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Early childhood neurodevelopment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882772/mirnas-differentially-expressed-by-next-generation-sequencing-in-cord-blood-buffy-coat-samples-of-boys-and-girls
#1
Daneida Lizarraga, Karen Huen, Mary Combs, Maria Escudero-Fung, Brenda Eskenazi, Nina Holland
AIM: Differences in children's development and susceptibility to diseases and exposures have been observed by sex, yet human studies of sex differences in miRNAs are limited. MATERIALS & METHODS: The genome-wide miRNA expression was characterized by sequencing-based EdgeSeq assay in cord blood buffy coats from 89 newborns, and 564 miRNAs were further analyzed. RESULTS: Differential expression of most miRNAs was higher in boys. Neurodevelopment, RNA metabolism and metabolic ontology terms were enriched among miRNA targets...
November 24, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873045/the-interplay-between-early-father-involvement-and-neonatal-medical-risk-in-the-prediction-of-infant-neurodevelopment
#2
Dylan B Jackson
The current study examines the association between early father involvement and infant neurodevelopment, and whether neonatal medical risk moderates this association. Data from approximately 6000 fathers and their children were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Hierarchical regression was employed to analyze the data. The findings reveal that the association between early father involvement and infant neurodevelopment is contingent on both the timing of involvement (i...
November 22, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857130/early-life-exposure-to-edcs-role-in-childhood-obesity-and-neurodevelopment
#3
REVIEW
Joseph M Braun
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) might increase the risk of childhood diseases by disrupting hormone-mediated processes that are critical for growth and development during gestation, infancy and childhood. The fetus, infant and child might have enhanced sensitivity to environmental stressors such as EDCs due to their rapid development and increased exposure to some EDCs as a consequence of development-specific behaviour, anatomy and physiology. In this Review, I discuss epidemiological studies examining the relationship between early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, triclosan and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with childhood neurobehavioural disorders and obesity...
November 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809911/stunting-is-associated-with-blood-lead-concentration-among-bangladeshi-children-aged-2-3-years
#4
Kelsey M Gleason, Linda Valeri, A H Shankar, Md Omar Sharif Ibne Hasan, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Ema G Rodrigues, David C Christiani, Robert O Wright, David C Bellinger, Maitreyi Mazumdar
BACKGROUND: Lead toxicity is of particular public health concern given its near ubiquitous distribution in nature and established neurotoxicant properties. Similar in its ubiquity and ability to inhibit neurodevelopment, early childhood stunting affects an estimated 34 % of children under 5 in low- and middle-income countries. Both lead and stunting have been shown to be associated with decreased neurodevelopment, although the relationship between these childhood burdens is underexplored...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798752/structural-brain-alterations-of-down-s-syndrome-in-early-childhood-evaluation-by-dti-and-volumetric-analyses
#5
Hediye Pınar Gunbey, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Kerim Aslan, Arzu Ceylan Has, Methiye Gonul Ogur, Aslıhan Alhan, Lutfi Incesu
OBJECTIVES: To provide an initial assessment of white matter (WM) integrity with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the accompanying volumetric changes in WM and grey matter (GM) through volumetric analyses of young children with Down's syndrome (DS). METHODS: Ten children with DS and eight healthy control subjects were included in the study. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used in the DTI study for whole-brain voxelwise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of WM...
October 31, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789190/quantitative-analysis-of-organophosphate-insecticide-metabolites-in-urine-extracted-from-disposable-diapers-of-toddlers-in-japan
#6
Naoko Oya, Yuki Ito, Keisuke Hioki, Yuya Asai, Arisa Aoi, Yuka Sugiura, Jun Ueyama, Tomoko Oguri, Sayaka Kato, Takeshi Ebara, Michihiro Kamijima
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Epidemiological studies linking insecticide exposure to childhood neurodevelopment have been gaining global attention. Despite the rapid development of the central nervous system in early childhood, studies regarding the biological monitoring of insecticide exposure in diapered children are limited. In this study, we aimed to clarify the concentrations of organophosphate (OP) insecticide metabolites in toddler urine extracted from disposable diapers in Japan. METHODS: We recruited diapered children from the Aichi regional subcohort participants of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) at the time of their 18-month checkup...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781295/3d-cohort-study-the-integrated-research-network-in-perinatology-of-quebec-and-eastern-ontario
#7
William D Fraser, Gabriel D Shapiro, François Audibert, Lise Dubois, Jean-Charles Pasquier, Pierre Julien, Anick Bérard, Gina Muckle, Jacquetta Trasler, Richard E Tremblay, Haim Abenhaim, Michel Welt, Marie-Josée Bédard, François Bissonnette, Emmanuel Bujold, Robert Gagnon, Jacques L Michaud, Isabelle Girard, Jean-Marie Moutquin, Isabelle Marc, Patricia Monnier, Jean R Séguin, Zhong-Cheng Luo
BACKGROUND: The 3D Cohort Study (Design, Develop, Discover) was established to help bridge knowledge gaps about the links between various adverse exposures during pregnancy with birth outcomes and later health outcomes in children. METHODS: Pregnant women and their partners were recruited during the first trimester from nine sites in Quebec and followed along with their children through to 2 years of age. Questionnaires were administered during pregnancy and post-delivery to collect information on demographics, mental health and life style, medical history, psychosocial measures, diet, infant growth, and neurodevelopment...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780701/threatened-preterm-labor-is-a-risk-factor-for-impaired-cognitive-development-in-early-childhood
#8
Cristina Paules, Victoria Pueyo, Elena Martí, Susana Vilchez, Irina Burd, Pilar Calvo, Daniel Oros
BACKGROUND: Threatened preterm labor is a leading cause of hospital admission during pregnancy. Patients presenting with an episode of threatened preterm labor who deliver at term are considered to have false preterm labor. However, threatened preterm labor has been proposed as a pathological insult that is not always sufficient to induce irreversible spontaneous preterm birth but that could alter the normal course of pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate threatened preterm labor during pregnancy as a risk factor of neurodevelopmental deficits of children at 2 years of age...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777296/current-therapy-for-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-and-related-single-ventricle-lesions
#9
Richard G Ohye, Dietmar Schranz, Yves D'Udekem
Universally fatal only 4 decades ago, the progress in the 3-stage palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related single right ventricular lesions has drastically improved the outlook for these patients. Although the stage II operation (hemi-Fontan or bidirectional Glenn) and stage III Fontan procedure have evolved into relatively low-risk operations, the stage I Norwood procedure remains one of the highest-risk and costliest common operations performed in congenital heart surgery. Yet, despite this fact, experienced centers now report hospital survivals of >90% for the Norwood procedure...
October 25, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725969/enhanced-prefrontal-amygdala-connectivity-following-childhood-adversity-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-internalizing-in-adolescence
#10
Ryan J Herringa, Cory A Burghy, Diane E Stodola, Michelle E Fox, Richard J Davidson, Marilyn J Essex
BACKGROUND: Much research has focused on the deleterious neurobiological effects of childhood adversity that may underlie internalizing disorders. While most youth show emotional adaptation following adversity, the corresponding neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. METHODS: In this longitudinal community study, we examined the associations among childhood family adversity, adolescent internalizing symptoms, and their interaction on regional brain activation and amygdala/hippocampus functional connectivity during emotion processing in 132 adolescents...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582501/prognostic-utility-of-clinical-epilepsy-severity-score-versus-pretreatment-hypsarrhythmia-scoring-in-children-with-west-syndrome
#11
Rachna Sehgal, Sheffali Gulati, Savita Sapra, Manjari Tripathi, Ravinder Mohan Pandey, Madhulika Kabra
This cross-sectional study assessed the impact of clinical epilepsy severity and pretreatment hypsarrhythmia severity on epilepsy and cognitive outcomes in treated children with West syndrome. Thirty-three children, aged 1 to 5 years, with infantile spasms were enrolled if pretreatment EEG records were available, after completion of ≥1 year of onset of spasms. Neurodevelopment was assessed by Development Profile 3 and Gross Motor Function Classification System. Epilepsy severity in the past 1 year was determined by the Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Score (E-Chess)...
August 31, 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566125/association-of-cord-blood-vitamin-d-with-early-childhood-growth-and-neurodevelopment
#12
Jacqueline F Gould, Amanda J Anderson, Lisa N Yelland, Lisa G Smithers, C Murray Skeaff, Shao J Zhou, Robert A Gibson, Maria Makrides
AIM: The association between foetal vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)] exposure and early child growth and neurodevelopment is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cord blood 25(OH)D and birth size, childhood growth and neurodevelopment. METHODS: Cord blood samples from 1040 Australian women enrolled in a randomised trial of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy were analysed for 25(OH)D using mass spectroscopy...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564559/use-of-anesthesia-for-imaging-studies-and-interventional-procedures-in-children
#13
Yolanda Y Huang, Lucy Li, Matthew Monteleone, Lynne Ferrari, Lisa J States, James J Riviello, Steven G Kernie, Ali A Mencin, Sumit Gupta, Lena S Sun
Ongoing investigation from the Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopment Assessment (PANDA) study hopes to examine the long-term effect on cognitive and language development of a single anesthetic exposure in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. The fifth PANDA Symposium, held in April 2016, continued the mission of previous symposia to examine evidence from basic science and clinical studies on potential neurotoxic effects of anesthetics on developing brain. At the 2016 Symposium, a panel of specialists from nonsurgical pediatric disciplines including anesthesiology, radiology, neurology, gastroenterology, oncology, cardiology, and critical care reviewed use of anesthesia in their practices, including how concern over possible neurodevelopmental effects of early childhood anesthetic exposure has changed discussion with patients and families regarding risks and benefits of imaging studies and interventional procedures involving sedation or anesthesia...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539379/an-observational-study-to-evaluate-associations-between-low-level-gestational-exposure-to-organophosphate-pesticides-and-cognition-during-early-childhood
#14
Stephanie Donauer, Mekibib Altaye, Yingying Xu, Heidi Sucharew, Paul Succop, Antonia M Calafat, Jane C Khoury, Bruce Lanphear, Kimberly Yolton
Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides, which is ubiquitous, may be detrimental to neurological development. We examined 327 mother/infant pairs in Cincinnati, Ohio, between 2003 and 2006 to determine associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and neurodevelopment. Twice during pregnancy urinary concentrations of 6 common dialkylphosphates, nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, were measured. Aggregate concentrations of diethylphosphates, dimethylphosphates, and total dialkylphosphates were calculated...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527736/the-neural-substrates-of-cognitive-flexibility-are-related-to-individual-differences-in-preschool-irritability-a-fnirs-investigation
#15
Yanwei Li, Adam S Grabell, Lauren S Wakschlag, Theodore J Huppert, Susan B Perlman
Preschool (age 3-5) is a phase of rapid development in both cognition and emotion, making this a period in which the neurodevelopment of each domain is particularly sensitive to that of the other. During this period, children rapidly learn how to flexibly shift their attention between competing demands and, at the same time, acquire critical emotion regulation skills to respond to negative affective challenges. The integration of cognitive flexibility and individual differences in irritability may be an important developmental process of early childhood maturation...
August 4, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489945/socioeconomic-disadvantage-moderates-the-association-between-peripheral-biomarkers-and-childhood-psychopathology
#16
Rodrigo B Mansur, Graccielle R Cunha, Elson Asevedo, André Zugman, Maiara Zeni-Graiff, Adiel C Rios, Sumit Sethi, Pawan K Maurya, Mateus L Levandowski, Ary Gadelha, Pedro M Pan, Laura Stertz, Síntia I Belangero, Márcia Kauer-Sant' Anna, Antônio L Teixeira, Jair J Mari, Luis A Rohde, Euripedes C Miguel, Roger S McIntyre, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo A Bressan, Elisa Brietzke
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) has been consistently associated with early life mental health problems. SED has been shown to impact multiple biological systems, including the regulation of neurotrophic proteins, immune-inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, which, conversely, have been reported to be relevant to physiological and pathological neurodevelopment This study investigated the relationship between SED, different domains of psychopathology, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL6), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455897/layer-3-excitatory-and-inhibitory-circuitry-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-developmental-trajectories-and-alterations-in-schizophrenia
#17
REVIEW
Gil D Hoftman, Dibyadeep Datta, David A Lewis
Convergent evidence suggests that schizophrenia is a disorder of neurodevelopment with alterations in both early and late developmental processes hypothesized to contribute to the disease process. Abnormalities in certain clinical features of schizophrenia, such as working memory impairments, depend on distributed neural circuitry including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and appear to arise during the protracted maturation of this circuitry across childhood and adolescence. In particular, the neural circuitry substrate for working memory in primates involves the coordinated activity of excitatory pyramidal neurons and a specific population of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons (i...
June 4, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311101/early-life-metal-exposure-and-schizophrenia-a-proof-of-concept-study-using-novel-tooth-matrix-biomarkers
#18
A Modabbernia, E Velthorst, C Gennings, L De Haan, C Austin, A Sutterland, J Mollon, S Frangou, R Wright, M Arora, A Reichenberg
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence for the effects of metals on neurodevelopment, the long-term effects on mental health remain unclear due to methodological limitations. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of studying metal exposure during critical neurodevelopmental periods and to explore the association between early-life metal exposure and adult schizophrenia. METHODS: We analyzed childhood-shed teeth from nine individuals with schizophrenia and five healthy controls...
August 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301968/autism-spectrum-disorder-prevalence-and-associations-with-air-concentrations-of-lead-mercury-and-arsenic
#19
Aisha S Dickerson, Mohammad H Rahbar, Amanda V Bakian, Deborah A Bilder, Rebecca A Harrington, Sydney Pettygrove, Russell S Kirby, Maureen S Durkin, Inkyu Han, Lemuel A Moyé, Deborah A Pearson, Martha Slay Wingate, Walter M Zahorodny
Lead, mercury, and arsenic are neurotoxicants with known effects on neurodevelopment. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder apparent by early childhood. Using data on 4486 children with ASD residing in 2489 census tracts in five sites of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, we used multi-level negative binomial models to investigate if ambient lead, mercury, and arsenic concentrations, as measured by the US Environmental Protection Agency National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (EPA-NATA), were associated with ASD prevalence...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27285092/-autism-and-early-neurodevelopmental-milestones
#20
Xavier Ferreira, Guiomar Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder, also referred to in this study as autism, is a neurodevelopmental chronic disease that manifests early in childhood by impairment in social interaction, communication and repetitive behavior. Since there are no specific biomarkers available, the diagnosis is based exclusively on clinical criteria. The purpose of the present study is to determine which are the early psychomotor development or neurodevelopmental milestones that present a significant correlation with the severity of the main symptoms of autism, development quotients, and adaptive function...
March 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
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