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Early childhood neurodevelopment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640520/helicobacter-pylori-seropositivity-and-childhood-neurodevelopment-the-rhea-birth-cohort-in-crete-greece
#1
Marianna Karachaliou, Leda Chatzi, Angelika Michel, Andriani Kyriklaki, Mariza Kampouri, Katerina Koutra, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Eftichia Stiakaki, Michael Pawlita, Tim Waterboer, Manolis Kogevinas, Silvia de Sanjose
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists on the association between exposure to Helicobacter pylori infection early in life, including fetal life, and neurodevelopment in childhood. METHODS: We used prospective data on 352 mother-child pairs and cross-sectional data on 674 children to assess the association of maternal and child's H. pylori seropositivity correspondingly on child's neurodevelopment at age four in the Rhea birth cohort in Crete, Greece. Blood levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies to 12 H...
June 22, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625767/early-life-stress-perturbs-the-function-of-microglia-in-the-developing-rodent-brain-new-insights-and-future-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Frances K Johnson, Arie Kaffman
The role of the innate immune system in mediating some of the consequences of childhood abuse and neglect has received increasing attention in recent years. Most of the work to date has focused on the role that neuroinflammation plays in the long-term adult psychiatric and medical complications associated with childhood maltreatment. The effects of stress-induced neuroinflammation on neurodevelopment have received little attention because until recently this issue has not been studied systematically in animal models of early life stress...
June 15, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609401/randomized-controlled-trial-of-caregiver-training-for-hiv-infected-child-neurodevelopment-and-caregiver-well-being
#3
Judith K Bass, Robert Opoka, Itziar Familiar, Noeline Nakasujja, Alla Sikorskii, Jorem Awadu, Deborah Givon, Cilly Shohet, Sarah M Murray, Jura Augustinavicius, Tamar Mendelson, Michael Boivin
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection places children at neurodevelopmental risk; for young children in poverty, risk is compounded by compromised caregiving quality. The Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC) program trained caregivers on fostering daily interactions with young children. We hypothesized that MISC could (1) enhance neurodevelopment of rural Ugandan HIV-infected children and (2) improve mental health outcomes of their caregivers, which might mediate improved caregiving quality...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607066/socioeconomic-disadvantage-gestational-immune-activity-and-neurodevelopment-in-early-childhood
#4
Stephen E Gilman, Mady Hornig, Akhgar Ghassabian, Jill Hahn, Sara Cherkerzian, Paul S Albert, Stephen L Buka, Jill M Goldstein
Children raised in economically disadvantaged households face increased risks of poor health in adulthood, suggesting that inequalities in health have early origins. From the child's perspective, exposure to economic hardship may begin as early as conception, potentially via maternal neuroendocrine-immune responses to prenatal stressors, which adversely impact neurodevelopment. Here we investigate whether socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with gestational immune activity and whether such activity is associated with abnormalities among offspring during infancy...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562250/neurodevelopment-the-impact-of-nutrition-and-inflammation-during-adolescence-in-low-resource-settings
#5
Janina R Galler, John R Koethe, Robert H Yolken
Approximately 1 out of 5 children worldwide suffers from childhood malnutrition or stunting and associated health conditions, including an increased susceptibility to infections and inflammation. Due to improved early interventions, most children even in low-resource settings now survive early childhood malnutrition, yet exhibit continuing evidence of neurodevelopmental deficits, including poor school achievement and behavioral problems. These conditions are compounded in children who continue to be undernourished throughout the adolescent years...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562249/neurodevelopment-the-impact-of-nutrition-and-inflammation-during-early-to-middle-childhood-in-low-resource-settings
#6
Chandy C John, Maureen M Black, Charles A Nelson
The early to middle childhood years are a critical period for child neurodevelopment. Nutritional deficiencies, infection, and inflammation are major contributors to impaired child neurodevelopment in these years, particularly in low-resource settings. This review identifies global research priorities relating to nutrition, infection, and inflammation in early to middle childhood neurodevelopment. The research priority areas identified include: (1) assessment of how nutrition, infection, or inflammation in the preconception, prenatal, and infancy periods (or interventions in these periods) affect function in early to middle childhood; (2) assessment of whether effects of nutritional interventions vary by poverty or inflammation; (3) determination of the feasibility of preschool- and school-based integrated nutritional interventions; (4) improved assessment of the epidemiology of infection- and inflammation-related neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI); (5) identification of mechanisms through which infection causes NDI; (6) identification of noninfectious causes of inflammation-related NDI and interventions for causes already identified (eg, environmental factors); and (7) studies on the effects of interactions between nutritional, infectious, and inflammatory factors on neurodevelopment in early to middle childhood...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562248/neurodevelopment-the-impact-of-nutrition-and-inflammation-during-infancy-in-low-resource-settings
#7
Nancy F Krebs, Betsy Lozoff, Michael K Georgieff
Infancy and early childhood (ie, birth through age 24 months) represent a period of life with both exquisite opportunity and vulnerability for neurodevelopment. This is due to rapid brain development, both anatomic and functional, as well as to high nutrient requirements during a time of dependence on human milk and complementary foods. Complex interactions exist among nutrition, social, and physical environments and exposures. The newborn brain also reflects maternal exposures that occurred as the product of many interacting forces during gestation...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471442/an-antenatal-marker-of-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-infants-with-congenital-heart-disease
#8
S Siddiqui, W P Fifer, M Ordonez-Retamar, J D Nugent, I A Williams
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposures are known to alter fetal neurodevelopment and autonomic control. We aimed to explore the correlation between fetal autonomic activity, measured by fetal heart rate variability, and 18-month developmental outcome in subjects with congenital heart disease. STUDY DESIGN: From 2010 to 2013, 5 fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, 9 with transposition of the great arteries and 9 with tetralogy of Fallot were included in this prospective cohort study...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470384/first-60-fetal-in-utero-myelomeningocele-repairs-at-saint-louis-fetal-care-institute-in-the-post-moms-trial-era-hydrocephalus-treatment-outcomes-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-versus-ventriculo-peritoneal-shunt
#9
Samer K Elbabaa, Anne M Gildehaus, Matthew J Pierson, J Andrew Albers, Emanuel J Vlastos
INTRODUCTION: The published results of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) trial in 2011 showed improved outcomes (reduced need for shunting, decreased incidence of Chiari II malformation, and improved scores of mental development and motor function) in the fetal prenatal repair group compared to the postnatal group. Historically, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) remains as a controversial hydrocephalus treatment option with high failure rates in pediatric patients with a history of myelomeningocele (MMC)...
May 3, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459271/maternal-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-infant-developmental-outcomes-in-a-south-african-birth-cohort-study
#10
Nastassja Koen, Kirsty Brittain, Kirsten A Donald, Whitney Barnett, Sheri Koopowitz, Karen Maré, Heather J Zar, Dan J Stein
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and infant development in a South African birth cohort. METHOD: Data from the Drakenstein Child Health Study were analyzed. Maternal psychopathology was assessed using self-report and clinician-administered interviews; and 6-month infant development using the Bayley III Scales of Infant Development. Linear regression analyses explored associations between predictor and outcome variables...
May 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444113/prenatal-exposure-to-fever-and-infections-and-academic-performance-a-multilevel-analysis
#11
Julie Werenberg Dreier, Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff, Per Kragh Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen
Prenatal exposure to fever and infections has been linked to various neurodevelopmental disorders, but it is not yet known whether more subtle effects on neurodevelopment may exist as well. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether these early-life exposures were associated with academic performance in childhood and early adolescence. Children and mothers who were enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002 were included in this study. Information on fever and infections common in pregnancy was prospectively collected in 2 pregnancy interviews and linked with assessments of academic performance from the 2010-2013 Danish National Tests...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434427/prenatal-fish-oil-supplementation-and-early-childhood-development-in-the-upstate-kids-study
#12
K Vollet, A Ghassabian, R Sundaram, N Chahal, E H Yeung
Fish oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, which play a vital role in fetal growth and development. In utero exposure to omega-3 fatty acids is exclusively dependent on maternal nutrition. Previous studies have suggested that prenatal fish oil supplementation has positive impacts on child neurodevelopment later in life. This study examines the associations between fish oil supplementation both before pregnancy and throughout pregnancy and subsequent child development. Mother-child pairs from the Upstate KIDS Study, a birth cohort consisting of children born between 2008 and 2010, were included...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412445/methylphenidate-effects-in-the-young-brain-friend-or-foe
#13
REVIEW
Sara Loureiro-Vieira, Vera Marisa Costa, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Félix Carvalho, João Paulo Capela
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatry disorders in children and adolescents, and methylphenidate (MPH) is a first-line stimulant drug available worldwide for its treatment. Despite the proven therapeutic efficacy, concerns have been raised regarding the possible consequences of chronic MPH exposure during childhood and adolescence. Disturbances in the neurodevelopment at these crucial stages are major concerns given the unknown future life consequences...
August 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384542/gene-expression-in-blood-of-children-and-adolescents-mediation-between-childhood-maltreatment-and-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Leticia Maria Spindola, Pedro Mario Pan, Patricia Natalia Moretti, Vanessa Kiyomi Ota, Marcos Leite Santoro, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Ary Gadelha, Giovanni Salum, Gisele Gus Manfro, Jair Jesus Mari, Helena Brentani, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Elisa Brietzke, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Luis Augusto Rohde, João Ricardo Sato, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, Sintia Iole Belangero
Investigating major depressive disorder (MDD) in childhood and adolescence can help reveal the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to MDD, since early stages of disease have less influence of illness exposure. Thus, we investigated the mRNA expression of 12 genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, inflammation, neurodevelopment and neurotransmission in the blood of children and adolescents with MDD and tested whether a history of childhood maltreatment (CM) affects MDD through gene expression...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337648/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-alternating-hemiplegia-of-childhood
#15
REVIEW
Melanie Masoud, Lyndsey Prange, Jeffrey Wuchich, Arsen Hunanyan, Mohamad A Mikati
The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) and related disorders should be provided by a multidisciplinary team experienced with the spectrum of presentations of this disease, with its related disorders, with its complex and fluctuating manifestations, and with cutting edge advances occurring in the field. Involvement in research to advance the understanding of this disease and partnership with international collaborators and family organizations are also important...
February 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327185/economic-evaluation-of-interventions-delivered-by-primary-care-providers-to-improve-neurodevelopment-in-children-aged-under-5%C3%A2-years-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#16
Karen M Edmond, Natalie A Strobel, Kimberley McAuley, Elizabeth Geelhoed, Lisa Hurt
BACKGROUND: Frequently cited benefit-cost ratios suggest that interventions to improve neurodevelopment have high economic returns when implemented during pregnancy and early childhood. However, there are many challenges when primary care providers implement these interventions at scale, and it is unclear how many research studies or programmes have examined cost-effectiveness and which methods were used. There are no current scoping or systematic reviews which have assessed economic evaluations of interventions delivered by primary care providers to improve child neurodevelopment...
March 21, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321847/antenatal-corticosteroids-for-accelerating-fetal-lung-maturation-for-women-at-risk-of-preterm-birth
#17
REVIEW
Devender Roberts, Julie Brown, Nancy Medley, Stuart R Dalziel
BACKGROUND: Respiratory morbidity including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality and disability. While researching the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on premature parturition in fetal sheep in 1969, Liggins found that there was some inflation of the lungs of lambs born at gestations at which the lungs would be expected to be airless. Liggins and Howie published the first randomised controlled trial in humans in 1972 and many others followed...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191550/mapping-lifetime-brain-volumetry-with-covariate-adjusted-restricted-cubic-spline-regression-from-cross-sectional-multi-site-mri
#18
Yuankai Huo, Katherine Aboud, Hakmook Kang, Laurie E Cutting, Bennett A Landman
Understanding brain volumetry is essential to understand neurodevelopment and disease. Historically, age-related changes have been studied in detail for specific age ranges (e.g., early childhood, teen, young adults, elderly, etc.) or more sparsely sampled for wider considerations of lifetime aging. Recent advancements in data sharing and robust processing have made available considerable quantities of brain images from normal, healthy volunteers. However, existing analysis approaches have had difficulty addressing (1) complex volumetric developments on the large cohort across the life time (e...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109652/epilepsy-in-patients-with-grin2a-alterations-genetics-neurodevelopment-epileptic-phenotype-and-response-to-anticonvulsive-drugs
#19
C von Stülpnagel, M Ensslen, R S Møller, D K Pal, S Masnada, P Veggiotti, E Piazza, M Dreesmann, T Hartlieb, T Herberhold, E Hughes, M Koch, C Kutzer, K Hoertnagel, J Nitanda, M Pohl, K Rostásy, T B Haack, K Stöhr, G Kluger, I Borggraefe
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the genetic, neurodevelopmental and epileptic spectrum associated with GRIN2A alterations with emphasis on epilepsy treatment. METHODS: Retrospective study of 19 patients (7 females; age: 1-38 years; mean 10.1 years) with epilepsy and GRIN2A alteration. Genetic variants were classified according to the guidelines and recommendations of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG). Clinical findings including epilepsy classification, treatment, EEG findings, early childhood development and neurodevelopmental outcome were collected with an electronic questionnaire...
May 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107388/factors-moderating-the-relationship-between-childhood-trauma-and-premorbid-adjustment-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#20
S Kilian, J K Burns, S Seedat, L Asmal, B Chiliza, S Du Plessis, M R Olivier, M Kidd, R Emsley
Childhood trauma is a recognised risk factor for schizophrenia. It has been proposed that childhood trauma interferes with normal neurodevelopment, thereby establishing a biological vulnerability to schizophrenia. Poor premorbid adjustment is frequently a precursor to schizophrenia, and may be a manifestation of neurodevelopmental compromise. We investigated the relationship between childhood trauma and premorbid adjustment in 77 patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We also investigated possible mediating roles for other selected risk factors in the relationship...
2017: PloS One
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