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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446020/achieving-an-extraordinary-high-organic-and-hydraulic-loadings-with-good-performance-via-an-alternative-operation-strategy-in-a-multi-stage-constructed-wetland-system
#1
Xiaohong Zhao, Yuansheng Hu, Yaqian Zhao, Lordwin Kumar
In this study, a high organic loading rate of 58-146 g BOD 5 /m 2 day with a hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 1.63 m 3 /m 2 day and retention time (RT) of 16 h was achieved to maximize the treatment capacity of a four-stage alum sludge-based constructed wetland (CW) system. An alternative operation strategy, i.e., the first stage anaerobic up-flow and the remaining stage tidal flow with effluent recirculation, was investigated to achieve the goal with good treatment performance of 82% COD, 91% BOD 5 , 92% SS, 94% NH 4 -N, and 82% TN removal...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444644/use-of-esophageal-balloon-pressure-volume-curve-analysis-to-determine-esophageal-wall-elastance-and-calibrate-raw-esophageal-pressure-a-bench-experiment-and-clinical-study
#2
Xiu-Mei Sun, Guang-Qiang Chen, Hua-Wei Huang, Xuan He, Yan-Lin Yang, Zhong-Hua Shi, Ming Xu, Jian-Xin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of esophageal pressure (Pes) depends on proper filling of the balloon. Esophageal wall elastance (Ees) may also influence the measurement. We examined the estimation of balloon-surrounding elastance in a bench model and investigated a simplified calibrating procedure of Pes in a balloon with relatively small volume. METHODS: The Cooper balloon catheter (geometric volume of 2.8 ml) was used in the present study. The balloon was progressively inflated in different gas-tight glass chambers with different inner volumes...
February 14, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443551/the-role-of-respiration-in-the-cardiovascular-response-to-orthostatic-and-mental-stress
#3
Michal Javorka, Fatima El-Hamad, Barbora Czippelova, Zuzana Turianikova, Jana Krohova, Zuzana Lazarova, Mathias Baumert
The objective of this study was to determine the response of heart rate and blood pressure variability (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, baroreflex sensitivity) to orthostatic and mental stress, focussing on causality and the mediating effect of respiration. Seventy-seven healthy young volunteers (46 f, 31 m) aged 18.4 {plus minus} 2.7 years underwent an experimental protocol comprising: supine rest, 45{degree sign} head-up tilt, recovery, and a mental arithmetic task. Heart rate variability and blood pressure variability were analysed in the time and frequency domain and modelled as a multivariate autoregressive process where the respiratory volume signal acted as an external driver...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437939/evolution-of-respiratory-function-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#4
Antonella LoMauro, Marianna Romei, Sandra Gandossini, Riccardo Pascuzzo, Simone Vantini, Maria Grazia D'Angelo, Andrea Aliverti
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), it is still to be determined if specific timepoints can be identified during the natural evolution of respiratory dysfunction from childhood to adulthood and if scoliosis, steroid therapy and nocturnal noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) have any effect on it.In a 7-year retrospective study performed on 115 DMD patients (6-24 years), evaluated once or twice per year, with 574 visits in total, evolution mean curves of spirometry, lung volumes, spontaneous breathing and thoraco-abdominal pattern (measured by optoelectronic plethysmography) parameters were obtained by nonlinear regression model analysis...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435738/alveolar-tidal-recruitment-derecruitment-and-overdistension-during-four-levels-of-end-expiratory-pressure-with-protective-tidal-volume-during-anesthesia-in-a-murine-lung-healthy-model
#5
Joao Henrique Neves Soares, Alysson Roncally Carvalho, Bruno Curty Bergamini, Maria Alice Kuster Gress, Frederico Caetano Jandre, Walter Araujo Zin, Antonio Giannella-Neto
PURPOSE: We compared respiratory mechanics between the positive end-expiratory pressure of minimal respiratory system elastance (PEEP minErs ) and three levels of PEEP during low-tidal-volume (6 mL/kg) ventilation in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. Airway pressure (P aw ), flow (F), and volume (V) were fitted by a linear single compartment model (LSCM) P aw (t) = E rs × V(t) + R rs × F(t) + PEEP or a volume- and flow-dependent SCM (VFDSCM) P aw (t) = (E 1 + E 2 × V(t)) × V(t) + (K 1 + K 2 × |F(t)|) × F(t) + PEEP, where E rs and R rs are respiratory system elastance and resistance, respectively; E 1 and E 2 × V are volume-independent and volume-dependent E rs , respectively; and K 1 and K 2 × F are flow-independent and flow-dependent R rs , respectively...
February 12, 2018: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432468/effects-of-manual-hyperinflation-clinical-practice-versus-expert-recommendation-on-displacement-of-mucus-simulant-a-laboratory-study
#6
Marcia S Volpe, Juliane M Naves, Gabriel G Ribeiro, Gualberto Ruas, Mauro R Tucci
INTRODUCTION: Manual hyperinflation (MH), a maneuver applied in mechanically ventilated patients to facilitate secretion removal, has large variation in its performance. Effectiveness of MH is usually evaluated by its capacity to generate an expiratory flow bias. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MH-and its resulting flow bias-applied according to clinical practice versus according to expert recommendation on mucus movement in a lung model simulating a mechanically ventilated patient...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417478/modeling-the-exposure-time-in-a-tidal-system-the-impacts-of-external-domain-tidal-range-and-inflows
#7
Xueping Gao, Guixia Zhao, Chen Zhang, Yan Wang
Exposure time is an important characteristic for hydrodynamics that has simultaneous impacts on the biochemical processes in tidal systems. To eliminate man-made errors, decrease computational effort, and increase simulation efficiency, exposure time was evaluated under different hydrodynamic conditions for a bay to investigate the impact of the external domain on the accuracy of the computational results for exposure time. The exposure time was explicitly defined and computed using a hydrodynamic model and tracer experiments for a set of ten external domain sizes (EDS), five external domain lengths (EDL), and three special hydrodynamic conditions...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416525/patient-specific-alterations-in-co2-cerebrovascular-responsiveness-in-acute-and-sub-acute-sports-related-concussion
#8
W Alan C Mutch, Michael J Ellis, Lawrence N Ryner, Patrick J McDonald, Marc P Morissette, Philip Pries, Marco Essig, David J Mikulis, James Duffin, Joseph A Fisher
Background: Preliminary studies suggest that sports-related concussion (SRC) is associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. Here, we use advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to measure CBF and cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR) in individual SRC patients and healthy control subjects. Methods: 15 SRC patients (mean age = 16.3, range 14-20 years) and 27 healthy control subjects (mean age = 17.6, range 13-21 years) underwent anatomical MRI, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) MRI and model-based prospective end-tidal targeting (MPET) of CO2 during blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416329/sex-specific-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-indices-to-estimate-the-severity-of-inoperable-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#9
Tian-Xiang Chen, Bigyan Pudasaini, Jian Guo, Su-Gang Gong, Rong Jiang, Lan Wang, Qin-Hua Zhao, Wen-Hui Wu, Ping Yuan, Jin-Ming Liu
Background: Sex differences in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) have been revealed in few studies. Although right heart catheterization (RHC) is the gold standard for clinical diagnosis and assessment of prognosis in pulmonary hypertension (PH), cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has been a more widely used assessment of functional capacity, disease severity, prognosis, and treatment response in PH. We hypothesized that the "sex-specific" CPET indices could estimate the severity of inoperable CTEPH...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414450/peak-circulatory-power-is-a-strong-prognostic-factor-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#10
Yi Tang, Lei Yao, Zhihong Liu, Wenlin Xie, Xiuping Ma, Qin Luo, Zhihui Zhao, Zhiwei Huang, Liu Gao, Qi Jin, Xue Yu, Changming Xiong, Xinhai Ni, Yinkun Yan, Wenwei Qi
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that peak circulatory power (peak CircP; peak oxygen uptake × peak systolic blood pressure) is a variable predictor of prognosis in patients with left heart failure. It remains unknown whether peak CircP also predicts outcome in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed IPAH who underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) from 1 January 2011 to 1 January 2014 in Fuwai Hospital were prospectively enrolled and followed for up to 66 months for cardiac events (mortality and lung transplantation)...
February 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412307/the-tidal-model-analysis-based-on-meleis-s-perspective
#11
Liane Araújo Teixeira, Ana Ruth Macedo Monteiro, Maria Vilani Cavalcante Guedes, Lúcia de Fátima da Silva, Maria Célia de Freitas
OBJECTIVE: To critically reflect on the conceptual components of the Tidal Model in the application of the mental healthcare process. METHOD: Critical analysis based on the Models of Theory Analysis, focused on the clarity and consistency of the theoretical components of the Tidal Model. RESULTS: The clarity of the theory was verified through the demonstration of the following components: functional, presuppositions, concepts and propositions...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374847/volumetric-and-reflective-device-dead-space-of-anaesthetic-reflectors-under-different-conditions
#12
Hagen Bomberg, Max Veddeler, Thomas Volk, Heinrich V Groesdonk, Andreas Meiser
Inhalation sedation is increasingly performed in intensive care units. For this purpose, two anaesthetic reflectors, AnaConDa™ and Mirus™ are commercially available. However, their internal volume (100 ml) and possible carbon dioxide reflection raised concerns. Therefore, we compared carbon dioxide elimination of both with a heat moisture exchanger (HME, 35 ml) in a test lung model. A constant flow of carbon dioxide was insufflated into the test lung, ventilated with 500 ml, 10 breaths per minute. HME, MIRUS and AnaConDa were connected successively...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367717/sensitivity-to-lunar-cycles-prior-to-the-2007-eruption-of-ruapehu-volcano
#13
Társilo Girona, Christian Huber, Corentin Caudron
A long-standing question in Earth Science is the extent to which seismic and volcanic activity can be regulated by tidal stresses, a repeatable and predictable external excitation induced by the Moon-Sun gravitational force. Fortnightly tides, a ~14-day amplitude modulation of the daily tidal stresses that is associated to lunar cycles, have been suggested to affect volcano dynamics. However, previous studies found contradictory results and remain mostly inconclusive. Here we study how fortnightly tides have affected Ruapehu volcano (New Zealand) from 2004 to 2016 by analysing the rolling correlation between lunar cycles and seismic amplitude recorded close to the crater...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364851/optimum-water-quality-monitoring-network-design-for-bidirectional-river-systems
#14
Xiaohui Zhu, Yong Yue, Prudence W H Wong, Yixin Zhang, Jianhong Tan
Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358757/validation-and-comparison-of-a-model-of-the-effect-of-sea-level-rise-on-coastal-wetlands
#15
Laura A Mogensen, Kerrylee Rogers
Models are used to project coastal wetland distribution under future sea-level rise scenarios to assist decision-making. Model validation and comparison was used to investigate error and uncertainty in the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model, a readily available model with minimal validation, particularly for wetlands beyond North America. Accurate parameterisation is required to improve the performance of the model, and indeed any spatial model. Consideration of tidal attenuation further enhances model performance, particularly for coastal wetlands located within estuaries along wave-dominated coastlines...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353261/impact-of-delivered-tidal-volume-on-the-occurrence-of-intraventricular-haemorrhage-in-preterm-infants-during-positive-pressure-ventilation-in-the-delivery-room
#16
Qaasim Mian, Po-Yin Cheung, Megan O'Reilly, Samantha K Barton, Graeme R Polglase, Georg M Schmölzer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delivery of inadvertent high tidal volume (VT) during positive pressure ventilation (PPV) in the delivery room is common. High VT delivery during PPV has been associated with haemodynamic brain injury in animal models. We examined if VT delivery during PPV at birth is associated with brain injury in preterm infants <29 weeks' gestation. METHODS: A flow-sensor was placed between the mask and the ventilation device. VT values were compared with recently described reference ranges for VT in spontaneously breathing preterm infants at birth...
January 20, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346225/validating-lung-models-using-the-asl-5000-breathing-simulator
#17
Amanda Dexter, Neil McNinch, Destiny Kaznoch, Teresa A Volsko
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to validate pediatric models with normal and altered pulmonary mechanics. METHODS: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for studies directly measuring pulmonary mechanics of healthy infants and children, infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neuromuscular disease. The ASL 5000 was used to construct models using tidal volume (VT), inspiratory time (TI), respiratory rate, resistance, compliance, and esophageal pressure gleaned from literature...
January 17, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345986/vital-signs-seismology-of-icy-ocean-worlds
#18
Steven D Vance, Sharon Kedar, Mark P Panning, Simon C Stähler, Bruce G Bills, Ralph D Lorenz, Hsin-Hua Huang, W T Pike, Julie C Castillo, Philippe Lognonné, Victor C Tsai, Alyssa R Rhoden
Ice-covered ocean worlds possess diverse energy sources and associated mechanisms that are capable of driving significant seismic activity, but to date no measurements of their seismic activity have been obtained. Such investigations could reveal the transport properties and radial structures, with possibilities for locating and characterizing trapped liquids that may host life and yielding critical constraints on redox fluxes and thus on habitability. Modeling efforts have examined seismic sources from tectonic fracturing and impacts...
January 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336083/how-sea-level-change-mediates-genetic-divergence-in-coastal-species-across-regions-with-varying-tectonic-and-sediment-processes
#19
Greer A Dolby, Ryan A Ellingson, Lloyd T Findley, David K Jacobs
Plate tectonics and sediment processes control regional continental shelf topography. We examine the genetic consequences of how glacial-associated sea-level change interacted with variable near-shore topography since the last glaciation. We reconstructed the size and distribution of areas suitable for tidal estuary formation from the Last Glacial Maximum, ~20 thousand years ago, to present from San Francisco, California, USA (~38 °N) to Reforma, Sinaloa, Mexico (~25 °N). We assessed range-wide genetic structure and diversity of three co-distributed tidal estuarine fishes (California Killifish, Shadow Goby, Longjaw Mudsucker) along ~4,600 km using mitochondrial control region and cytB sequence, and 16-20 microsatellite loci from a total of 524 individuals...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335011/generalized-estimation-of-the-ventilatory-distribution-from-the-multiple-breath-washout-a-bench-evaluation-study
#20
Gabriel Casulari Motta-Ribeiro, Frederico Caetano Jandre, Hermann Wrigge, Antonio Giannella-Neto
BACKGROUND: The multiple-breath washout (MBW) is able to provide information about the distribution of ventilation-to-volume (v/V) ratios in the lungs. However, the classical, all-parallel model may return skewed results due to the mixing effect of a common dead space. The aim of this work is to examine whether a novel mathematical model and algorithm is able to estimate v/V of a physical model, and to compare its results with those of the classical model. The novel model takes into account a dead space in series with the parallel ventilated compartments, allows for variable tidal volume (VT) and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), and does not require a ideal step change of the inert gas concentration...
January 15, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
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