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Fluoroquinolone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438942/the-correlation-between-gyra-and-cmer-box-polymorphism-and-fluoroquinolones-resistance-in-campylobacter-jejuni-isolates-in-china
#1
Tengfei Zhang, Yiluo Cheng, Qingping Luo, Qin Lu, Jun Dong, Rongrong Zhang, Guoyuan Wen, Honglin Wang, Ling Luo, Hongcai Wang, Guoping Liu, Huabin Shao
Sequence analysis of 79 ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni isolates collected in China showed resistance-related sequence variations in gyrA and CmeR-Box. All the isolates contain an identical Thr-86-Ile substitution in GyrA. Several novel CmeR-Box variations were identified, including point substitutions, deletion and insertion. The point insertion or deletion led to dramatically reduced binding of CmeR to the cmeABC promoter, which significantly increase the expression of cmeABC and contribute to the high fluoroquinolone resistance...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438936/demonstrating-the-protective-efficacy-of-the-novel-fluoroquinolone-finafloxacin-against-an-inhalational-exposure-to-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#2
Kay B Barnes, Karleigh A Hamblin, Mark I Richards, Thomas R Laws, Andreas Vente, Helen S Atkins, Sarah V Harding
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious disease endemic in South East Asia and Northern Australia. Antibiotic treatment is lengthy and relapse often occurs. Finafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with increased antibacterial activity in acidic conditions in contrast to other fluoroquinolones which demonstrate reduced activity at lower pH. Therefore finafloxacin may have improved efficacy against B. pseudomallei, which can survive within host cells where the local pH is acidic...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438924/analysis-of-the-effects-on-the-qt-interval-of-a-gatifloxacin-containing-regimen-versus-standard-treatment-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#3
Piero L Olliaro, Corinne Merle, Thuli Mthiyane, Boubacar Bah, Ferdinand Kassa, Evans Amukoye, Alimatou N' Diaye, Christian Perronne, Christian Lienhardt, Helen Mcilleron, Katherine Fielding
Background: The effects on ventricular repolarisation - recorded on the ECG as lengthening of the QT interval - of acute tuberculosis and those of standard and alternative anti-tuberculosis regimens are under-documented. A correction factor (QTc) is introduced to make the QT independent of the heart rate, translating into the slope of the regression line between QT and heart rate being close to zero.Methods: ECGs were performed pre- and 1-5 hours post-dosing (month 1, 2, end of treatment) around drugs' peak concentration time in tuberculosis patients treated with either the standard 6-month treatment (rifampicin and isoniazid for 6 months, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for 2 months; "control") or a test regimen with gatifloxacin, rifampicin and isoniazid given for 4 months (pyrazinamide for the first 2 months) as part of the OFLOTUB study, a randomized controlled trial conducted in five African countries...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438132/early-detection-of-multidrug-and-pre-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-from-smear-positive-sputum-by-direct-sequencing
#4
Jun Chen, Peng Peng, Yixiang Du, Yi Ren, Lifeng Chen, Youyi Rao, Weihua Wang
BACKGROUND: Emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) is a major hurdle for TB control programs especially in developing countries like China. Resistance to fluoroquinolones is high among MDR-TB patients. Early diagnosis of MDR/pre-XDR-TB is essential for lowering transmission of drug-resistant TB and adjusting the treatment regimen. METHODS: Smear-positive sputum specimens (n = 186) were collected from Wuhan Institute for Tuberculosis Control...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437232/epidemiological-physiological-and-molecular-characteristics-of-a-brazilian-collection-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#5
Vanessa Cordeiro Dias, Juliana Alves Resende, André Netto Bastos, Lucas Quinet De Andrade Bastos, Victor Quinet De Andrade Bastos, Ricardo Villela Bastos, Cláudio Galuppo Diniz, Vânia Lúcia Da Silva
Nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are widespread in the environment and are increasingly associated with nosocomial infections, often associated with multidrug-resistance phenotypes. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiological, physiological, and molecular characteristics of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. In total, 63 nonreplicated strains (44 A. baumannii and 19 P. aeruginosa) were isolated from hospitalized patients. Antimicrobial resistance patterns, biocide tolerance, oxidative stress, hemolytic activity, and biofilm formation were assessed...
February 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437229/quinolone-resistance-determinants-of-clinical-salmonella-enteritidis-in-thailand
#6
Fuangfa Utrarachkij, Chie Nakajima, Ruchirada Changkwanyeun, Kanokrat Siripanichgon, Siriporn Kongsoi, Srirat Pornruangwong, Kanjana Changkaew, Risa Tsunoda, Yutaka Tamura, Orasa Suthienkul, Yasuhiko Suzuki
Salmonella Enteritidis has emerged as a global concern regarding quinolone resistance and invasive potential. Although quinolone-resistant S. Enteritidis has been observed with high frequency in Thailand, information on the mechanism of resistance acquisition is limited. To elucidate the mechanism, a total of 158 clinical isolates of nalidixic acid (NAL)-resistant S. Enteritidis were collected throughout Thailand, and the quinolone resistance determinants were investigated in the context of resistance levels to NAL, norfloxacin (NOR), and ciprofloxacin (CIP)...
February 23, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435019/epidemiology-and-trends-in-the-antibiotic-susceptibilities-of-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-patients-with-intra-abdominal-infections-in-the-asia-pacific-region-2010-2013
#7
Ya-Ting Chang, Geoffrey Coombs, Thomas Ling, V Balaji, Camilla Rodrigues, Hiroshige Mikamo, Min-Ja Kim, Datin Ganeswrie Rajasekaram, Myrna Mendoza, Thean Yen Tan, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Yuxing Ni, Weinman Barry, Yingchun Xu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Po-Ren Hsueh
This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in the Asia-Pacific region (APR) from 2010-2013. A total of 17 350 isolates were collected from 54 centres in 13 countries in the APR. The three most commonly isolated GNB were Escherichia coli (46.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%). Overall, the rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434558/resistance-profiles-and-risk-factors-of-resistant-microorganisms-in-bacteraemia-of-abdominal-origin
#8
J Martín Jaramago, R Armero Ibáñez, J J Camarena Miñana, M Morales Suárez-Varela
OBJECTIVE: The presence of resistant microorganisms is a major cause of failure in initial empirical antimicrobial therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the resistance profile of microorganisms that cause bacteraemia of abdominal origin and to identify whether the previous use of antibiotics and the place of acquisition of bacteraemia are risk factors associated with the presence of resistant organisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical, observational, epidemiological, retrospective cohort study was conducted with all the adult patients admitted to a university hospital from 2011-2013...
April 20, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431846/implementation-of-daily-chlorhexidine-bathing-to-reduce-colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-a-critical-care-unit
#9
Jackson S Musuuza, Ajay K Sethi, Tonya J Roberts, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Colonized patients are a reservoir for transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Not many studies have examined the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing under routine care conditions. We present a descriptive analysis of the trends of MDRO colonization following implementation of daily CHG bathing under routine clinical conditions in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: From May 2010-January 2011, we screened patients admitted to a 24-bed ICU for and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli (FQRGNB)...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430811/antimicrobial-resistance-in-coagulase-positive-staphylococci-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia-a-one-year-study
#10
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Kate A Worthing, Jacqueline M Norris, Hui S Wong, Rebecca Abraham, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430673/antimicrobial-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-prevalence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#11
Regine Cherazard, Marcia Epstein, Thien-Ly Doan, Tanzila Salim, Sheena Bharti, Miriam A Smith
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications in S. pneumoniae resistance. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Since S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was first reported with subsequent development of resistance to other classes of drugs, selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is challenging...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429393/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-thiazolidine-amide-and-n-thiazolyl-amide-fluoroquinolone-derivatives
#12
Isaac Garza, Miranda J Wallace, Dinesh Fernando, Aman Singh, Richard E Lee, Jason S Gerding, Cynthia Franklin, Raghunandan Yendapally
In an effort to develop new fluoroquinolones, we synthesized eight compounds and tested them against a panel of bacteria. The design of these compounds was guided by the introduction of the isothiazoloquinolone motif. The three most active compounds in this series, 8-10, demonstrated good antibacterial activity against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 0.62-6.3 µg/mL). Further, when these three active compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on bacterial enzymes, compound 9 was the most effective agent exhibiting IC50 values of 33...
April 21, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429163/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-bacterial-isolates-from-patients-presenting-with-ear-nose-and-throat-ent-infections-in-the-german-community-healthcare-setting
#13
B Olzowy, M Kresken, M Havel, D Hafner, B Körber-Irrgang
Empiric initial antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections is based primarily upon the susceptibility of the most common causative pathogens. The purpose of this study was to provide susceptibility data on six bacterial species known to cause ear, nose and throat (ENT) infections. A total of 1066 isolates collected during a nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study were analysed. All Streptococcus pyogenes isolates were penicillin (PEN)-susceptible, indicating that natural penicillins can still be recommended as the first-line treatment for group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419236/studying-the-effect-of-administration-route-and-treatment-dose-on-the-selection-of-enrofloxacin-resistance-in-commensal-escherichia-coli-in-broilers
#14
Ilias Chantziaras, Annemieke Smet, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Boyen, Jeroen Dewulf
Objectives: Factors potentially contributing to fluoroquinolone resistance selection in commensal Escherichia coli strains in poultry were studied through a series of in vivo experiments. The effect of the initial prevalence of enrofloxacin resistance in the E. coli gut microbiota, effect of the bacterial fitness of the enrofloxacin-resistant strain and effect of treatment with enrofloxacin (effect of dose and effect of route of administration) were assessed. Methods: Four in vivo studies with broiler chickens were performed...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418319/increasing-macrolide-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycoplasma-genitalium
#15
Gerald L Murray, Catriona S Bradshaw, Melanie Bissessor, Jennifer Danielewski, Suzanne M Garland, Jørgen S Jensen, Christopher K Fairley, Sepehr N Tabrizi
Escalating resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin is being reported for Mycoplasma genitalium in the Asia-Pacific region. Analyzing 140 infections, we found pretreatment fluoroquinolone-resistance mutations in parC (13.6%) and gyrA (5%). ParC S83 changes were associated with moxifloxacin failure. Combined macrolide/fluoroquinolone-resistance mutations were in 8.6% of specimens, for which recommended therapies would be ineffective.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416954/current-status-of-fluoroquinolone-use-for-treatment-of-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-korea
#16
Bo Hyoung Kang, Kyung-Wook Jo, Tae Sun Shim
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are considered important substitutes for the treatment of tuberculosis. This study investigates the current status of fluoroquinolone for the treatment of tuberculosis. METHODS: In 2009, a retrospective analysis was performed at one tertiary referral center for 953 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis. RESULTS: A total of 226 patients (23.6%), who received fluoroquinolone at any time during treatment for tuberculosis, were enrolled in this study...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416542/high-resolution-melting-analysis-for-the-rapid-detection-of-sequence-type-131-escherichia-coli
#17
Lucas B Harrison, Nancy D Hanson
IntroductionE. coli belonging to sequence type 131 clonal complex (ST131) have been associated with the global distribution of fluoroquinolone and β-lactam resistance. Whole genome sequencing and multi-locus sequence typing identify sequence type but are expensive when evaluating large numbers of samples. This study was designed to develop a cost-effective screening tool using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis to differentiate ST131 from non-ST-131 E. coli in large sample populations in the absence of sequence analysis...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414572/molecular-characterization-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-clinical-isolates-in-spain
#18
Inmaculada López-Hernández, Jesús Machuca, Paula Díaz de Alba, Carolina Sarvisé, Frederic Gómez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Alvaro Pascual
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to characterize a group of clinical isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae collected in Northern Spain (March-December 2014). METHODS: Twelve clinical isolates of H. parainfluenzae were studied by performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the QRDR (quinolone resistance-determining region) of gyrA, parC, gyrB, and parE genes. Screening for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was also studied...
April 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412864/cutaneous-allergic-drug-reactions-update-on-pathophysiology-diagnostic-procedures-and-differential-diagnostic
#19
Galina Balakirski, Hans F Merk
Important changes in the understanding and management of drug hypersensitivity reactions during the last years result from the increasing importance of biologics in medical practice, which differ in their spectrum of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from the classical covalent drugs. With regard to covalent drugs, ampicillin and amoxicillin as well as clavulanic acid play an increasing role among ADRs to betalactam antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones are mainly the cause of anaphylactic and photosensitivity reactions...
April 17, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411631/escherichia-coli-adhesive-coating-as-a-chiral-stationary-phase-for-open-tubular-capillary-electrochromatography-enantioseparation
#20
Qifeng Fu, Kailian Zhang, Die Gao, Lujun Wang, Fengqing Yang, Yao Liu, Zhining Xia
Bacteria, the microorganism with intrinsic chirality, have numerous fascinating chiral phenomena such as various chirality-triggered biological processes and behaviors. Herein, bacteria were firstly explored as novel chiral stationary phases in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) for enantioseparation of fluoroquinolone enantiomers and simultaneous separation of six fluoroquinolone antibiotics. The model strain, i.e. non-pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α, was adhered onto the inner surface of positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified capillaries based on the bacterial adhesion characteristics and strong electrostatic interaction...
May 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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