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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931508/voluntary-wheel-running-reverses-the-decrease-in-subventricular-zone-neurogenesis-caused-by-corticosterone
#1
Jada Chia-Di Lee, Suk-Yu Yau, Tatia M C Lee, Benson Wui-Man Lau, Kwok-Fai So
Adult neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus can be increased by voluntary exercise but is suppressed under stress, such as with corticosterone (CORT). However, the effects of exercise and CORT on the cell proliferation of the other traditional neurogenic site, the subventricular zone (SVZ), have been reported with controversial results. In addition, the cotreatment effects of voluntary exercise and CORT have not been investigated. This study aims to determine whether CORT can suppress cell proliferation in the SVZ and whether this can be reversed by voluntary exercise...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931507/hiv-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-efavirenz-reduces-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Jingji Jin, Bethany Grimmig, James Izzo, Lecia A M Brown, Charles Hudson, Adam J Smith, Jun Tan, Paula C Bickford, Brian Giunta
The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is evidence that neural stem cells (NSCs) can migrate to sites of brain injury such as those caused by inflammation and oxidative stress, which are pathological features of HAND. Thus, reductions in NSCs may contribute to HAND pathogenesis. Since the HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) has previously been associated with cognitive deficits and promotion of oxidative stress pathways, we examined its effect on NSCs in vitro as well as in C57BL/6J mice...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924451/mir-124-promotes-newborn-olfactory-bulb-neuron-dendritic-morphogenesis-and-spine-density
#3
Guifa Li, Shucai Ling
Using microarray analysis, we detected microRNA-124 (miR-124) to be abundantly expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB). miR-124 regulates adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). However, much less is known about its role in newborn OB neurons. Here, using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that brain-specific miR-124 affects dendritic morphogenesis and spine density in newborn OB neurons. Functional Annotation Clustering of miR-124 targets was enriched in "cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908425/copper-accumulation-in-rodent-brain-astrocytes-a-species-difference
#4
Brendan Sullivan, Gregory Robison, Yulia Pushkar, John K Young, Kebreten F Manaye
Changes in Cu homeostasis have been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Factors controlling and regulating the distribution of Cu in the brain remain largely unknown. We have previously reported that a sub-set of astrocytes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) contain Cu-rich aggregates. Here we expand previous studies with detailed X-ray fluorescent imaging (XRF) analysis of the additional brain areas of hippocampus (HP) and rostral migratory stream (RMS). We also use conventional DAB (3,3'-diaminobenzidine) staining which accesses both peroxidase and pseudo-peroxidase activities...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900341/subventricular-zone-associated-glioblastoma-a-call-for-translational-research-to-guide-clinical-decision-making
#5
Andrew W Smith, Bhupesh Parashar, A Gabriella Wernicke
Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most devastating primary cancer of the central nervous system, with an expected overall survival in most patients of about 14 months. Despite extensive research, outcomes for GBM have been largely unchanged since the introduction of temozolomide in 2005. We believe that in order to achieve a breakthrough in therapeutic management, we must begin to identify subtypes of GBM, and tailor treatment to best target a particular tumor's vulnerabilities. Our group has recently produced an examination of the clinical outcomes of radiation therapy directed at tumors that contact the subventricular zone (SVZ), the 3-5 mm lateral border of the lateral ventricles that contains the largest collection of neural stem cells in the adult brain...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891071/chronic-progressive-neurodegeneration-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-prion-disease
#6
Nina Fainstein, Dvir Dori, Kati Frid, Alexa T Fritz, Ilona Shapiro, Ruth Gabizon, Tamir Ben-Hur
Neurodegenerative diseases present pathologically with progressive structural destruction of neurons and accumulation of mis-folded proteins specific for each condition leading to brain atrophy and functional disability. Many animal models exert deposition of pathogenic proteins without an accompanying neurodegeneration pattern. The lack of a comprehensive model hinders efforts to develop treatment. We performed longitudinal quantification of cellular, neuronal and synaptic density, as well as of neurogenesis in brains of mice mimicking for genetic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease as compared to age-matched wild-type mice...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884724/optogenetic-stimulation-of-glutamatergic-neuronal-activity-in-the-striatum-enhances-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-of-normal-and-stroke-mice
#7
Mingke Song, Shan Ping Yu, Osama Mohamad, Wenyuan Cao, Zheng Zachory Wei, Xiaohuan Gu, Michael Qize Jiang, Ling Wei
Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain may contribute to tissue repair after brain injuries. Whether SVZ neurogenesis can be upregulated by specific neuronal activity in vivo and promote functional recovery after stroke is largely unknown. Using the spatial and cell type specific optogenetic technique combined with multiple approaches of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examinations, we tested the hypothesis that glutamatergic activation in the striatum could upregulate SVZ neurogenesis in the normal and ischemic brain...
November 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882335/id-ealizing-control-of-adult-subventricular-zone-neural-stem-precursor-cell-differentiation-for-cns-regeneration
#8
COMMENT
Christian Bohrer, Christian Schachtrup
The adult central nervous system (CNS) was considered a comparatively static tissue with little cell turnover. It is now well established that there is more plasticity than previously thought and that astrocytes act as neural stem/precursor cells (NSPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ). The discovery that these NSPCs can give rise to a limited number of new neurons, reactive astrocytes and oligodendrocytes contributing to brain repair in CNS disease, has raised hopes toward harnessing these cells for therapeutic interventions...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879349/ncam1-polysialylation-the-prion-protein-s-elusive-reason-for-being
#9
REVIEW
Mohadeseh Mehrabian, Herbert Hildebrandt, Gerold Schmitt-Ulms
Much confusion surrounds the physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). It is, however, anticipated that knowledge of its function will shed light on its contribution to neurodegenerative diseases and suggest ways to interfere with the cellular toxicity central to them. Consequently, efforts to elucidate its function have been all but exhaustive. Building on earlier work that uncovered the evolutionary descent of the prion founder gene from an ancestral ZIP zinc transporter, we recently investigated a possible role of PrP(C) in a morphogenetic program referred to as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
December 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879267/pifithrin-%C3%A2%C2%B5-prevents-cisplatin-induced-chemobrain-by-preserving-neuronal-mitochondrial-function
#10
Gabriel S Chiu, Magdalena A Maj, Sahar Rizvi, Robert Dantzer, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Geoffroy Laumet, Annemieke Kavelaars, Cobi J Heijnen
Cognitive impairment termed chemobrain is a common neurotoxicity associated with chemotherapy treatment, affecting an estimated 78% of patients. Prompted by the hypothesis that neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction underlies chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI), we explored the efficacy of administering the small molecule pifithrin (PFT)-µ, an inhibitor of mitochondrial p53 accumulation, in preventing CICI. Male C57BL/6J mice injected with cisplatin +/- PFT-µ for two 5-day cycles were assessed for cognitive function using novel object/place recognition and alternation in a Y-maze...
November 22, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870168/proteome-and-secretome-characterisation-of-glioblastoma-derived-neural-stem-cells
#11
Satoshi Okawa, Sladjana Gagrica, Carla Blin, Christine Ender, Steven M Pollard, Jeroen Krijgsveld
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (grade IV astrocytoma) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumour. GBM consists of heterogeneous cell types includinga subset of stem cell-like cells thought to sustain tumour growth. These tumour-initiating GBM-derived neural stem (GNS) cells as well as their genetically normal neural stem (NS) counterparts can be propagated in culture as relatively pure populations. Here we perform quantitative proteomics to globally characterize and compare total proteome plus the secreted proteome (secretome) between GNS cells and NS cells...
November 21, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867091/development-and-aging-of-a-brain-neural-stem-cell-niche
#12
Joanne C Conover, Krysti L Todd
In the anterior forebrain, along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles, a neurogenic stem cell niche is found in a region referred to as the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In rodents, robust V-SVZ neurogenesis provides new neurons to the olfactory bulb throughout adulthood; however, with increasing age stem cell numbers are reduced and neurogenic capacity is significantly diminished, but new olfactory bulb neurons continue to be produced even in old age. Humans, in contrast, show little to no new neurogenesis after two years of age and whether V-SVZ neural stem cells persist in the adult human brain remains unclear...
November 17, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857231/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-age-related-subventricular-zone-proteins-associated-with-neurodegenerative-disease
#13
Xianli Wang, Chuanming Dong, Lixin Sun, Liang Zhu, Chenxi Sun, Rongjie Ma, Ke Ning, Bing Lu, Jinfu Zhang, Jun Xu
Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in the function of adult tissues which can lead to neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the correlation between protein changes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and neurodegenerative diseases with age. In the present study, neural stem cells (NSCs) were derived from the SVZ on postnatal 7 d, 1 m, and 12 m-old mice. With age, NSCs exhibited increased SA-β-gal activity and decreased proliferation and pool size in the SVZ zone, and were associated with elevated inflammatory chemokines and cytokines...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832087/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-promotes-proliferation-differentiation-and-migration-of-neural-stem-cells-via-bdnf-upregulation
#14
Wen-Di Lee, Kuo-Chuan Wang, Yi-Fen Tsai, Pin-Chun Chou, Li-Kai Tsai, Chung-Liang Chien
Patients who suffer from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) usually have long-term neurological impairments. Endogenous neurogenesis might play a potential role in functional recovery after SAH; however, the underlying neurogenesis mechanism is still unclear. We assessed the extent of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to better understand the neurogenesis mechanism after SAH. We performed a rat model of SAH to examine the extent of neurogenesis in the SVZ and assessed functional effects of the neurotrophic factors in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on neural stem cells (NSCs) after SAH...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821771/regulation-of-embryonic-neurogenesis-by-germinal-zone-vasculature
#15
Mathew Tata, Ivan Wall, Andy Joyce, Joaquim M Vieira, Nicoletta Kessaris, Christiana Ruhrberg
In the adult rodent brain, new neurons are born in two germinal regions that are associated with blood vessels, and blood vessels and vessel-derived factors are thought to regulate the activity of adult neural stem cells. Recently, it has been proposed that a vascular niche also regulates prenatal neurogenesis. Here we identify the mouse embryo hindbrain as a powerful model to study embryonic neurogenesis and define the relationship between neural progenitor cell (NPC) behavior and vessel growth. Using this model, we show that a subventricular vascular plexus (SVP) extends through a hindbrain germinal zone populated by NPCs whose peak mitotic activity follows a surge in SVP growth...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816964/therapeutic-effects-of-umbilical-cord-blood-plasma-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#16
Jongman Yoo, Han-Soo Kim, Jin-Ju Seo, Jang-Hyoun Eom, Seong-Mi Choi, Sanghyun Park, Dong-Wook Kim, Dong-Youn Hwang
Umbilical cord blood plasma (UCB-PL) contains various cytokines, growth factors, and immune modulatory factors that regulate the proliferation and function of immune cells and adult stem cells. Despite its therapeutic potential, the effects of UCB-PL treatment in conditions of ischemic brain injury have yet to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that both behavioral and structural impairments resulting from ischemic brain injury were significantly prevented/reversed after intravenous administration of UCB-PL relative to the vehicle control...
October 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798140/conditional-deletion-of-the-l-type-calcium-channel-cav1-2-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-affects-postnatal-myelination-in-mice
#17
Veronica T Cheli, Diara A Santiago González, Tenzing Namgyal Lama, Vilma Spreuer, Vance Handley, Geoffrey G Murphy, Pablo M Paez
: To determine whether L-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels (L-VOCCs) are required for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development, we generated an inducible conditional knock-out mouse in which the L-VOCC isoform Cav1.2 was postnatally deleted in NG2-positive OPCs. A significant hypomyelination was found in the brains of the Cav1.2 conditional knock-out (Cav1.2(KO)) mice specifically when the Cav1.2 deletion was induced in OPCs during the first 2 postnatal weeks. A decrease in myelin proteins expression was visible in several brain structures, including the corpus callosum, cortex, and striatum, and the corpus callosum of Cav1...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796638/endogenous-neurogenesis-in-adult-mammals-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
REVIEW
Hongmei Duan, Wei Song, Wen Zhao, Yudan Gao, Zhaoyang Yang, Xiaoguang Li
During the whole life cycle of mammals, new neurons are constantly regenerated in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Thanks to emerging methodologies, great progress has been made in the characterization of spinal cord endogenous neural stem cells (ependymal cells) and identification of their role in adult spinal cord development. As recently evidenced, both the intrinsic and extrinsic molecular mechanisms of ependymal cells control the sequential steps of the adult spinal cord neurogenesis...
October 27, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789613/grafted-neural-precursors-integrate-into-mouse-striatum-differentiate-and-promote-recovery-of-function-through-release-of-erythropoietin-in-mptp-treated-mice
#19
Stephana Carelli, Toniella Giallongo, Cristina Viaggi, Zuzana Gombalova, Elisa Latorre, Massimiliano Mazza, Francesca Vaglini, Anna Maria Di Giulio, Alfredo Gorio
Erythropoietin-releasing neural precursor cells (Er-NPCs) are a subclass of subventricular zone-derived neural progenitors, capable of surviving for 6 hr after death of donor. They present higher neural differentiation. Here, Er-NPCs were studied in animal model of Parkinson's disease. Dopaminergic degeneration was caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine intraperitoneal administration in C57BL/6 mice. The loss of function was evaluated by specific behavioral tests. Er-NPCs (2.5 × 10(5)) expressing the green fluorescent protein were administered by stereotaxic injection unilaterally in the left striatum...
October 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782828/spatial-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-notch-pathway-associated-prognostic-markers-in-idh1-wild-type-glioblastoma-involving-the-subventricular-zone
#20
Christine Jungk, Andreas Mock, Janina Exner, Christoph Geisenberger, Rolf Warta, David Capper, Amir Abdollahi, Sara Friauf, Bernd Lahrmann, Niels Grabe, Philipp Beckhove, Andreas von Deimling, Andreas Unterberg, Christel Herold-Mende
BACKGROUND: The spatial relationship of glioblastoma (GBM) to the subventricular zone (SVZ) is associated with inferior patient survival. However, the underlying molecular phenotype is largely unknown. We interrogated an SVZ-dependent transcriptome and potential location-specific prognostic markers. METHODS: mRNA microarray data of a discovery set (n = 36 GBMs) were analyzed for SVZ-dependent gene expression and process networks using the MetaCore™ workflow...
October 26, 2016: BMC Medicine
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