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Allen human brain atlas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105773/exosomal-biomarkers-of-brain-insulin-resistance-associated-with-regional-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Roger J Mullins, Maja Mustapic, Edward J Goetzl, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
: Brain insulin resistance (IR), which depends on insulin-receptor-substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated higher pSer312-IRS-1 (ineffective insulin signaling) and lower p-panTyr-IRS-1 (effective insulin signaling) in neural origin-enriched plasma exosomes of AD patients vs. CONTROLS: Here, we hypothesized that these exosomal biomarkers associate with brain atrophy in AD. We studied 24 subjects with biomarker-supported probable AD (low CSF Aβ42 )...
January 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053035/a-high-resolution-in-vivo-atlas-of-the-human-brain-s-serotonin-system
#2
Vincent Beliveau, Melanie Ganz, Ling Feng, Brice Ozenne, Liselotte Højgaard, Patrick M Fisher, Claus Svarer, Douglas N Greve, Gitte M Knudsen
: The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a high-resolution, multidimensional, in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4) and the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). The atlas is created from molecular and structural high-resolution neuroimaging data consisting of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans acquired in a total of 210 healthy individuals...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034760/insulin-resistance-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Diehl, Roger Mullins, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
The links between systemic insulin resistance (IR), brain-specific IR, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been an extremely productive area of current research. This review will cover the fundamentals and pathways leading to IR, its connection to AD via cellular mechanisms, the most prominent methods and models used to examine it, an introduction to the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a source of biomarkers for IR and AD, and an overview of modern clinical studies on the subject. To provide additional context, we also present a novel analysis of the spatial correlation of gene expression in the brain with the aid of Allen Human Brain Atlas data...
December 13, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018170/mrna-transcriptomics-of-galectins-unveils-heterogeneous-organization-in-mouse-and-human-brain
#4
Sebastian John, Rashmi Mishra
Background: Galectins, a family of non-classically secreted, β-galactoside binding proteins is involved in several brain disorders; however, no systematic knowledge on the normal neuroanatomical distribution and functions of galectins exits. Hence, the major purpose of this study was to understand spatial distribution and predict functions of galectins in brain and also compare the degree of conservation vs. divergence between mouse and human species. The latter objective was required to determine the relevance and appropriateness of studying galectins in mouse brain which may ultimately enable us to extrapolate the findings to human brain physiology and pathologies...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913432/von-economo-neurons-and-fork-cells-a-neurochemical-signature-linked-to-monoaminergic-function
#5
Anke A Dijkstra, Li-Chun Lin, Alissa L Nana, Stephanie E Gaus, William W Seeley
The human anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortices are distinguished by 2 unique Layer 5 neuronal morphotypes, the von Economo neurons (VENs) and fork cells, whose biological identity remains mysterious. Insights could impact research on diverse neuropsychiatric diseases to which these cells have been linked. Here, we leveraged the Allen Brain Atlas to evaluate mRNA expression of 176 neurotransmitter-related genes and identified vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit θ (GABRQ), and adrenoreceptor α-1A (ADRA1A) expression in human VENs, fork cells, and a minority of neighboring Layer 5 neurons...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909009/association-of-protein-distribution-and-gene-expression-revealed-by-pet-and-post-mortem-quantification-in-the-serotonergic-system-of-the-human-brain
#6
A Komorowski, G M James, C Philippe, G Gryglewski, A Bauer, M Hienert, M Spies, A Kautzky, T Vanicek, A Hahn, T Traub-Weidinger, D Winkler, W Wadsak, M Mitterhauser, M Hacker, S Kasper, R Lanzenberger
Regional differences in posttranscriptional mechanisms may influence in vivo protein densities. The association of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging data from 112 healthy controls and gene expression values from the Allen Human Brain Atlas, based on post-mortem brains, was investigated for key serotonergic proteins. PET binding values and gene expression intensities were correlated for the main inhibitory (5-HT1A) and excitatory (5-HT2A) serotonin receptor, the serotonin transporter (SERT) as well as monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), using Spearman's correlation coefficients (rs) in a voxel-wise and region-wise analysis...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896963/exploring-brain-transcriptomic-patterns-a-topological-analysis-using-spatial-expression-networks
#7
Zhana Kuncheva, Michelle L Krishnan, Giovanni Montana
Characterizing the transcriptome architecture of the human brain is fundamental in gaining an understanding of brain function and disease. A number of recent studies have investigated patterns of brain gene expression obtained from an extensive anatomical coverage across the entire human brain using experimental data generated by the Allen Human Brain Atlas (AHBA) project. In this paper, we propose a new representation of a gene's transcription activity that explicitly captures the pattern of spatial co-expression across different anatomical brain regions...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856786/a-high-resolution-in-vivo-atlas-of-the-human-brain-s-serotonin-system
#8
Vincent Beliveau, Melanie Ganz, Ling Feng, Brice Ozenne, Liselotte Højgaard, Patrick M Fisher, Claus Svarer, Douglas N Greve, Gitte M Knudsen
: The serotonin (5-HT) system modulates many important brain functions and is critically involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. We here present a high-resolution multi-dimensional in vivo atlas of four of the human brain's 5-HT receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4) as well as of the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT). The atlas is created from molecular and structural high-resolution neuroimaging data consisting of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, acquired in a total of 210 healthy individuals...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747820/two-dimensional-enrichment-analysis-for-mining-high-level-imaging-genetic-associations
#9
Xiaohui Yao, Jingwen Yan, Sungeun Kim, Kwangsik Nho, Shannon L Risacher, Mark Inlow, Jason H Moore, Andrew J Saykin, Li Shen
Enrichment analysis has been widely applied in the genome-wide association studies, where gene sets corresponding to biological pathways are examined for significant associations with a phenotype to help increase statistical power and improve biological interpretation. In this work, we expand the scope of enrichment analysis into brain imaging genetics, an emerging field that studies how genetic variation influences brain structure and function measured by neuroimaging quantitative traits (QT). Given the high dimensionality of both imaging and genetic data, we propose to study Imaging Genetic Enrichment Analysis (IGEA), a new enrichment analysis paradigm that jointly considers meaningful gene sets (GS) and brain circuits (BC) and examines whether any given GS-BC pair is enriched in a list of gene-QT findings...
May 13, 2016: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720199/connectome-disconnectivity-and-cortical-gene-expression-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#10
Ingrid A C Romme, Marcel A de Reus, Roel A Ophoff, René S Kahn, Martijn P van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified several common risk loci for schizophrenia (SCZ). In parallel, neuroimaging studies have shown consistent findings of widespread white matter disconnectivity in patients with SCZ. METHODS: We examined the role of genes in brain connectivity in patients with SCZ by combining transcriptional profiles of 43 SCZ risk genes identified by the recent genome-wide association study of the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with data on macroscale connectivity reductions in patients with SCZ...
July 27, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718423/fine-mapping-the-effects-of-alzheimer-s-disease-risk-loci-on-brain-morphology
#11
Gennady V Roshchupkin, Hieab H Adams, Sven J van der Lee, Meike W Vernooij, Cornelia M van Duijn, Andre G Uitterlinden, Aad van der Lugt, Albert Hofman, Wiro J Niessen, Mohammad A Ikram
The neural substrate of genetic risk variants for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unknown. We studied their effect on healthy brain morphology to provide insight into disease etiology in the preclinical phase. We included 4071 nondemented, elderly participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on all gray-matter voxels for 19 previously identified, common AD risk variants. Whole-brain expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas was used to examine spatial overlap between VBM association results and expression of genes in AD risk loci regions...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354695/abaenrichment-an-r-package-to-test-for-gene-set-expression-enrichment-in-the-adult-and-developing-human-brain
#12
Steffi Grote, Kay Prüfer, Janet Kelso, Michael Dannemann
: We present ABAEnrichment, an R package that tests for expression enrichment in specific brain regions at different developmental stages using expression information gathered from multiple regions of the adult and developing human brain, together with ontologically-organized structural information about the brain, both provided by the Allen Brain Atlas. We validate ABAEnrichment by successfully recovering the origin of gene sets identified in specific brain cell-types and developmental stages...
June 26, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252636/common-genetic-variant-in-vit-is-associated-with-human-brain-asymmetry
#13
Sayed H Tadayon, Maryam Vaziri-Pashkam, Pegah Kahali, Mitra Ansari Dezfouli, Abdolhossein Abbassian
Brain asymmetry varies across individuals. However, genetic factors contributing to this normal variation are largely unknown. Here we studied variation of cortical surface area asymmetry in a large sample of subjects. We performed principal component analysis (PCA) to capture correlated asymmetry variation across cortical regions. We found that caudal and rostral anterior cingulate together account for a substantial part of asymmetry variation among individuals. To find SNPs associated with this subset of brain asymmetry variation we performed a genome-wide association study followed by replication in an independent cohort...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127328/on-the-fallacy-of-quantitative-segmentation-for-t1-weighted-mri
#14
Andrew J Plassard, Robert L Harrigan, Allen T Newton, Swati Rane, Srivatsan Pallavaram, Pierre F D'Haese, Benoit M Dawant, Daniel O Claassen, Bennett A Landman
T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) generates contrasts with primary sensitivity to local T1 properties (with lesser T2 and PD contributions). The observed signal intensity is determined by these local properties and the sequence parameters of the acquisition. In common practice, a range of acceptable parameters is used to ensure "similar" contrast across scanners used for any particular study (e.g., the ADNI standard MPRAGE). However, different studies may use different ranges of parameters and report the derived data as simply "T1-weighted"...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066588/in-silico-prioritization-based-on-coexpression-can-aid-epileptic-encephalopathy-gene-discovery
#15
Karen L Oliver, Vesna Lukic, Saskia Freytag, Ingrid E Scheffer, Samuel F Berkovic, Melanie Bahlo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of an in silico prioritization approach that was applied to 179 epileptic encephalopathy candidate genes in 2013 and to expand the application of this approach to the whole genome based on expression data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas. METHODS: PubMed searches determined which of the 179 epileptic encephalopathy candidate genes had been validated. For validated genes, it was noted whether they were 1 of the 19 of 179 candidates prioritized in 2013...
February 2016: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059078/differences-in-the-molecular-structure-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-the-cerebral-cortex-and-white-matter-an-in-silico-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-study
#16
Ádám Nyúl-Tóth, Maria Suciu, Judit Molnár, Csilla Fazakas, János Haskó, Hildegard Herman, Attila E Farkas, József Kaszaki, Anca Hermenean, Imola Wilhelm, István A Krizbai
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main interface controlling molecular and cellular traffic between the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery. It consists of cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) interconnected by continuous tight junctions, and closely associated pericytes and astrocytes. Different parts of the CNS have diverse functions and structures and may be subject of different pathologies, in which the BBB is actively involved. It is largely unknown, however, what are the cellular and molecular differences of the BBB in different regions of the brain...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054832/spatio-temporal-patterns-of-demyelination-and-remyelination-in-the-cuprizone-mouse-model
#17
Ian Tagge, Audrey O'Connor, Priya Chaudhary, Jim Pollaro, Yosef Berlow, Megan Chalupsky, Dennis Bourdette, Randy Woltjer, Mac Johnson, William Rooney
Cuprizone administration in mice provides a reproducible model of demyelination and spontaneous remyelination, and has been useful in understanding important aspects of human disease, including multiple sclerosis. In this study, we apply high spatial resolution quantitative MRI techniques to establish the spatio-temporal patterns of acute demyelination in C57BL/6 mice after 6 weeks of cuprizone administration, and subsequent remyelination after 6 weeks of post-cuprizone recovery. MRI measurements were complemented with Black Gold II stain for myelin and immunohistochemical stains for associated tissue changes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26899160/gene-co-expression-analysis-identifies-brain-regions-and-cell-types-involved-in-migraine-pathophysiology-a-gwas-based-study-using-the-allen-human-brain-atlas
#18
Else Eising, Sjoerd M H Huisman, Ahmed Mahfouz, Lisanne S Vijfhuizen, Verneri Anttila, Bendik S Winsvold, Tobias Kurth, M Arfan Ikram, Tobias Freilinger, Jaakko Kaprio, Dorret I Boomsma, Cornelia M van Duijn, Marjo-Riitta R Järvelin, John-Anker Zwart, Lydia Quaye, David P Strachan, Christian Kubisch, Martin Dichgans, George Davey Smith, Kari Stefansson, Aarno Palotie, Daniel I Chasman, Michel D Ferrari, Gisela M Terwindt, Boukje de Vries, Dale R Nyholt, Boudewijn P F Lelieveldt, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Marcel J T Reinders
Migraine is a common disabling neurovascular brain disorder typically characterised by attacks of severe headache and associated with autonomic and neurological symptoms. Migraine is caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over a dozen genetic loci associated with migraine. Here, we integrated migraine GWAS data with high-resolution spatial gene expression data of normal adult brains from the Allen Human Brain Atlas to identify specific brain regions and molecular pathways that are possibly involved in migraine pathophysiology...
April 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26882227/menga-a-new-comprehensive-tool-for-the-integration-of-neuroimaging-data-and-the-allen-human-brain-transcriptome-atlas
#19
Gaia Rizzo, Mattia Veronese, Paul Expert, Federico E Turkheimer, Alessandra Bertoldo
INTRODUCTION: Brain-wide mRNA mappings offer a great potential for neuroscience research as they can provide information about system proteomics. In a previous work we have correlated mRNA maps with the binding patterns of radioligands targeting specific molecular systems and imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) in unrelated control groups. This approach is potentially applicable to any imaging modality as long as an efficient procedure of imaging-genomic matching is provided...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26850512/measuring-specific-receptor-binding-of-a-pet-radioligand-in-human-brain-without-pharmacological-blockade-the-genomic-plot
#20
Mattia Veronese, Paolo Zanotti-Fregonara, Gaia Rizzo, Alessandra Bertoldo, Robert B Innis, Federico E Turkheimer
PET studies allow in vivo imaging of the density of brain receptor species. The PET signal, however, is the sum of the fraction of radioligand that is specifically bound to the target receptor and the non-displaceable fraction (i.e. the non-specifically bound radioligand plus the free ligand in tissue). Therefore, measuring the non-displaceable fraction, which is generally assumed to be constant across the brain, is a necessary step to obtain regional estimates of the specific fractions. The nondisplaceable binding can be directly measured if a reference region, i...
April 15, 2016: NeuroImage
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