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Hemp seed

Chih-Wei Chang, Chun-Wei Tung, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Yu-Tse Wu, Mei-Chich Hsu
Hemp nuts are mature cannabis seeds obtained after hulling and stir-frying that are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating functional constipation. In this work, we screened hemp nut products, classified them, and verified the legality of consuming them. A total of 18 products were purchased from Taiwan, China and Canada. Validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed for analyzing the cannabinoid (i.e., Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol) content of the products and the concentration of urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC...
September 2, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Magali De la Cruz-Barrón, Alejandra Cruz-Mendoza, Yendi E Navarro-Noya, Victor M Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Daniel Ortíz-Gutiérrez, Daniel A Ramírez-Villanueva, Marco Luna-Guido, Cristian Thierfelder, Patrick C Wall, Nele Verhulst, Bram Govaerts, Luc Dendooven
Water infiltration, soil carbon content, aggregate stability and yields increased in conservation agriculture practices compared to conventionally ploughed control treatments at the Henderson research station near Mazowe (Zimbabwe). How these changes in soil characteristics affect the bacterial community structure and the bacteria involved in the degradation of applied organic material remains unanswered. Soil was sampled from three agricultural systems at Henderson, i.e. (1) conventional mouldboard ploughing with continuous maize (conventional tillage), (2) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter and continuous maize (direct seeding with continuous maize) and (3) direct seeding with a Fitarelli jab planter with rotation of maize sunn hemp (direct seeding with crop rotation)...
August 18, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Salvador Soler, Dionís Borràs, Santiago Vilanova, Alicia Sifres, Isabel Andújar, Maria R Figàs, Ernesto R Llosa, Jaime Prohens
Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves...
March 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Matteo Chinello, Salvatore Scommegna, Alison Shardlow, Francesca Mazzoli, Nadia De Giovanni, Nadia Fucci, Paola Borgiani, Cinzia Ciccacci, Anna Locasciulli, Mauro Calvani
We report a case of mild cannabinoid poisoning in a preschool child, after 3-week ingestion of hemp seed oil prescribed by his pediatrician to strengthen his immune system. The patient presented neurological symptoms that disappeared after intravenous hydration. A possible mild withdrawal syndrome was reported after discharge. The main metabolite of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in urine, and very low concentration of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in the ingested product. This is, as far as we know, the first report of cannabinoid poisoning after medical prescription of hemp seed oil in a preschool child...
June 14, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Incoronata Galasso, Roberto Russo, Sergio Mapelli, Elena Ponzoni, Ida M Brambilla, Giovanna Battelli, Remo Reggiani
The seed of Cannabis sativa L. is an expanding source of proteins and oil for both humans and animals. In this study, the proximate composition of a collection of hemp cultivars and accessions of different geographical origins grown under the same conditions for 1 year was analyzed in order to identify potential accessions to improve hemp cultivars. Fatty acids, tocopherols, and antinutritional components, as well as concentrations of crude protein and oil were quantified. The seed oil concentrations varied between 285 and 360 g kg(-1) dry seed (DS), while crude protein ranged between 316 and 356 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gemma Rutten, Daniel Prati, Andreas Hemp, Markus Fischer
Research in savannas has focused on tree-grass interactions, whereas tree species coexistence received little attention. A leading hypothesis to explain tree coexistence is the Janzen-Connell model, which proposes an accumulation of host-specific enemies, e.g., soil organisms. While it has been shown in several non-savanna case studies that seedlings dispersed away from the mother perform better than seedlings that stay close (home-away effect), few studies tested whether foreign seedling species can replace own seedlings under conspecific adults (replacement effect)...
February 2016: Ecology
Antonella Smeriglio, Enza M Galati, Maria T Monforte, Francesco Lanuzza, Valeria D'Angelo, Clara Circosta
The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses. From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146...
August 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Sue-Siang Teh, Alaa El-Din Bekhit, John Birch
Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v). Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%...
2014: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Binne Zwanenburg, Alinanuswe S Mwakaboko, Chinnaswamy Kannan
: Parasitic weeds of the genera Striga and Orobanche spp cause severe yield losses in agriculture, especially in developing countries and the Mediterranean. Seeds of these weeds germinate by a chemical signal exuded by the roots of host plants. The thus produced radicle attaches to the root of the host plant which then can supply nutrients to the parasite. There is an urgent need to control these weeds to ensure better agricultural production. The naturally occurring chemical signals are strigolactones (SLs), e...
January 6, 2016: Pest Management Science
X Yang, Y Balci, N J Brazee, A L Loyd, C X Hong
A novel Phytophthora species was recovered during surveys of stream and nursery irrigation water in Maryland, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia in United States. This novel species is heterothallic and all examined isolates were A1 mating type. It produced rare ornamented oogonia and amphigynous antheridia when being paired with A2 mating type testers of P. cinnamomi and P. cryptogea. Sporangia of this new species were nonpapillate and noncaducous. Thin-walled intercalary chlamydospores were abundant in hemp seed agar and carrot agar, while only rarely produced in aged cultures grown in clarified V8 juice agar...
November 27, 2015: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Xiaoli Yan, Jiajing Tang, Carolina dos Santos Passos, Alessandra Nurisso, Claudia Avello Simões-Pires, Mei Ji, Hongxiang Lou, Peihong Fan
Hemp seed is known for its content of fatty acids, proteins, and fiber, which contribute to its nutritional value. Here we studied the secondary metabolites of hemp seed aiming at identifying bioactive compounds that could contribute to its health benefits. This investigation led to the isolation of 4 new lignanamides, cannabisin M (2), cannabisin N (5), cannabisin O (8), and 3,3'-demethyl-heliotropamide (10), together with 10 known lignanamides, among which 4 was identified for the first time from hemp seed...
December 16, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sunday A Malomo, John O Onuh, Abraham T Girgih, Rotimi E Aluko
The aim of this work was to produce antihypertensive protein hydrolysates through different forms of enzymatic hydrolysis (2% pepsin, 4% pepsin, 1% alcalase, 2% alcalase, 2% papain, and 2% pepsin + pancreatin) of hemp seed proteins (HSP). The hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPHs) were tested for in vitro inhibitions of renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), two of the enzymes that regulate human blood pressure. The HPHs were then administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats and systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects measured over a 24 h period...
September 2015: Nutrients
Soheila Rezapour-Firouzi, Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Behzad Baradaran, Elyar Sadeghihokmabad, Somaiyeh Mostafaei, Mohammadali Torbati, Mahtaj Chehreh
BACKGROUND: The effect of nutrition and dietary supplements as environmental factors has been suggested as possible factors affecting both disease risk and progression in on the course of multiple sclerosis with complex genetic-risk profiles. This study was aimed to assess regulation of surface-membrane enzymes such as Delta-6-desaturase (FADS2), secretory Phospholipase A2(sPLA2) by hemp seed and evening primrose oils as well as Hot-natured dietary intervention in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients...
October 2015: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Jason Sawler, Jake M Stout, Kyle M Gardner, Darryl Hudson, John Vidmar, Laura Butler, Jonathan E Page, Sean Myles
Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C...
2015: PloS One
George D Weiblen, Jonathan P Wenger, Kathleen J Craft, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Zlatko Mehmedic, Erin L Treiber, M David Marks
Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping...
December 2015: New Phytologist
Vassilios Raikos, Garry Duthie, Viren Ranawana
The present study investigated the impact of heat treatments on the denaturation and oxidative stability of hemp seed protein during simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GID). Heat-denatured hemp protein isolate (HPI) solutions were prepared by heating HPI (2 mg/ml, pH 6.8) to 40, 60, 80 and 100 °C for 10 min. Heat-induced denaturation of the protein isolates was monitored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heating HPI at temperatures above 80 °C significantly reduced solubility and led to the formation of large protein aggregates...
September 2015: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
J Bradley Morris, Carlene Chase, Danielle Treadwell, Rosie Koenig, Alyssa Cho, Jose Pable Morales-Payan, Tim Murphy, George F Antonious
A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting...
2015: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Jana Orsavova, Ladislava Misurcova, Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova, Robert Vicha, Jiri Mlcek
Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sue-Siang Teh, Gertrud E Morlock
Cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils are healthy oils for human consumption as these are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive phytochemicals. However, bioactive information on the food intake side is mainly focused on target analysis. For more comprehensive information with regard to effects, single bioactive compounds present in the seed oil extracts were detected by effect-directed assays, like bioassays or an enzymatic assay, directly linked with chromatography and further characterized by mass spectrometry...
November 15, 2015: Food Chemistry
C Da Porto, A Natolino, D Decorti
Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography...
March 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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