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Early childhood neurodevelopment

Matthew J Brookes, Madeleine J Groom, Lucrezia Liuzzi, Ryan M Hill, Helen J F Smith, Paul M Briley, Emma L Hall, Benjamin A E Hunt, Lauren E Gascoyne, Margot J Taylor, Peter F Liddle, Peter G Morris, Mark W Woolrich, Elizabeth B Liddle
Network connectivity is an integral feature of human brain function, and characterising its maturational trajectory is a critical step towards understanding healthy and atypical neurodevelopment. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate both stationary (i.e. time averaged) and rapidly modulating (dynamic) electrophysiological connectivity, in participants aged from mid-childhood to early adulthood (youngest participant 9 years old; oldest participant 25 years old). Stationary functional connectivity (measured via inter-regional coordination of neural oscillations) increased with age in the alpha and beta frequency bands, particularly in bilateral parietal and temporo-parietal connections...
March 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Juliane Leger, Anne Forhan, Sophie Dos Santos, Beatrice Larroque, Emmanuel Ecosse, Marie Aline Charles, Barbara Heude
OBJECTIVE: Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in the offspring. No data are currently available for the offspring of patients treated early for congenital hypothyroidism(CH). The aim of this study was to investigate motor and language milestones at one year of age in a population-based registry of children born to young women with CH. DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed 110 children born to mothers with CH, and 1367 children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study prospectively, at the age of one year, with identical questionnaires...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Michael P Santa Maria, Benjamin D Hill, Joshua Kline
Lead (Pb) is a neurotoxic substance. While it is widely understood that Pb exposure in early childhood adversely impacts neurodevelopment and intelligence, other aspects of cognition that are negatively affected, and the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underlying Pb-related cognitive impairment are not widely appreciated by clinicians. This critical review gives a broad synopsis of the current literature in the field. The means by which Pb enters the body, crosses the blood-brain barrier, alters brain structure and function, and consequently impacts measurable aspects of cognition are reviewed...
March 1, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Pamela Scorza, Cristiane S Duarte, Alison E Hipwell, Jonathan Posner, Ana Ortin, Glorisa Canino, Catherine Monk
BACKGROUND: For decades, economists and sociologists have documented intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic disadvantage, demonstrating that economic, political, and social factors contribute to 'inherited hardship'. Drawing on biological factors, the developmental origins of adult health and disease model posits that fetal exposure to maternal prenatal distress associated with socioeconomic disadvantage compromises offspring's neurodevelopment, affecting short- and long-term physical and mental health, and thereby psychosocial standing and resources...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Brita Askeland Winje, Ingrid Kvestad, Srinivasan Krishnamachari, Karim Manji, Sunita Taneja, David C Bellinger, Nita Bhandari, Shruti Bisht, Anne Marie Darling, Christopher P Duggan, Wafaie Fawzi, Mari Hysing, Tivendra Kumar, Anura V Kurpad, Christopher R Sudfeld, Erling Svensen, Susan Thomas, Tor A Strand
INTRODUCTION: As many as 250 million children under the age of 5 may not be reaching their full developmental potential partly due to poor nutrition during pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Micronutrients, including vitamin B12 , are important for the development of brain structure and function; however, the timing, duration and severity of deficiencies may alter the impact on functional development outcomes. Consequently, to fully explore the effect of vitamin B12 on cognitive function, it is crucial to measure neurodevelopment at different ages, in different populations and with vitamin B12 supplementation at different times during the critical periods of neurodevelopment...
February 22, 2018: BMJ Open
Else Eising, Amaia Carrion-Castillo, Arianna Vino, Edythe A Strand, Kathy J Jakielski, Thomas S Scerri, Michael S Hildebrand, Richard Webster, Alan Ma, Bernard Mazoyer, Clyde Francks, Melanie Bahlo, Ingrid E Scheffer, Angela T Morgan, Lawrence D Shriberg, Simon E Fisher
Genetic investigations of people with impaired development of spoken language provide windows into key aspects of human biology. Over 15 years after FOXP2 was identified, most speech and language impairments remain unexplained at the molecular level. We sequenced whole genomes of nineteen unrelated individuals diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech, a rare disorder enriched for causative mutations of large effect. Where DNA was available from unaffected parents, we discovered de novo mutations, implicating genes, including CHD3, SETD1A and WDR5...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Golam M Khandaker, Christina Dalman, Nils Kappelmann, Jan Stochl, Henrik Dal, Kyriaki Kosidou, Peter B Jones, Håkan Karlsson
Importance: Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. Objectives: To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Celia O'Hare, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy
Importance: Higher resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Limited attention has been paid to early-life determinants of life-course RHR. Objective: To describe trajectories of RHR in the same individuals from age 6 to 69 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development population-based cohort of individuals who were followed up from birth in 1946 until 2015...
February 12, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Elisavet Parlapani, Charalampos Agakidis, Thomais Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi
The improved survival of preterm infants has led to increased interest regarding their health as adults. In the context of metabolic programming, the connection between perinatal and early postnatal nutrition and growth with health in later life has brought to the fore the role of catch-up growth during the first months of preterm infants' lives and its association with body fat and obesity in childhood or puberty. A state-of-the art review was conducted in order to assess the way catch-up is evaluated, in terms of timing and rate...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Wei Zhang, Li Qian, Maya Deyssenroth, Luca Lambertini, Jackie Finik, Jacob Ham, Yongling Huang, Kenji J Tsuchiya, Patricia Pehme, Jessica Buthmann, Sachiko Yoshida, Jia Chen, Yoko Nomura
Prenatal maternal stress increases the risk for negative developmental outcomes in offspring, however the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In this study, alterations in placental gene expression associated with maternal stress were examined to elucidate potential underlying epi/genetic mechanisms. Expression levels of 40 selected genes involved in regulating fetal HPA-axis and neurodevelopment were profiled in placental tissues collected from a birth cohort established around the time of Superstorm Sandy...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Marina Oktapodas Feiler, Deven Patel, Huiqi Li, Philip J Meacham, Gene E Watson, Conrad Shamlaye, Alison Yeates, Karin Broberg, Edwin van Wijngaarden
PURPOSE: To examine the association between telomere length and neurodevelopment in children. METHODS: We examined the relationship between relative telomere length (rTL) and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 9 and 30 months, and 5 years of age in children enrolled in the Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 1 (NC1). Relative telomere length was measured in cord blood and in child blood at age five. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between neurodevelopmental outcomes and rTL adjusting for relevant covariates...
January 19, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg, Michael K Georgieff
Maternal prenatal nutrition and the child's nutrition in the first 2 years of life (1000 days) are crucial factors in a child's neurodevelopment and lifelong mental health. Child and adult health risks, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, may be programmed by nutritional status during this period. Calories are essential for growth of both fetus and child but are not sufficient for normal brain development. Although all nutrients are necessary for brain growth, key nutrients that support neurodevelopment include protein; zinc; iron; choline; folate; iodine; vitamins A, D, B6 , and B12 ; and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
February 2018: Pediatrics
Maria L Allende, Emily K Cook, Bridget C Larman, Adrienne Nugent, Jacqueline M Brady, Diane Golebiowski, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Cynthia J Tifft, Richard L Proia
Sandhoff disease, one of the GM2 gangliosidoses, is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the absence of beta-hexosaminidase A and B activity and the concomitant lysosomal accumulation of its substrate, GM2 ganglioside. It features catastrophic neurodegeneration and death in early childhood. How the lysosomal accumulation of ganglioside might affect the early development of the nervous system is not understood. Recently, cerebral organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have illuminated early developmental events altered by disease processes...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Charles Gasparovic, Arvind Caprihan, Ronald A Yeo, John Phillips, Jean R Lowe, Richard Campbell, Robin K Ohls
BACKGROUND: Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are neuroprotective in cell and animal models of preterm birth. Prematurity has been shown to alter neurometabolite levels in children in studies using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that ESA treatment in premature infants would tend to normalize neurometabolites by 4-6 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children in a longitudinal study of neurodevelopment underwent MRI and 1H-MRS at approximately 4 years and 6 years of age...
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Julia Gunkel, Linda S de Vries, Marian Jongmans, Corine Koopman-Esseboom, Ingrid C van Haastert, Maria C J Eijsermans, Carolien van Stam, Bert G A van Zanten, Tom F W Wolfs, Joppe Nijman
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether preterm infants with postnatal cytomegalovirus infection develop neurologic sequelae in early childhood. METHODS: Infants <32 weeks' gestation were prospectively screened for cytomegalovirus (CMV) at term-equivalent age. Neurodevelopment was compared between CMV-positive and CMV-negative infants by using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (GMDS) at 16 months' corrected age (CA); the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition or the GMDS at 24 to 30 months' CA; and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition and Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition at 6 years of age...
February 2018: Pediatrics
Femke J Drost, Kristin Keunen, Pim Moeskops, Nathalie H P Claessens, Femke van Kalken, Ivana Išgum, Elsbeth S M Voskuil-Kerkhof, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Manon J N L Benders, Jacqueline U M Termote
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), measures of brain morphology at term equivalent age (TEA) and neurodevelopmental outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 18 infants with severe ROP (median gestational age (GA) 25.3 (range 24.6-25.9 weeks) were included in this retrospective case-control study. Each infant was matched to two extremely preterm control infants (n=36) by GA, birth weight, sex and brain injury. T2-weighted images were obtained on a 3T MRI at TEA...
January 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
Kelly A Mulder, Rajavel Elango, Sheila M Innis
DHA is an important component of neural lipids accumulating in neural tissue during development. Inadequate DHA in gestation may compromise infant development, but it is unknown whether there are lasting effects. We sought to determine whether the observed effects of fetal DHA inadequacy on infant development persist into early childhood. This follow-up study assessed children (5-6 years) whose mothers received 400 mg/d DHA or a placebo during pregnancy. Child neurodevelopment was assessed with several age-appropriate tests including the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Douglas C Dean, E M Planalp, W Wooten, C K Schmidt, S R Kecskemeti, C Frye, N L Schmidt, H H Goldsmith, A L Alexander, R J Davidson
The developing brain undergoes systematic changes that occur at successive stages of maturation. Deviations from the typical neurodevelopmental trajectory are hypothesized to underlie many early childhood disorders; thus, characterizing the earliest patterns of normative brain development is essential. Recent neuroimaging research provides insight into brain structure during late childhood and adolescence; however, few studies have examined the infant brain, particularly in infants under 3 months of age. Using high-resolution structural MRI, we measured subcortical gray and white matter brain volumes in a cohort (N = 143) of 1-month infants and examined characteristics of these volumetric measures throughout this early period of neurodevelopment...
January 5, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Jason P Bentley, Francisco J Schneuer, Samantha J Lain, Andrew J Martin, Adrienne Gordon, Natasha Nassar
OBJECTIVES: Investigate the association between severe neonatal morbidity (SNM) and child development and school performance among term infants. METHODS: The study population included term infants without major congenital conditions born between 2000 and 2007 in New South Wales, Australia, with a linked record of developmental assessment at ages 4 to 6 years in 2009 or 2012 ( n = 144 535) or school performance at ages 7 to 9 years from 2009 to 2014 ( n = 253 447)...
February 2018: Pediatrics
Celia Maria de Araujo, Andre Zugman, Walter Swardfager, Sintia Iole Nogueira Belangero, Vanessa Kiyomi Ota, Leticia Maria Spindola, Hakon Hakonarson, Renata Pellegrino, Ary Gadelha, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Pedro Mario Pan, Luciana Monteiro de Moura, Marco Del Aquilla, Felipe Almeida Picon, Edson Amaro, João Ricardo Sato, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Luis Augusto P Rohde, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Rodrigo A Bressan, Andrea Parolin Jackowski
BACKGROUND: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) has been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders and regional structural brain changes in adults, but little is known about Val66Met's effect on brain morphology during typical or atypical neurodevelopment. Windows of vulnerability to psychopathology may be associated with the different alleles of the Val66Met polymorphism during childhood and adolescence. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the effect of Val66Met on cortical thickness in MRI scans of 718 children and adolescents (6-12 years old) with typical development, and in those meeting DSM criteria for a psychiatric disorder...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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