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Early childhood neurodevelopment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760680/disruption-in-thyroid-signaling-pathway-a-mechanism-for-the-effect-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-child-neurodevelopment
#1
REVIEW
Akhgar Ghassabian, Leonardo Trasande
Thyroid hormones are crucial in normal brain development. Transient and mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in pregnancy is also associated with impaired neurodevelopment in the offspring (e.g., 3-4 IQ score loss in association with maternal free thyroxine in the lowest fifth percentile). While inadequate iodine intake remains the most common underlying cause of mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in vulnerable populations including pregnant women, other factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants have recently attracted increasing attention, in particular in interaction with iodine deficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746376/neruodevelopmental-outcomes-in-pre-school-children-living-with-hiv-1-subtypes-a-and-d-in-uganda
#2
Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Alla Sikorskii, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Deborah Persaud, Carrie Ziemniak, Noeline Nakasujja, Robert Opoka, Michael Boivin
BACKGROUND: HIV is a neuropathogenic virus that may result in detrimental neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes early in life. This is the first study to evaluate the effect of HIV-1 subtype on neurodevelopment of Ugandan pre-school children. METHODS: Neurodevelopment of 87 HIV-1 infected and 221 HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) Ugandan children aged 1.8 to 4.9 years was assessed using four scales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), two scales of the Color Object Association Test (COAT), and one score of the Early Childhood Vigilance Test (ECVT)...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730662/anomalous-self-experiences-markers-of-schizophrenia-vulnerability-or-symptoms-of-depersonalization-disorder-a-phenomenological-investigation-of-two-cases
#3
Tor Gunnar Værnes, Jan Ivar Røssberg, Paul Møller
BACKGROUND: Basic self-disturbance (BSD) is proposed to constitute the clinical core of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including prodromal states and schizotypy. Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) are suggested as phenotypic variants of BSD, representing markers of schizophrenia vulnerability. However, ASEs are not restricted to the schizophrenia spectrum, but may also occur in non-psychotic states like depersonalization disorder (DPD). It is unclear to what extent the prevalence and nature of ASEs are differing between the two conditions...
May 4, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727034/physical-activity-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-neurodevelopment-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Gloria Isabel Niño Cruz, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Inácio Crochemore M da Silva, Pedro Curi Hallal, Iná S Santos
BACKGROUND: Maternal physical activity (PA) during pregnancy could affect offspring's neurodevelopment. However, studies in humans in early childhood are scarce and show inconsistent results. We aimed to review the literature on the association between physical activity during pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment. METHODS: LILACS, MEDLINE and Web of Science were searched for studies published since 1977. Original studies conducted in humans, without language, country, or study type restriction, were eligible...
May 4, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667739/maternal-depressive-symptoms-during-and-after-pregnancy-and-child-developmental-milestones
#5
Soile Tuovinen, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Polina Girchenko, Jari Lipsanen, Jari Lahti, Kati Heinonen, Rebecca M Reynolds, Esa Hämäläinen, Eero Kajantie, Hannele Laivuori, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Pia M Villa, Katri Räikkönen
BACKGROUND: Maternal depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy predict poorer child neurodevelopment. The effects of timing, symptom severity, and additive influences remain unclear. METHODS: A total of 2,231 mothers of the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale biweekly up to 14 times during pregnancy and twice up to 12 months after pregnancy...
April 18, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625591/neurodevelopmental-assessment-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-early-treated-hiv-infected-children-study-protocol
#6
Renate Strehlau, Tamryn van Aswegen, Joanne Potterton
OBJECTIVE: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of children at risk of not achieving their developmental potential, attributable largely to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic coupled with negative environmental factors. Childhood developmental stimulation programmes can mitigate adverse outcomes. METHODS: Neonates testing HIV positive at birth will be initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and receive an age-appropriate stimulation program, updated at 3 monthly intervals through the first year of life...
April 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588952/gene-panel-analysis-for-nonsyndromic-cryptogenic-neonatal-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathy
#7
Cheuk-Wing Fung, Anna Ka-Yee Kwong, Virginia Chun-Nei Wong
Objective: Epileptic encephalopathy (EE) is a heterogeneous condition associated with deteriorations of cognitive, sensory and/or motor functions as a consequence of epileptic activity. The phenomenon is the most common and severe in infancy and early childhood. Genetic-based diagnosis in EE patients is challenging owing to genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of numerous monogenic disorders and the fact that thousands of genes are involved in neurodevelopment. Therefore, high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to investigate the genetic causes of non-syndromic cryptogenic neonatal/infantile EE (NIEE)...
June 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576035/cortisol-cortisone-and-bdnf-in-amniotic-fluid-in-the-second-trimester-of-pregnancy-effect-of-early-life-and-current-maternal-stress-and-socioeconomic-status
#8
Michael Deuschle, Ferdinand Hendlmeier, Stephanie Witt, Marcella Rietschel, Maria Gilles, Alberto Sánchez-Guijo, Lourdes Fañanas, Sabine Hentze, Stefan A Wudy, Rainer Hellweg
The prenatal environment shapes the offspring's phenotype; moreover, transgenerational stress and stress during pregnancy may play a role. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoids influence neurodevelopment during pregnancy, and there is evidence that BDNF in amniotic fluid is mainly of fetal origin, while the source of glucocorticoids is maternal. We tested the hypothesis that maternal early life stress, psychiatric diagnoses, anxiety, perceived stress, and socioeconomic status influence BDNF and glucocorticoid concentrations in amniotic fluid in the second trimester...
March 26, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573218/understanding-environmental-contributions-to-autism-causal-concepts-and-the-state-of-science
#9
REVIEW
Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Rebecca J Schmidt, Paula Krakowiak
The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science...
March 23, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524625/altered-temporal-stability-in-dynamic-neural-networks-underlies-connectivity-changes-in-neurodevelopment
#10
Matthew J Brookes, Madeleine J Groom, Lucrezia Liuzzi, Ryan M Hill, Helen J F Smith, Paul M Briley, Emma L Hall, Benjamin A E Hunt, Lauren E Gascoyne, Margot J Taylor, Peter F Liddle, Peter G Morris, Mark W Woolrich, Elizabeth B Liddle
Network connectivity is an integral feature of human brain function, and characterising its maturational trajectory is a critical step towards understanding healthy and atypical neurodevelopment. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate both stationary (i.e. time averaged) and rapidly modulating (dynamic) electrophysiological connectivity, in participants aged from mid-childhood to early adulthood (youngest participant 9 years old; oldest participant 25 years old). Stationary functional connectivity (measured via inter-regional coordination of neural oscillations) increased with age in the alpha and beta frequency bands, particularly in bilateral parietal and temporo-parietal connections...
July 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500308/developmental-milestones-at-one-year-for-the-offspring-of-mothers-with-congenital-hypothyroidism-a-population-based-study
#11
Juliane Léger, Anne Forhan, Sophie Dos Santos, Béatrice Larroque, Emmanuel Ecosse, Marie-Aline Charles, Barbara Heude
OBJECTIVE: Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in the offspring. No data are currently available for the offspring of patients treated early for congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The aim of this study was to investigate motor and language milestones at one year of age in a population-based registry of children born to young women with CH. DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed 110 children born to mothers with CH, and 1367 children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study prospectively, at the age of one year, with identical questionnaires...
May 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494781/lead-pb-neurotoxicology-and-cognition
#12
Michael P Santa Maria, Benjamin D Hill, Joshua Kline
Lead (Pb) is a neurotoxic substance. While it is widely understood that Pb exposure in early childhood adversely impacts neurodevelopment and intelligence, other aspects of cognition that are negatively affected, and the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underlying Pb-related cognitive impairment are not widely appreciated by clinicians. This critical review gives a broad synopsis of the current literature in the field. The means by which Pb enters the body, crosses the blood-brain barrier, alters brain structure and function, and consequently impacts measurable aspects of cognition are reviewed...
March 1, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473646/research-review-intergenerational-transmission-of-disadvantage-epigenetics-and-parents-childhoods-as-the-first-exposure
#13
Pamela Scorza, Cristiane S Duarte, Alison E Hipwell, Jonathan Posner, Ana Ortin, Glorisa Canino, Catherine Monk
BACKGROUND: For decades, economists and sociologists have documented intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic disadvantage, demonstrating that economic, political, and social factors contribute to 'inherited hardship'. Drawing on biological factors, the developmental origins of adult health and disease model posits that fetal exposure to maternal prenatal distress associated with socioeconomic disadvantage compromises offspring's neurodevelopment, affecting short- and long-term physical and mental health, and thereby psychosocial standing and resources...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472265/does-early-vitamin-b-12-supplementation-improve-neurodevelopment-and-cognitive-function-in-childhood-and-into-school-age-a-study-protocol-for-extended-follow-ups-from-randomised-controlled-trials-in-india-and-tanzania
#14
Brita Askeland Winje, Ingrid Kvestad, Srinivasan Krishnamachari, Karim Manji, Sunita Taneja, David C Bellinger, Nita Bhandari, Shruti Bisht, Anne Marie Darling, Christopher P Duggan, Wafaie Fawzi, Mari Hysing, Tivendra Kumar, Anura V Kurpad, Christopher R Sudfeld, Erling Svensen, Susan Thomas, Tor A Strand
INTRODUCTION: As many as 250 million children under the age of 5 may not be reaching their full developmental potential partly due to poor nutrition during pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Micronutrients, including vitamin B12 , are important for the development of brain structure and function; however, the timing, duration and severity of deficiencies may alter the impact on functional development outcomes. Consequently, to fully explore the effect of vitamin B12 on cognitive function, it is crucial to measure neurodevelopment at different ages, in different populations and with vitamin B12 supplementation at different times during the critical periods of neurodevelopment...
February 22, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463886/a-set-of-regulatory-genes-co-expressed-in-embryonic-human-brain-is-implicated-in-disrupted-speech-development
#15
Else Eising, Amaia Carrion-Castillo, Arianna Vino, Edythe A Strand, Kathy J Jakielski, Thomas S Scerri, Michael S Hildebrand, Richard Webster, Alan Ma, Bernard Mazoyer, Clyde Francks, Melanie Bahlo, Ingrid E Scheffer, Angela T Morgan, Lawrence D Shriberg, Simon E Fisher
Genetic investigations of people with impaired development of spoken language provide windows into key aspects of human biology. Over 15 years after FOXP2 was identified, most speech and language impairments remain unexplained at the molecular level. We sequenced whole genomes of nineteen unrelated individuals diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech, a rare disorder enriched for causative mutations of large effect. Where DNA was available from unaffected parents, we discovered de novo mutations, implicating genes, including CHD3, SETD1A and WDR5...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450471/association-of-childhood-infection-with-iq-and-adult-nonaffective-psychosis-in-swedish-men-a-population-based-longitudinal-cohort-and-co-relative-study
#16
Golam M Khandaker, Christina Dalman, Nils Kappelmann, Jan Stochl, Henrik Dal, Kyriaki Kosidou, Peter B Jones, Håkan Karlsson
Importance: Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. Objectives: To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association...
April 1, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435577/association-of-early-life-factors-with-life-course-trajectories-of-resting-heart-rate-more-than-6-decades-of-follow-up
#17
Celia O'Hare, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy
Importance: Higher resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Limited attention has been paid to early-life determinants of life-course RHR. Objective: To describe trajectories of RHR in the same individuals from age 6 to 69 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development population-based cohort of individuals who were followed up from birth in 1946 until 2015...
April 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425475/anthropometry-and-body-composition-of-preterm-neonates-in-the-light-of-metabolic-programming
#18
Elisavet Parlapani, Charalampos Agakidis, Thomais Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi
The improved survival of preterm infants has led to increased interest regarding their health as adults. In the context of metabolic programming, the connection between perinatal and early postnatal nutrition and growth with health in later life has brought to the fore the role of catch-up growth during the first months of preterm infants' lives and its association with body fat and obesity in childhood or puberty. A state-of-the art review was conducted in order to assess the way catch-up is evaluated, in terms of timing and rate...
May 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423924/timing-of-prenatal-exposure-to-trauma-and-altered-placental-expressions-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-genes-and-genes-driving-neurodevelopment
#19
W Zhang, Q Li, M Deyssenroth, L Lambertini, J Finik, J Ham, Y Huang, K J Tsuchiya, P Pehme, J Buthmann, S Yoshida, J Chen, Y Nomura
Prenatal maternal stress increases the risk for negative developmental outcomes in offspring; however, the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In the present study, alterations in placental gene expression associated with maternal stress were examined to clarify the potential underlying epi/genetic mechanisms. Expression levels of 40 selected genes involved in regulating foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurodevelopment were profiled in placental tissues collected from a birth cohort established around the time of Superstorm Sandy...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360532/the-association-between-early-life-relative-telomere-length-and-childhood-neurodevelopment
#20
Marina Oktapodas Feiler, Deven Patel, Huiqi Li, Philip J Meacham, Gene E Watson, Conrad Shamlaye, Alison Yeates, Karin Broberg, Edwin van Wijngaarden
PURPOSE: To examine the association between telomere length and neurodevelopment in children. METHODS: We examined the relationship between relative telomere length (rTL) and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 9 and 30 months, and 5 years of age in children enrolled in the Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 1 (NC1). Relative telomere length was measured in cord blood and in child blood at age five. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between neurodevelopmental outcomes and rTL adjusting for relevant covariates...
March 2018: Neurotoxicology
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