceptive system. Their activation by endogenous or exogenous cannabinoids modulates the release of neurotransmitters. This is reflected in antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids in preclinical models of inflammatory, cancer and neuropathic pain, and by nociceptive hypersensitivity of cannabinoid receptor-deficient mice...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160595/advanced-anterior-segment-imaging-in-keratoconus-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Akilesh Gokul, Hans R Vellara, Dipika V Patel
Advances in anterior segment imaging have enhanced our ability to detect keratoconus in its early stages and characterise the pathologic changes that occur. Computerised corneal tomography has elucidated the alterations in shape of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces and alterations in thickness as the disease progresses. Automated screening indices such as the keratoconus screening index were developed to assist in detecting keratoconus in suspicious cases. In vivo assessment of keratoconic corneas has revealed that compromised corneal biomechanics can now be measured clinically...
November 21, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160397/mechanical-preparation-showed-superior-shaping-ability-than-manual-technique-in-primary-molars-a-micro-computed-tomography-study
#16
Lídia Regina da Costa Hidalgo, Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva, Graziela Bianchi Leoni, Jardel Francisco Mazzi-Chaves, Emily Eduardo da Silva Carvalho, Alberto Consolaro, Manoel Damião Sousa-Neto
The aim of the study was to evaluate canal preparation in primary molars with hand files, ProTaper Next and Self-Adjusting File (SAF) by 2D and 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Canals of 24 primary molars were prepared with hand files (HF), ProTaper Next (PTN) and SAF (n=8/group). The teeth were scanned before and after root canal preparation and the pre- and postoperative micro-CT images were reconstructed. Changes in 2D (area, perimeter, roundness, minor and major diameter) and 3D [volume, surface area, structure model index (SMI)] morphological parameters, as well as canal transportation and lateral perforations were evaluated (Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA; a=0...
July 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160341/dehiscences-and-fenestrations-methodological-care-necessary-to-avoid-errors-in-diagnosis-and-measurement
#17
Alberto Consolaro
The low prevalence of gingival recessions observed in orthodontic clinical practice may be assigned to the fact that in studies in which dehiscences and bone fenestrations are described as frequent, they were diagnosed based on: 1) dry skull studies; 2) areas with periosteal reflection together with flap; and 3) imaging techniques with low sensitivity to detect these defects, which have a delicate structure and function. In areas of pseudo-dehiscences and fenestrations, the periosteum and the alveolar cortical bone are very thin; also, they either have been removed during preparation of the dry specimens in the areas for analysis, or, alternatively, have not been investigated using an ideal imaging method...
September 2017: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160168/cerebral-blood-volume-lesion-extent-predicts-functional-outcome-in-patients-with-vertebral-and-basilar-artery-occlusion
#18
Fana Alemseged, Darshan G Shah, Andrew Bivard, Timothy J Kleinig, Nawaf Yassi, Marina Diomedi, Francesca Di Giuliano, Gagan Sharma, Roy Drew, Bernard Yan, Richard J Dowling, Steven Bush, Fabrizio Sallustio, Carlo Caltagirone, Nicola B Mercuri, Roberto Floris, Mark W Parsons, Christopher R Levi, Peter J Mitchell, Stephen M Davis, Bruce Cv Campbell
Background CT perfusion may improve diagnostic accuracy in posterior circulation stroke. The posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT score (pc-ASPECTS) on Computed Tomography Angiography source images (CTA-SI) predicts functional outcome in patients with basilar artery occlusion. Aims We assessed the prognostic value of pc-ASPECTS on CT perfusion in patients with vertebral and basilar artery occlusion (VBAO) in comparison with CTA-SI. Methods Whole-brain CT perfusion from consecutive stroke patients with VBAO at four stroke centers was retrospectively analyzed...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160142/structural-fat-grafting-to-improve-outcomes-of-vocal-folds-fat-augmentation-long-term-results
#19
Giovanna Cantarella, Riccardo F Mazzola, Michele Gaffuri, Elisabetta Iofrida, Pietro Biondetti, Laura V Forzenigo, Lorenzo Pignataro, Sara Torretta
Objective Evaluating the long-term outcomes of vocal fold structural fat grafting. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting University hospital. Subjects and Methods Seventy-nine dysphonic patients (16-82 years; 55 with unilateral laryngeal paralysis and 24 with vocal fold scarring) underwent vocal fold fat injection. Fat was harvested by low-pressure liposuction and then processed by centrifugation. Refined fat aliquots were placed in the vocal fold and paraglottic space in multiple tunnels to enhance graft neovascularization...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160138/a-case-of-dedifferentiated-chondrosarcoma-arising-in-the-cricoid-cartilage-that-mimicked-an-aneurysmal-bone-cyst
#20
Lixiao Chen, Ziwei Yu, Rui Jiang, Pin Dong, Bin Shen, Yu Li
Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the larynx is a rare and highly malignant tumor. We present the report of a 59-year-old man with dedifferentiated laryngeal chondrosarcoma, which was difficult to diagnose even under microscopic examination. The original diagnosis was an aneurysmal bone cyst, and the final diagnosis was established only after careful consideration of the imaging, surgical, and microscopic findings. In clinical practice, there are many similarities between dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma and aneurysmal bone cysts...
November 21, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
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