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Early childhood neurodevelopment

Ryan J Herringa, Cory A Burghy, Diane E Stodola, Michelle E Fox, Richard J Davidson, Marilyn J Essex
BACKGROUND: Much research has focused on the deleterious neurobiological effects of childhood adversity that may underlie internalizing disorders. While most youth show emotional adaptation following adversity, the corresponding neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. METHODS: In this longitudinal community study, we examined the associations among childhood family adversity, adolescent internalizing symptoms, and their interaction on regional brain activation and amygdala/hippocampus functional connectivity during emotion processing in 132 adolescents...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Rachna Sehgal, Sheffali Gulati, Savita Sapra, Manjari Tripathi, Ravinder Mohan Pandey, Madhulika Kabra
This cross-sectional study assessed the impact of clinical epilepsy severity and pretreatment hypsarrhythmia severity on epilepsy and cognitive outcomes in treated children with West syndrome. Thirty-three children, aged 1 to 5 years, with infantile spasms were enrolled if pretreatment EEG records were available, after completion of ≥1 year of onset of spasms. Neurodevelopment was assessed by Development Profile 3 and Gross Motor Function Classification System. Epilepsy severity in the past 1 year was determined by the Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Score (E-Chess)...
August 31, 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Jacqueline F Gould, Amanda J Anderson, Lisa N Yelland, Lisa G Smithers, C Murray Skeaff, Shao J Zhou, Robert A Gibson, Maria Makrides
AIM: The association between foetal vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)] exposure and early child growth and neurodevelopment is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cord blood 25(OH)D and birth size, childhood growth and neurodevelopment. METHODS: Cord blood samples from 1040 Australian women enrolled in a randomised trial of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy were analysed for 25(OH)D using mass spectroscopy...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Yolanda Y Huang, Lucy Li, Matthew Monteleone, Lynne Ferrari, Lisa J States, James J Riviello, Steven G Kernie, Ali A Mencin, Sumit Gupta, Lena S Sun
Ongoing investigation from the Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopment Assessment (PANDA) study hopes to examine the long-term effect on cognitive and language development of a single anesthetic exposure in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. The fifth PANDA Symposium, held in April 2016, continued the mission of previous symposia to examine evidence from basic science and clinical studies on potential neurotoxic effects of anesthetics on developing brain. At the 2016 Symposium, a panel of specialists from nonsurgical pediatric disciplines including anesthesiology, radiology, neurology, gastroenterology, oncology, cardiology, and critical care reviewed use of anesthesia in their practices, including how concern over possible neurodevelopmental effects of early childhood anesthetic exposure has changed discussion with patients and families regarding risks and benefits of imaging studies and interventional procedures involving sedation or anesthesia...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Stephanie Donauer, Mekibib Altaye, Yingying Xu, Heidi Sucharew, Paul Succop, Antonia M Calafat, Jane C Khoury, Bruce Lanphear, Kimberly Yolton
Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides, which is ubiquitous, may be detrimental to neurological development. We examined 327 mother/infant pairs in Cincinnati, Ohio, between 2003 and 2006 to determine associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and neurodevelopment. Twice during pregnancy urinary concentrations of 6 common dialkylphosphates, nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, were measured. Aggregate concentrations of diethylphosphates, dimethylphosphates, and total dialkylphosphates were calculated...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Yanwei Li, Adam S Grabell, Lauren S Wakschlag, Theodore J Huppert, Susan B Perlman
Preschool (age 3-5) is a phase of rapid development in both cognition and emotion, making this a period in which the neurodevelopment of each domain is particularly sensitive to that of the other. During this period, children rapidly learn how to flexibly shift their attention between competing demands and, at the same time, acquire critical emotion regulation skills to respond to negative affective challenges. The integration of cognitive flexibility and individual differences in irritability may be an important developmental process of early childhood maturation...
August 4, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Rodrigo B Mansur, Graccielle R Cunha, Elson Asevedo, André Zugman, Maiara Zeni-Graiff, Adiel C Rios, Sumit Sethi, Pawan K Maurya, Mateus L Levandowski, Ary Gadelha, Pedro M Pan, Laura Stertz, Síntia I Belangero, Márcia Kauer-Sant' Anna, Antônio L Teixeira, Jair J Mari, Luis A Rohde, Euripedes C Miguel, Roger S McIntyre, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo A Bressan, Elisa Brietzke
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) has been consistently associated with early life mental health problems. SED has been shown to impact multiple biological systems, including the regulation of neurotrophic proteins, immune-inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, which, conversely, have been reported to be relevant to physiological and pathological neurodevelopment This study investigated the relationship between SED, different domains of psychopathology, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL6), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
2016: PloS One
Gil D Hoftman, Dibyadeep Datta, David A Lewis
Convergent evidence suggests that schizophrenia is a disorder of neurodevelopment with alterations in both early and late developmental processes hypothesized to contribute to the disease process. Abnormalities in certain clinical features of schizophrenia, such as working memory impairments, depend on distributed neural circuitry including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and appear to arise during the protracted maturation of this circuitry across childhood and adolescence. In particular, the neural circuitry substrate for working memory in primates involves the coordinated activity of excitatory pyramidal neurons and a specific population of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons (i...
June 4, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
A Modabbernia, E Velthorst, C Gennings, L De Haan, C Austin, A Sutterland, J Mollon, S Frangou, R Wright, M Arora, A Reichenberg
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence for the effects of metals on neurodevelopment, the long-term effects on mental health remain unclear due to methodological limitations. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of studying metal exposure during critical neurodevelopmental periods and to explore the association between early-life metal exposure and adult schizophrenia. METHODS: We analyzed childhood-shed teeth from nine individuals with schizophrenia and five healthy controls...
August 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Aisha S Dickerson, Mohammad H Rahbar, Amanda V Bakian, Deborah A Bilder, Rebecca A Harrington, Sydney Pettygrove, Russell S Kirby, Maureen S Durkin, Inkyu Han, Lemuel A Moyé, Deborah A Pearson, Martha Slay Wingate, Walter M Zahorodny
Lead, mercury, and arsenic are neurotoxicants with known effects on neurodevelopment. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder apparent by early childhood. Using data on 4486 children with ASD residing in 2489 census tracts in five sites of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, we used multi-level negative binomial models to investigate if ambient lead, mercury, and arsenic concentrations, as measured by the US Environmental Protection Agency National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (EPA-NATA), were associated with ASD prevalence...
July 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xavier Ferreira, Guiomar Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder, also referred to in this study as autism, is a neurodevelopmental chronic disease that manifests early in childhood by impairment in social interaction, communication and repetitive behavior. Since there are no specific biomarkers available, the diagnosis is based exclusively on clinical criteria. The purpose of the present study is to determine which are the early psychomotor development or neurodevelopmental milestones that present a significant correlation with the severity of the main symptoms of autism, development quotients, and adaptive function...
March 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Melanie H Jacobson, Dana B Barr, Michele Marcus, Andrew B Muir, Robert H Lyles, Penelope P Howards, Larissa Pardo, Lyndsey A Darrow
Thyroid hormones are essential for proper neurodevelopment in early life. There is evidence that exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) affects thyroid function, but previous studies have been inconsistent, and no studies among children have been conducted in the United States where PBDE levels are particularly high. Serum levels of seven PBDE congeners and thyroid hormones and other thyroid parameters were measured in 80 children aged 1-5 years from the southeastern United States between 2011 and 2012...
August 2016: Environmental Research
Eleni Syrgani, Konstantinos Petsios
UNLABELLED: Theme: Complex health care and chronic disease management. INTRODUCTION: Congenital heart disease (CHD) may have a very important impact on central nervous system function and neurodevelopment. PURPOSE: Critical evaluation of literature concerning the neurodevelopmental outcomes following congenital heart surgery. METHODS: Systematic review of 28 articles published after 2000 in PubMed, Scopus and CINAHL...
May 9, 2016: Nursing Children and Young People
Ellen Webb, Jake Hays, Larysa Dyrszka, Brian Rodriguez, Caroline Cox, Katie Huffling, Sheila Bushkin-Bedient
Research on air pollutant emissions associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development has grown significantly in recent years. Empirical investigations have focused on the identification and measurement of oil and gas air pollutants [e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), methane] and the influence of UOG on local and regional ambient air quality (e.g. tropospheric ozone). While more studies to better characterize spatial and temporal trends in exposure among children and newborns near UOG sites are needed, existing research suggests that exposure to air pollutants emitted during lifecycle operations can potentially lead to adverse respiratory outcomes in this population...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Espérance Kashala-Abotnes, Pépé Penghele Mumbere, Jeannette Mukanya Mishika, Ally Omba Ndjukendi, Davin Beya Mpaka, Makila-Mabe Guy Bumoko, Tharcisse Kalula Kayembe, Désiré Tshala-Katumbay, Théodore Kayembe Kazadi, Daniel Luwa E-Andjafono Okitundu
Childhood lead exposure remains a problem in developing countries, and little is known about its effects on early child neurodevelopment and temperament in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We, therefore, conducted this study to determine the association between lead exposure and the neurodevelopment and behaviour of children aged 12-24 months in Kinshasa, DRC. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2012, and parents of 104 children were invited to participate. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of each child were tested using the flame atomic spectrophotometry method...
May 10, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
In the article ''Neurodevelopment in Early Childhood Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure and Iron Intake'', which appeared in Volume 95, Issue 4 of Medicine, Dr. Young Ju Kim's name originally appeared incorrectly. The article has since been corrected online.
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Michael J Boivin, Alla Sikorskii, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Mary Muhindo, James Kapisi, Victor Bigira, Judy K Bass, Robert O Opoka, Noeline Nakasujja, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria is associated with poorer cognitive performance in African schoolchildren and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria improves cognitive outcomes. However, the developmental benefits of chemoprevention in early childhood are unknown. Early child development was evaluated as a major outcome in an open-label, randomized, clinical trial of anti-malarial chemoprevention in an area of intense, year-round transmission in Uganda. METHODS: Infants were randomized to one of four treatment arms: no chemoprevention, daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, or monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), to be given between enrollment (4-6 mos) and 24 months of age...
2016: Malaria Journal
Judit Lazary, Nora Eszlari, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors are addressed for promising anxiolytics, but human studies on genetically reduced FAAH activity, stress and affective phenotypes are scarce. We investigated the effect of a functional polymorphism of FAAH (FAAH C385A or rs324420; low FAAH activity and high anandamide concentration are associated with the A allele) together with childhood adversity on the anxious and depressive phenotypes in 858 subjects from the general population. Phenotypes were measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), the depression and anxiety subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-DEP, BSI-ANX) and the State-Trait Anxiety scales (STAI-S, STAI-T)...
June 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
I H Caspersen, M Haugen, S Schjølberg, K Vejrup, H K Knutsen, A L Brantsæter, H M Meltzer, J Alexander, P Magnus, H E Kvalem
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to dioxins and PCBs is potentially harmful to the developing fetus and may increase the risk of delayed or impaired neurodevelopment. Several studies have reported negative associations between prenatal exposure to these compounds and aspects of cognition related to language in early childhood. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to examine the association between maternal low level dietary exposure to dioxins and PCB during pregnancy and language development in 3year old children in a large group of mother-child pairs participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)...
May 2016: Environment International
Ema G Rodrigues, David C Bellinger, Linda Valeri, Md Omar Sharif Ibne Hasan, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Mostofa Golam, Molly L Kile, David C Christiani, Robert O Wright, Maitreyi Mazumdar
BACKGROUND: The people of Bangladesh are currently exposed to high concentrations of arsenic and manganese in drinking water, as well as elevated lead in many regions. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between environmental exposure to these contaminants and neurodevelopmental outcomes among Bangladeshi children. METHODS: We evaluated data from 524 children, members of an ongoing prospective birth cohort established to study the effects of prenatal and early childhood arsenic exposure in the Sirajdikhan and Pabna Districts of Bangladesh...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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