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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822315/applications-of-radon-and-radium-isotopes-to-determine-submarine-groundwater-discharge-and-flushing-times-in-todos-os-santos-bay-brazil
#1
Vanessa Hatje, Karina Kammer Attisano, Marcelo Friederichs Landim de Souza, Barbara Mazzilli, Joselene de Oliveira, Tamires de Araújo Mora, William C Burnett
Todos os Santos Bay (BTS) is the 2nd largest bay in Brazil and an important resource for the people of the State of Bahia. We made measurements of radon and radium in selected areas of the bay to evaluate if these tracers could provide estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary and BTS. We found that there were a few areas along the eastern and northeastern shorelines that displayed relatively high radon and low salinities, indicating possible sites of enhanced SGD...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817508/end-tidal-co2-guided-chest-compression-delivery-improves-survival-in-a-neonatal-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest-model
#2
Justin T Hamrick, Jennifer L Hamrick, Utpal Bhalala, Jillian S Armstrong, Jeong-Hoo Lee, Ewa Kulikowicz, Jennifer K Lee, Sapna R Kudchadkar, Raymond C Koehler, Elizabeth A Hunt, Donald H Shaffner
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery improves survival over standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation after prolonged asphyxial arrest. DESIGN: Preclinical randomized controlled study. SETTING: University animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: 1-2-week-old swine. INTERVENTIONS: After undergoing a 20-minute asphyxial arrest, animals received either standard or end-tidal CO2-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816521/plume-activity-and-tidal-deformation-on-enceladus-influenced-by-faults-and-variable-ice-shell-thickness
#3
Marie Běhounková, Ondřej Souček, Jaroslav Hron, Ondřej Čadek
We investigated the effect of variations in ice shell thickness and of the tiger stripe fractures crossing Enceladus' south polar terrain on the moon's tidal deformation by performing finite element calculations in three-dimensional geometry. The combination of thinning in the polar region and the presence of faults has a synergistic effect that leads to an increase of both the displacement and stress in the south polar terrain by an order of magnitude compared to that of the traditional model with a uniform shell thickness and without faults...
August 17, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807986/a-turbine-driven-ventilator-improves-adherence-to-advanced-cardiac-life-support-guidelines-during-a-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-simulation
#4
Scott G Allen, Lara Brewer, Erik S Gillis, Nathan L Pace, Derek J Sakata, Joseph A Orr
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that increased breathing frequency during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Rescuers often hyperventilate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Current American Heart Association advanced cardiac life support recommends a ventilation rate of 8 -10 breaths/min. We hypothesized that a small, turbine-driven ventilator would allow rescuers to adhere more closely to advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines...
August 14, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807071/single-rescuer-ventilation-using-a-bag-valve-mask-with-removable-external-handle-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#5
Paul Reed, Baruch Zobrist, Monica Casmaer, Steven G Schauer, Nurani Kester, Michael D April
Introduction Ventilation with a bag valve mask (BVM) is a challenging but critical skill for airway management in the prehospital setting. Hypothesis Tidal volumes received during single rescuer ventilation with a modified BVM with supplemental external handle will be higher than those delivered using a standard BVM among health care volunteers in a manikin model. METHODS: This study was a randomized crossover trial of adult health care providers performing ventilation on a manikin. Investigators randomized participants to perform single rescuer ventilation, first using either a BVM modified by addition of a supplemental external handle or a standard unmodified BVM (Spur II BVM device; Ambu; Ballerup, Denmark)...
August 15, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794622/the-association-of-tidal-efl-with-exercise-performance-exacerbations-and-death-in-copd
#6
Bernt Boegvald Aarli, Peter Ma Calverley, Robert L Jensen, Raffaele Dellacà, Tomas Ml Eagan, Per S Bakke, Jon A Hardie
BACKGROUND: Tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFLT) is frequently found in patients with COPD and can be detected by forced oscillations when within-breath reactance of a single-breath is ≥0.28 kPa·s·L(-1). The present study explored the association of within-breath reactance measured over multiple breaths and EFLT with 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), exacerbations, and mortality. METHODS: In 425 patients, spirometry and forced oscillation technique measurements were obtained on eight occasions over 3 years...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790190/landowner-behavior-can-determine-the-success-of-conservation-strategies-for-ecosystem-migration-under-sea-level-rise
#7
Christopher R Field, Ashley A Dayer, Chris S Elphick
The human aspects of conservation are often overlooked but will be critical for identifying strategies for biological conservation in the face of climate change. We surveyed the behavioral intentions of coastal landowners with respect to various conservation strategies aimed at facilitating ecosystem migration for tidal marshes. We found that several popular strategies, including conservation easements and increasing awareness of ecosystem services, may not interest enough landowners to allow marsh migration at the spatial scales needed to mitigate losses from sea-level rise...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777612/inertial-wave-turbulence-driven-by-elliptical-instability
#8
Thomas Le Reun, Benjamin Favier, Adrian J Barker, Michael Le Bars
The combination of elliptical deformation of streamlines and vorticity can lead to the destabilization of any rotating flow via the elliptical instability. Such a mechanism has been invoked as a possible source of turbulence in planetary cores subject to tidal deformations. The saturation of the elliptical instability has been shown to generate turbulence composed of nonlinearly interacting waves and strong columnar vortices with varying respective amplitudes, depending on the control parameters and geometry...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769085/patterns-and-drivers-of-daily-bed-level-dynamics-on-two-tidal-flats-with-contrasting-wave-exposure
#9
Zhan Hu, Peng Yao, Daphne van der Wal, Tjeerd J Bouma
Short-term bed-level dynamics has been identified as one of the main factors affecting biota establishment or retreat on tidal flats. However, due to a lack of proper instruments and intensive labour involved, the pattern and drivers of daily bed-level dynamics are largely unexplored in a spatiotemporal context. In this study, 12 newly-developed automatic bed-level sensors were deployed for nearly 15 months on two tidal flats with contrasting wave exposure, proving an unique dataset of daily bed-level changes and hydrodynamic forcing...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768153/effects-of-mechanical-ventilation-on-gene-expression-profiles-in-renal-allografts-from-brain-dead-rats
#10
Maximilia C Hottenrott, Joerg Krebs, Paolo Pelosi, Thomas Luecke, Patricia R M Rocco, Carsten Sticht, Annette Breedijk, Benito Yard, Charalambos Tsagogiorgas
Pathophysiological changes of brain death (BD) are impairing distal organ function and harming potential renal allografts. Whether ventilation strategies influence the quality of renal allografts from BD donors has not been thoroughly studied. 28 adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) no brain death (NBD) with low tidal volume/low positive endexpiratory pressure (PEEP) titrated to minimal static elastance of the respiratory system (LVT/OLPEEP); 2) NBD with high tidal volume/low PEEP (HVT/LPEEP); 3) brain death (BD) with LVT/OLPEEP; and 4) BD with HVT/LPEEP...
July 30, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765493/variability-of-tidal-volume-in-patient-triggered-mechanical-ventilation-in-ards
#11
Sophie Perinel-Ragey, Loredana Baboi, Claude Guérin
BACKGROUND: Limiting tidal volume (VT) in patients with ARDS may not be achieved once patient-triggered breaths occur. Furthermore, ICU ventilators offer numerous patient-triggered modes that work differently across brands. We systematically investigated, using a bench model, the effect of patient-triggered modes on the size and variability of VT at different breathing frequencies (f), patient effort, and ARDS severity. METHODS: We used a V500 Infinity ICU ventilator connected to an ASL 5000 lung model whose compliance was mimicking mild, moderate, and severe ARDS...
August 1, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763357/variability-in-the-use-of-protective-mechanical-ventilation-during-general-anesthesia
#12
Karim S Ladha, Brian T Bateman, Timothy T Houle, Myrthe A C De Jong, Marcos F Vidal Melo, Krista F Huybrechts, Tobias Kurth, Matthias Eikermann
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether significant variation exists in the use of protective ventilation across individual anesthesia providers and whether this difference can be explained by patient, procedure, and provider-related characteristics. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 262 anesthesia providers treating 57,372 patients at a tertiary care hospital between 2007 and 2014. Protective ventilation was defined as a median positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cm H2O or more, tidal volume of <10 mL/kg of predicted body weight and plateau pressure of <30 cm H2O...
July 28, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761996/discrepancy-between-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-comparisons-of-forced-oscillation-devices
#13
Sabine C Zimmermann, Joanna C Watts, Amy Bertolin, Kanika Jetmalani, Gregory G King, Cindy Thamrin
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is an emerging clinical lung function test, with commercial devices becoming increasingly available. However comparability across existing devices has not been established. We evaluated in vivo and in vitro measurements made using three commercial devices against a custom-built device (WIMR): Resmon Pro Diary (Restech srl, Italy), tremoFlo C-100 (Thorasys Medical Systems, Canada), Jaeger Masterscope CT IOS (CareFusion, Hoechberg, Germany). Respiratory system resistance Rrs and reactance Xrs at 5 Hz were examined in twelve healthy subjects (mean age 33 ± 11 years, 7 males), and in two test standards of known resistance and reactance...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760461/effect-of-dead-space-on-breathing-stability-at-exercise-in-hypoxia
#14
Eric Hermand, François J Lhuissier, Jean-Paul Richalet
Recent studies have shown that normal subjects exhibit periodic breathing when submitted to concomitant environmental (hypoxia) and physiological (exercise) stresses. A mathematical model including mass balance equations confirmed the short period of ventilatory oscillations and pointed out an important role of dead space in the genesis of these phenomena. Ten healthy subjects performed mild exercise on a cycloergometer in different conditions: rest/exercise, normoxia/hypoxia and no added dead space/added dead space (aDS)...
July 29, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759484/impact-of-different-ventilation-strategies-on-driving-pressure-mechanical-power-and-biological-markers-during-open-abdominal-surgery-in-rats
#15
Lígia de A Maia, Cynthia S Samary, Milena V Oliveira, Cintia L Santos, Robert Huhle, Vera L Capelozzi, Marcelo M Morales, Marcus J Schulz, Marcelo G Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Pedro L Silva, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative mechanical ventilation may yield lung injury. To date, there is no consensus regarding the best ventilator strategy for abdominal surgery. We aimed to investigate the impact of the mechanical ventilation strategies used in 2 recent trials (Intraoperative Protective Ventilation [IMPROVE] trial and Protective Ventilation using High versus Low PEEP [PROVHILO] trial) on driving pressure (ΔPRS), mechanical power, and lung damage in a model of open abdominal surgery...
July 27, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751866/ventilatory-efficiency-in-children-and-adolescents-born-extremely-preterm
#16
Julie Hestnes, Hedda Hoel, Ole J Risa, Hanna O Romstøl, Ola Røksund, Bente Frisk, Einar Thorsen, Thomas Halvorsen, Hege H Clemm
Purpose: Children and adolescents born extremely preterm (EP) have lower dynamic lung volumes and gas transfer capacity than subjects born at term. Most studies also report lower aerobic capacity. We hypothesized that ventilatory efficiency was poorer and that breathing patterns differed in EP-born compared to term-born individuals. Methods: Two area-based cohorts of participants born with gestational age ≤28 weeks or birth weight ≤1000 g in 1982-85 (n = 46) and 1991-92 (n = 35) were compared with individually matched controls born at term...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750330/modelling-the-transport-and-decay-processes-of-microbial-tracers-in-a-macro-tidal-estuary
#17
Amyrhul Abu-Bakar, Reza Ahmadian, Roger A Falconer
The Loughor Estuary is a macro-tidal coastal basin, located along the Bristol Channel, in the South West of the U.K. The maximum spring tidal range in the estuary is up to 7.5 m, near Burry Port Harbour. This estuarine region can experience severe coastal flooding during high spring tides, including extreme flooding of the intertidal saltmarshes at Llanrhidian, as well as the lower industrial and residential areas at Llanelli and Gowerton. The water quality of this estuarine basin needs to comply with the designated standards for safe recreational bathing and shellfish harvesting industries...
July 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742775/estimation-of-stroke-volume-and-stroke-volume-changes-by-electrical-impedance-tomography
#18
Fernando José da Silva Ramos, André Hovnanian, Rogério Souza, Luciano C P Azevedo, Marcelo B P Amato, Eduardo L V Costa
BACKGROUND: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive imaging method that identifies changes in air and blood volume based on thoracic impedance changes. Recently, there has been growing interest in EIT to measure stroke volume (SV). The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) to evaluate the ability of systolic impedance variations (ΔZsys) to track changes in SV in relation to a baseline condition; (2) to assess the relationship of ΔZsys and SV in experimental subjects; and (3) to identify the influence of body dimensions on the relationship between ΔZsys and SV...
July 24, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742723/supraglottic-atomization-of-surfactant-in-spontaneously-breathing-lambs-receiving-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#19
Ilaria Milesi, David G Tingay, Anna Lavizzari, Federico Bianco, Emanuela Zannin, Paolo Tagliabue, Fabio Mosca, Maria Luisa Ventura, Anushi Rajapaksa, Elizabeth J Perkins, Don Black, Marco Di Castri, Magdy Sourial, Gerhard Pohlmann, Raffaele L Dellaca'
OBJECTIVES: To determine the short-term tolerance, efficacy, and lung deposition of supraglottic atomized surfactant in spontaneously breathing lambs receiving continuous positive airway pressure. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized animal study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two preterm lambs on continuous positive airway pressure (132 ± 1 d gestational age). INTERVENTIONS: Animals receiving continuous positive airway pressure via binasal prongs at 8 cm H2O were randomized to receive atomized surfactant at approximately 60-minute of life (atom; n = 15) or not (control; n = 7)...
July 22, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740164/raised-volume-forced-expiratory-flow-volume-curve-in-healthy-taiwanese-infants
#20
Shen-Hao Lai, Sui-Ling Liao, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Ming-Han Tsai, Man-Chin Hua, Chih-Yung Chiu, Kuo-Wei Yeh, Jing-Long Huang
The raised-volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RVRTC) manoeuvre has been applied to obtain full forced expiratory flow-volume curves in infants. No reference data are available for Asian populations. This study was conducted to establish predictive reference equations for Taiwanese infants. Full-term infants without any chronic disease or major anomaly were enrolled from this cohort study. Full forced expiratory flow-volume curves were acquired using RVRTC manoeuvres through Jaeger's system. Tidal breath analysis, passive respiratory mechanics, and tidal forced expiratory flow-volume curves were performed and collected at the same measurement...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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