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Fluoroquinolone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345829/high-fluoroquinolone-resistant-strains-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-the-golden-triangle
#1
Ratha Korn Vilaichone, Thawee Ratanachu ek, Pornpen Gamnarai, Phawinee Subsomwong, Tomahisa Uchida, Yoshio Yamaoka, Varocha Mahachai
Background and aims: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, associated with fatal GI diseases such as gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma, remain a major health problem in ASEAN countries. The Golden triangle has long been known as one of Asia’s main opium-producing areas. There have been no prior studies of H. pylori infection in this area. The major objectives of this project were therefore to establish prevalence, antibiotic resistance patterns and associated predictive in the Golden triangle. Methods: We recruited dyspeptic patients in Chiang khong and Chiang saen districts, Chiangrai province of Thailand...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344783/retrospective-report-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-observed-in-bacterial-pathogens-isolated-from-ocular-samples-at-mount-sinai-hospital-2010-to-2015
#2
Marko Oydanich, Tanis C Dingle, Camille L Hamula, Claudia Ghisa, Penny Asbell
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major threat to global public health. Thus, the surveillance of changes in antimicrobial resistance in local and global settings is a paramount necessity. While many studies have tracked antimicrobial resistance, only a small percentage surveyed ocular isolates. The purpose of this study was to report the in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from ocular samples in New York, NY from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: A retrospective review of ocular isolates was conducted...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343857/staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-in-health-care-workers-first-report-from-a-major-public-hospital-in-argentina
#3
Carina Andrea Boncompain, Cristian Alejandro Suárez, Héctor Ricardo Morbidoni
Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous mild to severe infections in humans, both in health facilities and in the community. Patients and health care workers (HCWs) may disseminate strains during regular medical examinations or hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus among health care workers at Hospital Provincial del Centenario, a public general hospital in Rosario, Argentina. A transversal study was conducted on 320 health care workers...
March 24, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343755/covalently-linked-kanamycin-ciprofloxacin-hybrid-antibiotics-as-a-tool-to-fight-bacterial-resistance
#4
Michal Shavit, Varvara Pokrovskaya, Valery Belakhov, Timor Baasov
To address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, a set of 12 hybrid compounds that covalently link fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycoside (kanamycin A) antibiotics were synthesized, and their activity was determined against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including resistant strains. The hybrids were antagonistic relative to the ciprofloxacin, but were substantially more potent than the parent kanamycin against Gram-negative bacteria, and overcame most dominant resistance mechanisms to aminoglycosides...
March 16, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337503/gut-microbiome-related-metabolic-changes-in-plasma-of-antibiotic-treated-rats
#5
C Behr, H Kamp, E Fabian, G Krennrich, W Mellert, E Peter, V Strauss, T Walk, I M C M Rietjens, B van Ravenzwaay
The intestinal microbiota contributes to the metabolism of its host. Adequate identification of the microbiota's impact on the host plasma metabolites is lacking. As antibiotics have a profound effect on the microbial composition and hence on the mammalian-microbiota co-metabolism, we studied the effects of antibiotics on the "functionality of the microbiome"-defined as the production of metabolites absorbed by the host. This metabolomics study presents insights into the mammalian-microbiome co-metabolism of endogenous metabolites...
March 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336675/evolving-risk-factors-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-patterns-for-microbial-keratitis-at-a-large-county-hospital
#6
Haoxing Jin, Walter T Parker, Nathan W Law, Cameron L Clarke, Jordan D Gisseman, Stephen C Pflugfelder, Li Wang, Zaina N Al-Mohtaseb
Purpose: To identify the risk factors, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibility and outcomes of microbial keratitis in a large county hospital in Houston, Texas. Design: Case series. METHODS: Setting: A large county hospital in Houston, Texas. Study Population: Patients with known diagnosis of microbial keratitis from January 2011 to May 2015. Observation Procedure: Retrospective chart review. Main Outcomes: Epidemiology, risk factors, outcomes and antibiotic susceptibility of microbial keratitis...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336384/predictors-for-individual-patient-antibiotic-treatment-effect-in-hospitalised-community-acquired-pneumonia-patients
#7
Antonella F Simonetti, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Valentijn A Schweitzer, Diego Viasus, Jordi Carratalà, Douwe F Postma, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Marc J M Bonten
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of antibiotic treatment effects in non-ICU hospitalised CAP patients. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of three prospective cohorts (from the Netherlands and Spain) of CAP adult patients admitted to a non-ICU having received either beta-lactam monotherapy (BL), beta-lactam + macrolide (BLM), or fluoroquinolone-based therapy (FQL) as empiric antibiotic treatment. We evaluated candidate clinical predictors of treatment effects in multiple mixed-effects models by including interactions of the predictors with empiric antibiotic choice and using 30-day mortality, ICU admission, and length of hospital stay (LOS) as outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334702/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-7-substituted-6-fluoroquinolone-and-7-substituted-6-8-difluoroquinolone-derivatives
#8
Socorro Leyva-Ramos, Denisse de Loera, Jaime Cardoso-Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed synthetic antimicrobial agents. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome; the irreversible DNA damage eventually causes the killing of bacteria. Thorough knowledge of the structure-activity relationship of quinolones is essential for the development of new drugs with improved activity against resistant strains. METHODS: The compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against 4 representing strains using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
March 24, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333664/compatibility-of-norepinephrine-bitartrate-with-levofloxacin-and-moxifloxacin-during-simulated-y-site-administration
#9
Vicky Mody, Samit Shah, Jaymin Patel, Michael C Thomas
The purpose of this study was to determine the physical compatibility and chemical stability of norepinephrine bitartrate with selected fluoroquinolones during simulated intravenous Y-site administration. Simulation of Y-compatibility of intravenous fluids can be experimentally demonstrated by mixing equal volumes of two drugs of interest. Hence, we prepared 1:1 mixture of norepinephrine bitartrate and levofloxacin or moxifloxacin by mixing 64 .g/mL of norepinephrine bitartrate individually with clinically relevant concentrations of levofloxacin (5 mg/mL) and moxifloxacin (1...
May 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333351/ecological-impact-of-ciprofloxacin-on-commensal-enterococci-in-healthy-volunteers
#10
Victoire de Lastours, Elena Maugy, Vincent Mathy, Françoise Chau, Benjamin Rossi, François Guérin, Vincent Cattoir, Bruno Fantin
Background: The ecological impact of ciprofloxacin on commensal enterococci is unknown. Methods: Forty-eight healthy volunteers received ciprofloxacin from day (D) 0 to D14; stools were collected on D7, D14 and D42. Fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant enterococci (FQ-SE and FQ-RE) were detected and quantified by culture, and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The relative abundance of FQ-RE over FQ-SE was determined. The genetic basis of fluoroquinolone resistance was deciphered by partial sequencing of gyrA and parC genes...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333330/genomic-landscape-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-from-an-urban-african-setting
#11
Patrick Musicha, Nicholas A Feasey, Amy K Cain, Teemu Kallonen, Chrispin Chaguza, Chikondi Peno, Margaret Khonga, Sarah Thompson, Katherine J Gray, Alison E Mather, Robert S Heyderman, Dean B Everett, Nicholas R Thomson, Chisomo L Msefula
Objectives: Efforts to treat Escherichia coli infections are increasingly being compromised by the rapid, global spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Whilst AMR in E. coli has been extensively investigated in resource-rich settings, in sub-Saharan Africa molecular patterns of AMR are not well described. In this study, we have begun to explore the population structure and molecular determinants of AMR amongst E. coli isolates from Malawi. Methods: Ninety-four E...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332344/impact-of-intervention-by-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-team-on-conversion-from-intravenous-to-oral-fluoroquinolones
#12
Soh Mee Park, Hyung Sook Kim, Young Mi Jeong, Jung Hwa Lee, Eunsook Lee, Euni Lee, Kyoung Ho Song, Hong Bin Kim, Eu Suk Kim
BACKGROUND: Early conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics plays an important role in lowering the risk of catheter-associated infections, reducing the workload of nurses, decreasing direct and indirect costs, and shortening hospital stays. In August 2015, an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) was implemented to facilitate conversion from intravenous to oral administration of fluoroquinolones in our institute. This study evaluated the clinical and economic impact of the intervention...
March 13, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331043/world-health-organization-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update
#13
Dennis Falzon, Holger J Schünemann, Elizabeth Harausz, Licé González-Angulo, Christian Lienhardt, Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies. An international expert panel formulated recommendations following the GRADE approach. The new WHO guidelines recommend a standardised 9-12 months shorter treatment regimen as first choice in patients with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) strains not resistant to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectable agents; resistance to these two classes of core second-line medicines is rapidly detectable with molecular diagnostics also approved by WHO in 2016...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329197/systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-of-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-to-reduce-progression-to-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#14
Suzanne M Marks, Sundari R Mase, Sapna Bamrah Morris
Background: Evidence-based recommendations for treating persons having presumed latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) after contact to infectious multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are lacking because published data consist of small observational studies. TB incidence in persons treated for latent multidrug-resistant-TB infection (MDR LTBI) is unknown. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies published (1/1/1994-12/31/2014) to analyze TB incidence, treatment completion and discontinuation, and cost effectiveness...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2-092-participants-enrolled-into-four-randomised-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#15
Corinne N Thompsom, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Ariyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremey J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods: Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326532/common-drug-side-effects-and-drug-drug-interactions-in-elderly-adults-in-primary-care
#16
Susan E Merel, Douglas S Paauw
Prescribing medications, recognizing and managing medication side effects and drug interactions, and avoiding polypharmacy are all essential skills in the care of older adults in primary care. Important side effects of medications commonly prescribed in older adults (statins, proton pump inhibitors, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolone antibiotics, zolpidem, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors) were reviewed. Important drug interactions with four agents or classes (statins, warfarin, factor Xa inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers) are discussed...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320717/in-vitro-activities-and-spectrum-of-the-novel-fluoroquinolone-lascufloxacin-krp-am1977
#17
Ryuta Kishii, Yuko Yamaguchi, Masaya Takei
Lascufloxacin showed a broad spectrum of activity against various clinical isolates. Especially, lascufloxacin showed the most potent activity against gram-positive bacteria among the quinolones tested. Furthermore, lascufloxacin showed incomplete cross-resistance against existing quinolone-resistant strains. Enzymatic analysis indicated that lascufloxacin showed potent inhibitory activity against both wild-type and mutated target enzymes. These results suggested that lascufloxacin may be useful in treating infections caused by various pathogens, including quinolone-resistant strains...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317803/an-unusual-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-in-a-mycobacterium-cosmeticum-strain-isolated-from-the-chesapeake-bay
#18
Vajini Atukorale, Nicholas Boire, Kim Dionne, Stefan Riedel, Nicole Parrish
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium cosmeticum, first described in 2004, was recovered from a patient undergoing a cosmetic procedure. Subsequently, this species was associated with an outbreak in a nail salon. In all cases, the isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Recently, however, we recovered a strain of M. cosmeticum from the Chesapeake Bay, resistant to 11 of 14 antimicrobials. The objective of this work was to present our findings on the resistance and susceptibility of this isolate to various antibiotics...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316632/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-fosfomycin-for-treatment-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-ontario
#19
Louise Perrault, Sybil Dahan, Ange Christelle Iliza, Jacques LeLorier, George G Zhanel
Background and Objective. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics traditionally used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) is rising in Canada. We compared the cost-per-patient in Ontario of including fosfomycin (an antibiotic with a low resistance profile) as an option for first-line empirical treatment of uUTIs with current cost of treatment with sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, and nitrofurantoin. Methods. A decision-tree model was used to perform a cost-minimization analysis. All possible outcomes of a uUTI caused by bacterial species treated with either sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, or fosfomycin were included...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314077/comparative-subproteomic-analysis-of-clinically-acquired-fluoroquinolone-resistance-and-ciprofloxacin-stress-in-salmonella-typhimurium-dt104b
#20
Susana Correia, Michel Hébraud, Ingrid Chafsey, Christophe Chambon, Didier Viala, Yolanda Sáenz, José Luis Capelo, Patrícia Poeta, Gilberto Igrejas
PURPOSE: Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide public health threat and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium phage type DT104B multiresistant strains with additional quinolone resistance have been responsible for global outbreaks and high mortality. Quinolone resistance is known to be multifactorial but is still far from a complete understanding. To give new insights about the resistance mechanisms involved, this work aimed to evaluate subproteome changes between a S...
March 17, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
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