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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646184/homing-of-cultured-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-their-effect-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rat-model
#1
Xin-Bin Guo, Xin Deng, Ying Wei
Transplanted endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may play an important role in reestablishing the endothelial integrity of the vessels after brain injury, and contribute to neurogenesis. We, therefore, tested the homing of ex vivo cultured peripheral blood-derived EPCs and their effect on injured brain tissue after intravenous administration. To track the homing of implanted EPCs in injured brain tissues, EPCs were labeled with DAPI and BrdU in vitro before transplantation. EPCs were transplanted into the host animal through peripheral administration through the femoral vein, and homing of EPCs was evaluated...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642175/subventricular-zone-involvement-characterised-by-dti-in-glioblastoma
#2
Bart Rj van Dijken, Jiun-Lin Yan, Natalie R Boonzaier, Chao Li, Peter Jan van Laar, Anouk van der Hoorn, Stephen J Price
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas have a poor prognosis, possibly due to a subpopulation of therapy resistant stem cells within the heterogeneous glioblastoma. As the subventricular zone is the main source of neural stem cells, we aimed at characterising the subventricular zone using DTI to demonstrate subventricular zone involvement in glioblastoma. METHODS: We prospectively included 93 patients with primary glioblastomas who underwent preoperative DTI. The non-enhancing high FLAIR signal was used to describe the infiltrative tumour margin...
June 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641510/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-brain-therapeutic-potential-in-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#3
Khaled Salman Radad, Rudolf Moldzio, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Barbara Kranner, Christopher Krewenka, Wolf-Dieter Rausch
Generation of nascent functional neurons from neural stem cells in the adult brain has recently become largely accepted by the neuroscience community. In adult mammals including humans, the process of neurogenesis has been well documented in two brain regions; the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Some evidence has indicated neurogenesis in other regions of the adult mammalian brain such as the neocortex, cerebellum, striatum, amygdala and hypothalamus...
June 22, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634261/autophagy-gene-fip200-in-neural-progenitors-non-cell-autonomously-controls-differentiation-by-regulating-microglia
#4
Chenran Wang, Syn Yeo, Michael A Haas, Jun-Lin Guan
Recent studies have shown important roles for autophagy genes in the regulation of different tissue stem cells, including neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs). However, little is known about whether autophagy can regulate NSCs through cell-extrinsic mechanisms. Here, we show that deletion of an essential autophagy gene, FIP200, in NSCs increased expression of Ccl5 and Cxcl10 in a p53-independent manner, mediating increased infiltration of microglia into the subventricular zone of both FIP200hGFAP conditional knockout (cKO) and FIP200;p53hGFAP 2cKO mice...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625813/neurogenesis-in-the-aging-brain
#5
REVIEW
Deana M Apple, Rene Solano-Fonseca, Erzsebet Kokovay
Adult neurogenesis is the process of producing new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) for integration into the brain circuitry. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, during aging, NSCs and their progenitors exhibit reduced proliferation and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced plasticity that is necessary for some types of brain repair...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623786/proteolytic-processed-form-of-cxcl12-abolishes-migration-and-induces-apoptosis-in-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro
#6
Taís Adelita, Roberta Sessa Stilhano, Sang Won Han, Giselle Zenker Justo, Marimelia Porcionatto
The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain hosts full potential neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are able to respond to extracellular signals in the brain, amplifying the pool of progenitor cells and giving rise to neuroblasts that show ability to migrate towards an injury site. These signals can come from vascular system, cerebrospinal fluid, glial cells, or projections of neurons in adjoining regions. CXCL12, a chemokine secreted after brain injury, reaches the SVZ in a gradient manner and drives neuroblasts towards the lesion area...
June 4, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623617/decrease-in-adult-neurogenesis-and-neuroinflammation-are-involved-in-spatial-memory-impairment-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-in-rats
#7
Taysa Bervian Bassani, Jéssica M Bonato, Meira M F Machado, Valentín Cóppola-Segovia, Eric L R Moura, Silvio M Zanata, Rúbia M M W Oliveira, Maria A B F Vital
Early impairments in cerebral glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathways may participate in the pathogenesis of the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) are used to mimic sAD and study these alterations in rodents. Streptozotocin causes impairments in insulin signaling and has been reported to trigger several alterations in the brain, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and dysfunctions in adult neurogenesis, which may be involved in cognitive decline and are features of human AD...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619719/hypothalamic-regulation-of-regionally-distinct-adult-neural-stem-cells-and-neurogenesis
#8
Alex Paul, Zayna Chaker, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain generate neurons throughout life. NSCs in the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) exhibit a regional identity, and depending on their location, generate distinct olfactory bulb interneuron subtypes. Here we show that the hypothalamus, a brain area regulating physiological states, provides long-range regionalized input to the V-SVZ niche and can regulate specific NSC subpopulations. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons selectively innervate the anterior ventral V-SVZ and promote the proliferation of Nkx2...
June 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602612/lineage-reprogramming-of-astroglial-cells-from-different-origins-into-distinct-neuronal-subtypes
#9
Malek Chouchane, Ana Raquel Melo de Farias, Daniela Maria de Sousa Moura, Markus Michael Hilscher, Timm Schroeder, Richardson Naves Leão, Marcos Romualdo Costa
Astroglial cells isolated from the rodent postnatal cerebral cortex are particularly susceptible to lineage reprogramming into neurons. However, it remains unknown whether other astroglial populations retain the same potential. Likewise, little is known about the fate of induced neurons (iNs) in vivo. In this study we addressed these questions using two different astroglial populations isolated from the postnatal brain reprogrammed either with Neurogenin-2 (Neurog2) or Achaete scute homolog-1 (Ascl1). We show that cerebellum (CerebAstro) and cerebral cortex astroglia (CtxAstro) generates iNs with distinctive neurochemical and morphological properties...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596978/multiple-roles-of-ulk4-in-neurogenesis-and-brain-function
#10
Min Liu, Ping Xu, Timothy O'Brien, Sanbing Shen
Neurogenesis is essential for proper brain formation and function, and abnormal neural proliferation is an underlying neuropathology of many brain disorders. Recent advances on adult neurogenesis demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs) at the subventricular zone (SVZ) are largely derived during mid-embryonic neurogenesis from a subset of cells, which slow down in their pace of cell division,(1) become quiescent cells and can be reactivated in need.(2) The NSCs at birth constitute the stem cell pool for both postnatal oligodendrogenesis(3) and adult neurogenesis...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596977/different-forms-of-structural-plasticity-in-the-adult-olfactory-bulb
#11
REVIEW
Delphine Hardy, Armen Saghatelyan
The adult olfactory bulb (OB) continuously receives new interneurons that integrate into the functional neuronal network and that play an important role in odor information processing and olfactory behavior. Adult neuronal progenitors are derived from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) bordering the lateral ventricle. They migrate long distances along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) toward the OB where they differentiate into interneurons, mature, and establish synapses with tufted or mitral cells (MC), the principal neurons in the OB...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596976/endogenous-brain-repair-overriding-intrinsic-lineage-determinates-through-injury-induced-micro-environmental-signals
#12
Kathryn S Jones, Bronwen Connor
Adult human neurogenesis has generated excitement over the last 2 decades with the idea that endogenous adult stem cells could act as a potential cell source for brain repair after injury. Indeed, many forms of experimentally induced brain injury including stroke and excitotoxic lesioning can promote proliferation from the subventricular zone and mobilise neuroblasts and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to migrate through brain parenchyma to damaged regions. However the failure of neuroblasts to mature into appropriate neuronal subtypes for cell replacement has been an issue...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592981/acupuncture-stimulation-at-gb34-restores-mptp-induced-neurogenesis-impairment-in-the-subventricular-zone-of-mice
#13
Hyongjun Jeon, Sun Ryu, Dongsoo Kim, Sungtae Koo, Ki-Tae Ha, Seungtae Kim
Adult neurogenesis has recently been considered a new therapeutic paradigm of Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated whether acupuncture restores 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- (MPTP-) induced impaired neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Male C57BL/6 mice were given 30 mg/kg of MPTP intraperitoneally once a day for 5 days, after which they were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and given acupuncture stimulation at HT7 or GB34 for 12 consecutive days...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591194/regulation-of-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-by-kinesin-family-member-2a
#14
Dong Sun, Xue Zhou, Hua-Li Yu, Xiao-Xiao He, Wei-Xiang Guo, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Xiao-Juan Zhu
In the developing neocortex, cells in the ventricular/subventricular zone are largely multipotent neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells. These cells undergo self-renewal at the early stage of embryonic development to amplify the progenitor pool and subsequently differentiate into neurons. It is thus of considerable interest to investigate mechanisms controlling the switch from neural stem cells or neural progenitor cells to neurons. Here, we present evidence that Kif2a, a member of the Kinesin-13 family, plays a role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells or neural progenitor cells at embryonic day 13...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583079/lateral-cortical-cdca7-expression-levels-are-regulated-by-pax6-and-influence-the-production-of-intermediate-progenitors
#15
Yu-Ting Huang, John O Mason, David J Price
BACKGROUND: We studied whether regulation of Cdca7 (Cell division cycle associated 7) expression by transcription factor Pax6 contributes to Pax6's cellular actions during corticogenesis. The function of Cdca7 in mediating Pax6's effects during corticogenesis has not been explored. Pax6 is expressed by radial glial progenitors in the ventricular zone of the embryonic cortical neuroepithelium, where it is required for the development of a normal complement of Tbr2-expressing intermediate progenitor cells in the subventricular zone...
June 5, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580093/photobiomodulation-and-the-brain-a-new-paradigm
#16
Madison Hennessy, Michael R Hamblin
Transcranial photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low level laser therapy (tLLLT) relies on the use of red/NIR light to stimulate, preserve and regenerate cells and tissues. The mechanism of action involves photon absorption in the mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase), and ion channels in cells leading to activation of signaling pathways, up-regulation of transcription factors, and increased expression of protective genes. We have studied PBM for treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice using a NIR laser spot delivered to the head...
January 2017: Journal of Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567003/evidence-of-a-cell-surface-role-for-hsp90-complex-proteins-mediating-neuroblast-migration-in-the-subventricular-zone
#17
Leo M Miyakoshi, Diego Marques-Coelho, Luiz E R De Souza, Flavia R S Lima, Vilma R Martins, Silvio M Zanata, Cecilia Hedin-Pereira
In most mammalian brains, the subventricular zone (SVZ) is a germinative layer that maintains neurogenic activity throughout adulthood. Neuronal precursors arising from this region migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) and reach the olfactory bulbs where they differentiate and integrate into the local circuitry. Recently, studies have shown that heat shock proteins have an important role in cancer cell migration and blocking Hsp90 function was shown to hinder cell migration in the developing cerebellum...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565833/high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-treating-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-a-pilot-study
#18
Xia Lu, Xinjie Bao, Jiantao Li, Guanghao Zhang, Jian Guan, Yunzhou Gao, Peilin Wu, Zhaohui Zhu, Xiaolin Huo, Renzhi Wang
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method of noninvasive brain stimulation that causes neuromodulation by activating neurons or changing excitability in a certain brain area. Considering the known effects of TMS and the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI), TMS was proposed to have potential for treating this condition. Moderate TBI was induced in adult male Sprague Dawley rats using Feeney's weight-dropping method. Injured rats were divided into a TMS group and a control group. Repetitive TMS (rTMS) was administered to rats in the TMS group from post-TBI day 2...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565820/beneficial-effects-of-jiawei-shenqi-wan-and-treadmill-training-on-deficits-associated-with-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemia-in-rats
#19
Ha Neui Kim, Malk Eun Pak, Myung Jun Shin, Soo Yeon Kim, Yong Beom Shin, Young Ju Yun, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
Jiawei Shenqi-wan (JSQW), which comprises Shenqi-wan and two additional medicinal herbs, has been widely used for the treatment of various growth impairments, including cerebral palsy. In the present study, JSQW was administered to hypoxic-ischemic Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent treadmill training from 4-7 weeks of age to examine the beneficial effects of combined JSQW and treadmill therapy. Behavioral examinations were performed and a significant improvement in cylinder test performance was observed in rats treated with treadmill training compared with hypoxic-ischemia rats (P<0...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553319/heterogeneous-populations-of-neural-stem-cells-contribute-to-myelin-repair
#20
REVIEW
Rainer Akkermann, Felix Beyer, Patrick Küry
As ingenious as nature's invention of myelin sheaths within the mammalian nervous system is, as fatal can be damage to this specialized lipid structure. Long-term loss of electrical insulation and of further supportive functions myelin provides to axons, as seen in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), leads to neurodegeneration and results in progressive disabilities. Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated the increasing inability of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to replace lost oligodendrocytes (OLs) in order to restore lost myelin...
April 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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