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Isha Nasa, Scott F Rusin, Arminja N Kettenbach, Greg B Moorhead
Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a highly conserved protein phosphatase that performs most of the serine- and threonine-dephosphorylation reactions in eukaryotes and opposes the actions of a diverse set of serine and threonine (Ser-Thr) protein kinases. PP1 gains substrate specificity through binding to a large number (>200) of regulatory proteins that control PP1 localization, activity, and interactions with substrates. PP1 recognizes the well-characterized RVxF binding motif that is present in many of these regulatory proteins, thus generating a multitude of distinct PP1 holoenzymes...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
Arminja N Kettenbach, Kate A Schlosser, Scott P Lyons, Isha Nasa, Jiang Gui, Mark E Adamo, Scott A Gerber
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is an essential protein kinase that promotes faithful mitotic progression in eukaryotes. The subcellular localization and substrate interactions of Plk1 are tightly controlled and require its binding to phosphorylated residues. To identify phosphorylation-dependent interactions within the Plk1 network in human mitotic cells, we performed quantitative proteomics on HeLa cells cultured with kinase inhibitors or expressing a Plk1 mutant that was deficient in phosphorylation-dependent substrate binding...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
Carina Pals, Anastasios Sarampalis, Mart van Dijk, Deniz Başkent
OBJECTIVES: Residual acoustic hearing in electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) can benefit cochlear implant (CI) users in increased sound quality, speech intelligibility, and improved tolerance to noise. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the low-pass-filtered acoustic speech in simulated EAS can provide the additional benefit of reducing listening effort for the spectrotemporally degraded signal of noise-band-vocoded speech. DESIGN: Listening effort was investigated using a dual-task paradigm as a behavioral measure, and the NASA Task Load indeX as a subjective self-report measure...
May 11, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Vanessa Maldonado, Patricio Javier Espinoza-Montero, Cory A Rusinek, Greg M Swain
The performance of a boron-doped diamond disk and a planar diamond thin-film electrode was compared for the anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Ag(I). The polished diamond disk electrode is more flexible than the planar diamond film as the former is compatible with most electrochemical cell designs including those incorporating magnetic stirring. Additionally, mechanical polishing and surface cleaning are simpler to execute. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was used to detect Ag(I) in standard solutions after optimization of the deposition potential, deposition time and scan rate...
May 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jeffrey C Andrews-Hanna, James W Head, Brandon Johnson, James T Keane, Walter S Kiefer, Patrick J McGovern, Gregory A Neumann, Mark A Wieczorek, Maria T Zuber
The Orientale basin is the youngest and best-preserved multiring impact basin on the Moon, having experienced only modest modification by subsequent impacts and volcanism. Orientale is often treated as the type example of a multiring basin, with three prominent rings outside of the inner depression: the Inner Rook Montes, the Outer Rook Montes, and the Cordillera. Here we use gravity data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission to reveal the subsurface structure of Orientale and its ring system...
August 2018: Icarus
Frederico Kiffer, Alexis K Howe, Hannah Carr, Jing Wang, Tyler Alexander, Julie E Anderson, Thomas Groves, John W Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
NASA's Missions to Mars and beyond will expose flight crews to potentially dangerous levels of charged-particle radiation. Of all charged nuclei, 1 H is the most abundant charged particle in both the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) spectra. There are currently no functional spacecraft shielding materials that are able to mitigate the charged-particle radiation encountered in space. Recent studies have demonstrated cognitive injuries due to high-dose 1 H exposures in rodents. Our study investigated the effects of 1 H irradiation on neuronal morphology in the hippocampus of adult male mice...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
David C Scofield, Jeffrey D Rytlewski, Paul Childress, Kishan Shah, Aamir Tucker, Faisal Khan, Jessica Peveler, Ding Li, Todd O McKinley, Tien-Min G Chu, Debra L Hickman, Melissa A Kacena
This study was initiated as a component of a larger undertaking designed to study bone healing in microgravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Spaceflight experimentation introduces multiple challenges not seen in ground studies, especially with regard to physical space, limited resources, and inability to easily reproduce results. Together, these can lead to diminished statistical power and increased risk of failure. It is because of the limited space, and need for improved statistical power by increasing sample size over historical numbers, NASA studies involving mice require housing mice at densities higher than recommended in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Research Council, 2011)...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
L W Townsend, J H Adams, S R Blattnig, M S Clowdsley, D J Fry, I Jun, C D McLeod, J I Minow, D F Moore, J W Norbury, R B Norman, D V Reames, N A Schwadron, E J Semones, R C Singleterry, T C Slaba, C M Werneth, M A Xapsos
Protecting spacecraft crews from energetic space radiations that pose both chronic and acute health risks is a critical issue for future missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Chronic health risks are possible from both galactic cosmic ray and solar energetic particle event (SPE) exposures. However, SPE exposures also can pose significant short term risks including, if dose levels are high enough, acute radiation syndrome effects that can be mission- or life-threatening. In order to address the reduction of short term risks to spaceflight crews from SPEs, we have developed recommendations to NASA for a design-standard SPE to be used as the basis for evaluating the adequacy of proposed radiation shelters for cislunar missions beyond LEO...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
James E Warner, Ryan B Norman, Steve R Blattnig
The deterministic radiation transport code HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) was developed by NASA to study the effects of cosmic radiation on astronauts and instrumentation shielded by various materials. This work presents an analysis of computed differential flux from HZETRN compared with measurement data from three balloon-based experiments over a range of atmospheric depths, particle types, and energies. Model uncertainties were quantified using an interval-based validation metric that takes into account measurement uncertainty both in the flux and the energy at which it was measured...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Paul Voosen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Science
K B Chin, I Chi, J Pasalic, C-K Huang, Laura M Barge
Portable, low power, yet ultra-sensitive life detection instrumentations are vital to future astrobiology flight programs at NASA. In this study, initial attempts to characterize amino acids in an aqueous environment by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using polarizable (blocking) electrodes in order to establish a means of detection via their electrical properties. Seven amino acids were chosen due to their scientific importance in demonstrating sensitivity levels in the range of part per billion concentration...
April 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Srikanth Ayyala Somayajula, Emmanuel Devred, Simon Bélanger, David Antoine, V Vellucci, Marcel Babin
In this study, we report on the performance of satellite-based photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) algorithms used in published oceanic primary production models. The performance of these algorithms was evaluated using buoy observations under clear and cloudy skies, and for the particular case of low sun angles typically encountered at high latitudes or at moderate latitudes in winter. The PAR models consisted of (i) the standard one from the NASA-Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG), (ii) the Gregg and Carder (GC) semi-analytical clear-sky model, and (iii) look-up-tables based on the Santa Barbara DISORT atmospheric radiative transfer (SBDART) model...
April 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Alexei Kolgotin, Detlef Müller, Eduard Chemyakin, Anton Romanov, Valentin Alehnovich
We conclude our series of publications on the development of the gradient correlation method (GCM), which can be used for an improved stabilization of the solution space of particle microphysical parameters derived from measurements with multiwavelength Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidar (3 backscatter +2 extinction coefficients). We show results of three cases studies. The data were taken with a ground-based multiwavelength Raman lidar during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in the Cape Verde Islands (North Atlantic)...
April 1, 2018: Applied Optics
S Stamnes, C Hostetler, R Ferrare, S Burton, X Liu, J Hair, Y Hu, A Wasilewski, W Martin, B van Diedenhoven, J Chowdhary, I Cetinić, L K Berg, K Stamnes, B Cairns
We present an optimal-estimation-based retrieval framework, the microphysical aerosol properties from polarimetry (MAPP) algorithm, designed for simultaneous retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties and ocean color bio-optical parameters using multi-angular total and polarized radiances. Polarimetric measurements from the airborne NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) were inverted by MAPP to produce atmosphere and ocean products. The RSP MAPP results are compared with co-incident lidar measurements made by the NASA High-Spectral-Resolution Lidar HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 instruments...
April 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Heikki Mansikka, Kai Virtanen, Don Harris
The sensitivity of NASA-TLX scale, modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale and the mean inter-beat interval (IBI) of successive heart beats, as measures of pilot mental workload (MWL), were evaluated in a flight training device (FTD). Operational F/A-18C pilots flew instrument approaches with varying task loads. Pilots' performance, subjective MWL ratings and IBI were measured. Based on the pilots' performance, three performance categories were formed; high-, medium- and low-performance. Values of the subjective rating scales and IBI were compared between categories...
April 30, 2018: Ergonomics
Ajay Premkumar, Xiaohan Ying, W Mack Hardaker, Honest H Massawe, David J Mshahaba, Faiton Mandari, Anthony Pallangyo, Rogers Temu, Gileard Masenga, David A Spiegel, Neil P Sheth
BACKGROUND: The global burden of musculoskeletal disease and resulting disability is enormous and is expected to increase over the next few decades. In the world's poorest regions, the paucity of information defining and quantifying the current state of access to orthopaedic surgical care is a major problem in developing effective solutions. This study estimates the number of individuals in Northern Tanzania without adequate access to orthopaedic surgical services. METHODS: A chance tree was created to model the probability of access to orthopaedic surgical services in the Northern Tanzanian regions of Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Singida, and Manyara, with respect to four dimensions: timeliness, surgical capacity, safety, and affordability...
April 25, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature
Teppei J Yasunari, Kyu-Myong Kim, Arlindo M da Silva, Masamitsu Hayasaki, Masayuki Akiyama, Naoto Murao
To identify the unusual climate conditions and their connections to air pollutions in a remote area due to wildfires, we examine three anomalous large-scale wildfires in May 2003, April 2008, and July 2014 over East Eurasia, as well as how products of those wildfires reached an urban city, Sapporo, in the northern part of Japan (Hokkaido), significantly affecting the air quality. NASA's MERRA-2 (the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2) aerosol re-analysis data closely reproduced the PM2...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Simon Provençal, Pavel Kishcha, Arlindo M da Silva, Emily Elhacham, Pinhas Alpert
NASA recently extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) with an atmospheric aerosol reanalysis which includes five particulate species: sulfate, organic matter, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt. The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) is an innovative tool to study air quality issues around the world for its global and constant coverage and its distinction of aerosol speciation expressed in the form of aerosol optical depth (AOD). The purpose of this manuscript is to apply MERRAero to the study of urban air pollution at the global scale by analyzing the AOD over a period of 13 years (2003-2015) and over a selection of 200 of the world's most populated cities in order to assess the impacts of urbanization, industrialization, air quality regulations and regional transport which affect urban aerosol load...
June 2017: Urban climate
Alessio Ceccarini, Andrea Corti, Francesca Erba, Francesca Modugno, Jacopo La Nasa, Sabrina Bianchi, Valter Castelvetro
The environmental pollution by plastic debris directly dispersed in or eventually reaching marine habitats is raising increasing concern not only for the vulnerability of marine species to ingestion and entanglement by macroscopic debris, but also for the potential hazards from smaller fragments down to a few micrometer size, often referred to as "microplastics". A novel procedure for the selective quantitative and qualitative determination of organic solvent soluble microplastics and microplastics degradation products (<2mm) in shoreline sediments was adopted to evaluate their concentration and distribution over the different sectors of a Tuscany (Italy) beach...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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