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Early childhood neurodevelopment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923060/vitamin-d-status-and-neurodevelopment-and-growth-in-young-north-indian-children-a-secondary-data-analysis
#1
Ranadip Chowdhury, Sunita Taneja, Nita Bhandari, Ingrid Kvestad, Tor A Strand, Maharaj Kishan Bhan
BACKGROUND: Vitamin-D deficiency has been linked with impaired development in animal studies; however, the evidence from human studies is scanty. Evidence as to whether vitamin-D deficiency during early childhood affects growth is also limited and conflicting. We examined the extent to which vitamin-D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) is associated with neurodevelopment and physical growth in young children. METHODS: We used data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of daily folic acid and/ or vitamin B12 supplementation for six months in children aged 6 to 30 months conducted in Delhi, India...
September 18, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918504/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-disease-modeling-using-stem-cells
#2
REVIEW
Anita Brito, Fabiele Baldino Russo, Alysson Renato Muotri, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a variety of disorders characterized as complex lifelong neurodevelopment disabilities, which may affect the ability of communication and socialization, including typical comportments like repetitive and stereotyped behavior. Other comorbidities are usually present, such as echolalia, hypotonia, intellectual disability and difficulties in processing figured speech. Furthermore, some ASD individuals may present certain abilities, such as eidetic memory, outstanding musical or painting talents and special mathematical skills, among others...
September 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917719/polymorphisms-in-manganese-transporters-show-developmental-stage-and-sex-specific-associations-with-manganese-concentrations-in-primary-teeth
#3
Karin Wahlberg, Manish Arora, Austen Curtin, Paul Curtin, Robert O Wright, Donald R Smith, Roberto G Lucchini, Karin Broberg, Christine Austin
BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that can become neurotoxic at elevated levels with negative consequences on neurodevelopment. We have evaluated the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Mn transporter genes SLC30A10 and SLC39A8 on Mn concentrations in dentine, a validated biomarker that reflects Mn tissue concentrations early in life. METHODS: The study included 195 children with variable environmental Mn exposure. Mn concentrations in dentine representing fetal, early postnatal and early childhood developmental periods were measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
September 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917084/evaluation-of-neurodevelopment-of-children-with-congenital-hypothyroidism-by-the-denver-developmental-screening-test
#4
Ayşe Derya Buluş, Esra Tiftik
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are essential for growth and brain development in childhood. Although congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common reason for mental retardation, normal neurological development can be achieved through early and effective treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neurological development of CH patients aged 24-56 months. METHODS: The study included a total of 116 healthy control subjects and 112 patients aged 24-56 months who were diagnosed with CH during the neonatal period and were being followed up at the Pediatric Endocrinology Department, Keçiören Training and Research Hospital, between 2012 and 2015...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901887/microcytosis-is-associated-with-low-cognitive-outcomes-in-healthy-2-year-olds-in-a-high-resource-setting
#5
Elaine K McCarthy, Mairead E Kiely, Geraldine Hannon, Caroline Ahearne, Louise C Kenny, Jonathan O'B Hourihane, Alan D Irvine, Deirdre M Murray
Fe deficiency in early childhood is associated with long-term consequences for cognitive, motor and behavioural development; however explorations in healthy children from low risk, high-resource settings have been limited. We aimed to explore associations between Fe status and neurodevelopmental outcomes in low risk, healthy 2-year-olds. This study was a secondary analysis of a nested case-control subgroup from the prospective, maternal-infant Cork Babies after Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact using Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints (BASELINE) Birth Cohort Study...
September 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886240/a-review-of-diffusion-mri-of-typical-white-matter-development-from-early-childhood-to-young-adulthood
#6
Catherine Lebel, Sarah Treit, Christian Beaulieu
Understanding typical, healthy brain development provides a baseline from which to detect and characterize brain anomalies associated with various neurological or psychiatric disorders and diseases. Diffusion MRI is well suited to study white matter development, as it can virtually extract individual tracts and yield parameters that may reflect alterations in the underlying neural micro-structure (e.g. myelination, axon density, fiber coherence), though it is limited by its lack of specificity and other methodological concerns...
September 8, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864240/global-motion-perception-is-associated-with-motor-function-in-2-year-old-children
#7
Benjamin Thompson, Christopher J D McKinlay, Arijit Chakraborty, Nicola S Anstice, Robert J Jacobs, Nabin Paudel, Tzu-Ying Yu, Judith M Ansell, Trecia A Wouldes, Jane E Harding
The dorsal visual processing stream that includes V1, motion sensitive area V5 and the posterior parietal lobe, supports visually guided motor function. Two recent studies have reported associations between global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing in V5, and motor function in pre-school and school aged children. This indicates a relationship between visual and motor development and also supports the use of global motion perception to assess overall dorsal stream function in studies of human neurodevelopment...
August 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858760/sex-differences-in-sensitivity-to-prenatal-and-early-childhood-manganese-exposure-on-neuromotor-function-in-adolescents
#8
Yueh-Hsiu Chiu, Birgit Claus Henn, Hsiao-Hsien Hsu, Mathew P Pendo, Brent A Coull, Christine Austin, Giuseppa Cagna, Chiara Fedrighi, Donatella Placidi, Donald R Smith, Robert O Wright, Roberto G Lucchini, Manish Arora
INTRODUCTION: While studies have suggested that exposure to manganese (Mn) may be associated with neurodevelopment in school-age children, there is limited information on prenatal and postnatal Mn exposures and tremor or motor function in children. METHODS: We measured Mn levels in dentine of shed teeth, representing prenatal, early postnatal, and cumulative childhood exposure windows, from 195 children (predominantly right-handed, 92%) in Italy. Pursuit Aiming, Luria Nebraska Motor Battery, as well as Tremor and Sway system from Computerized Adaptive Testing System (CATSYS) were administered at 11-14 years old...
August 28, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851784/the-effects-of-vitamin-b12-supplementation-in-pregnancy-and-postpartum-on-growth-and-neurodevelopment-in-early-childhood-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Ingrid Kvestad, Merina Shrestha, Suman Ranjitkar, Sudha Basnet, Mari Hysing, Laxman Shrestha, Tor A Strand
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B12 is crucial for normal cell division and differentiation, and necessary for the development and myelination of the central nervous system. Pregnant mothers in resource poor settings are at risk for poor vitamin B12 status. Poor vitamin B12 status in infancy is linked to poor growth and neurodevelopment. Brain development starts from conception, and pregnancy is a period of rapid growth and development for the brain. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is an individually randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial in 800 pregnant Nepalese women randomised in a 1:1 ratio...
August 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827895/the-drosophila-foraging-gene-human-orthologue-prkg1-predicts-individual-differences-in-the-effects-of-early-adversity-on-maternal-sensitivity
#10
H Moriah Sokolowski, Oscar E Vasquez, Eva Unternaehrer, Dustin J Sokolowski, Stephanie D Biergans, Leslie Atkinson, Andrea Gonzalez, Patricia P Silveira, Robert Levitan, Kieran J O'Donnell, Meir Steiner, James Kennedy, Michael J Meaney, Alison S Fleming, Marla B Sokolowski
There is variation in the extent to which childhood adverse experience affects adult individual differences in maternal behavior. Genetic variation in the animal foraging gene, which encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, contributes to variation in the responses of adult fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to early life adversity and is also known to play a role in maternal behavior in social insects. Here we investigate genetic variation in the human foraging gene (PRKG1) as a predictor of individual differences in the effects of early adversity on maternal behavior in two cohorts...
April 2017: Cognitive Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822941/selenium-status-during-pregnancy-influential-factors-and-effects-on-neuropsychological-development-among-spanish-infants
#11
Rubén Amorós, Mario Murcia, Ferran Ballester, Karin Broberg, Carmen Iñiguez, Marisa Rebagliato, Helena Skröder, Llúcia González, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Sabrina Llop
Selenium (Se) has been positively associated with neurodevelopment in early life. However, its margin of safety is rather narrow, and few prospective studies have evaluated its potential neurotoxic effects at intermediate levels. We aimed to explore the association between maternal Se concentrations and child neuropsychological development, including the genetic effect modification of the Se metabolizing gene INMT. Study subjects were 650 mother-child pairs from the Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2005)...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814550/changing-neurodevelopment-at-8-years-in-children-born-extremely-preterm-since-the-1990s
#12
Jeanie L Y Cheong, Peter J Anderson, Alice C Burnett, Gehan Roberts, Noni Davis, Leah Hickey, Elizabeth Carse, Lex W Doyle
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Survival of extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) infants has increased over the last 2 decades. Equivalent reductions in developmental morbidity in early childhood have not been consistently reported. The aim of this study was to determine trends in neurodevelopmental outcomes at 8 years of age of children born EP (22-27 completed weeks' gestation) over the past 2 decades. METHODS: Population-based cohorts of all EP survivors born in the state of Victoria, Australia in 1991-1992, 1997, and 2005 were recruited at birth...
June 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750755/evening-salivary-cortisol-and-alpha-amylase-at-14months-and-neurodevelopment-at-4years-sex-differences
#13
Ainara Andiarena, Nekane Balluerka, Mario Murcia, Jesús Ibarluzea, Vivette Glover, Oscar Vegas
Stress system activity in early life can have long-term effects on neurodevelopment. The main aim of this study was to assess the association of child evening salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase basal levels at 14months of age with longer-term neuropsychological development at 4years in a low-risk population-based birth cohort derived from the INMA (Environment and Childhood) project in Spain. We included 186 parent-children pairs with information on both stress system activity and neurodevelopment. Both stress markers at 14months of age showed an association with neuropsychological development at 4years...
July 26, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735165/development-of-selective-attention-in-preschool-age-children-from-lower-socioeconomic-status-backgrounds
#14
Amanda Hampton Wray, Courtney Stevens, Eric Pakulak, Elif Isbell, Theodore Bell, Helen Neville
Although differences in selective attention skills have been identified in children from lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, little is known about these differences in early childhood, a time of rapid attention development. The current study evaluated the development of neural systems for selective attention in children from lower SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired from 33 children from lower SES and 14 children from higher SES backgrounds during a dichotic listening task...
July 4, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704672/anthropometric-measures-at-birth-and-early-childhood-are-associated-with-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-among-bangladeshi-children-aged-2-3years
#15
Jane J Lee, Kush Kapur, Ema G Rodrigues, Md Omar Sharif Ibne Hasan, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Robert O Wright, David C Bellinger, David C Christiani, Maitreyi Mazumdar
Among a cohort of children located in rural areas of Bangladesh affected by high levels of exposure to environmental metals, we investigated the associations between anthropometric measures, growth trajectory, and neurodevelopment at age 20-40months. Our study population included mothers and their children who participated in a longitudinal birth cohort study that took in place in the Pabna and Sirajdikhan areas of Bangladesh. Anthropometric measures including weight, length, and head circumference were measured at birth, age 12months, and age 20-40months...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697405/neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-italian-preterm-children-at-1year-of-corrected-age-by-bayley-iii-scales-an-assessment-using-local-norms
#16
Corinna Gasparini, Barbara Caravale, Monica Rea, Maria Franca Coletti, Valentina Tonchei, Silvia Bucci, Andrea Dotta, Mario De Curtis, Simonetta Gentile, Rosa Ferri
BACKGROUND: Premature birth is often associated with neurodevelopmental difficulties throughout childhood. In the first three years of life, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III) constitute one of the most used tools for assessing child development. Since Bayley-III original norms are based on United States (US) population, it remains uncertain whether their use in other countries (e.g., European) is appropriate. AIMS: This research aimed to examine neurodevelopment of preterm infants and full-term infants, using Bayley-III US norms in comparison to Italian (IT) norms...
July 8, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686564/asperger-syndrome-and-schizophrenia-%C3%AE-eurodevelopmental-continuum-or-separated-clinical-entities
#17
Chr Anomitri, H Lazaratou
This article is an overview of the literature on Asperger's syndrome and schizophrenia and aim to discuss their similarities and differences. Eugen Bleuler who associated the terms "schizophrenia" and "autism" a century ago, viewed autism as a form of solitude of schizophrenic patients representing withdrawal from reality. Ever since, there has been confusion as to the boundaries between these conditions. Nowadays recent research, from a variety of perspectives-genomics, neurodevelopment, psychiatry, etc. has given new information on these conditions...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665786/maternal-and-cord-blood-manganese-concentrations-and-early-childhood-neurodevelopment-among-residents-near-a-mining-impacted-superfund-site
#18
Birgit Claus Henn, David C Bellinger, Marianne R Hopkins, Brent A Coull, Adrienne S Ettinger, Rebecca Jim, Earl Hatley, David C Christiani, Robert O Wright
BACKGROUND: Environmental manganese exposure has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes among school-aged children; yet, few studies have evaluated prenatal exposure. OBJECTIVES: Our study examines associations between prenatal manganese concentrations and placental transfer of manganese with neurodevelopment in 224 2-y-old children residing near the Tar Creek Superfund Site. METHODS: We collected maternal and cord blood at delivery, measured manganese using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and assessed neurodevelopment using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651674/associations-among-prenatal-stress-maternal-antioxidant-intakes-in-pregnancy-and-child-temperament-at-age-30-months
#19
L R Lipton, K J Brunst, S Kannan, Y-M Ni, H B Ganguri, R J Wright, M Bosquet Enlow
Prenatal stress and prenatal nutrition each have demonstrable impact on fetal development, with implications for child neurodevelopment and behavior. However, few studies have examined their joint influences despite evidence of potential interactive effects. We examined associations among prenatal stress, prenatal antioxidant intakes, and child temperament in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort (N=137 mother-child dyads). In mid-pregnancy, mothers completed an assessment of recent negative life events as a measure of prenatal stress and an assessment of prenatal diet...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640520/helicobacter-pylori-seropositivity-and-childhood-neurodevelopment-the-rhea-birth-cohort-in-crete-greece
#20
Marianna Karachaliou, Leda Chatzi, Angelika Michel, Andriani Kyriklaki, Mariza Kampouri, Katerina Koutra, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Eftichia Stiakaki, Michael Pawlita, Tim Waterboer, Manolis Kogevinas, Silvia de Sanjose
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists on the association between exposure to Helicobacter pylori infection early in life, including fetal life, and neurodevelopment in childhood. METHODS: We used prospective data on 352 mother-child pairs and cross-sectional data on 674 children to assess the association of maternal and child's H. pylori seropositivity correspondingly on child's neurodevelopment at age four in the Rhea birth cohort in Crete, Greece. Blood levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies to 12 H...
June 22, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
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