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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733832/seasonal-reorganization-of-hypothalamic-neurogenic-niche-in-adult-sheep
#1
Lucile Butruille, Martine Batailler, Danièle Mazur, Vincent Prévot, Martine Migaud
Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated. This process, well established during development, persists in adulthood owing to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) localized in specific brain areas called neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis has recently been shown to occur in the hypothalamus, a structure involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction and metabolism, among others. In the adult sheep-a long-lived mammalian model-we have previously reported the existence of such a neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the median eminence...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728023/persistent-expression-of-vcam1-in-radial-glial-cells-is-required-for-the-embryonic-origin-of-postnatal-neural-stem-cells
#2
Xiao-Ling Hu, Guo Chen, Sanguo Zhang, Jiangli Zheng, Jun Wu, Qing-Ran Bai, Yue Wang, Ji Li, Huanhuan Wang, Han Feng, Jia Li, Xicai Sun, Qijun Xia, Fan Yang, Jing Hang, Chang Qi, Timothy N Phoenix, Sally Temple, Qin Shen
During development, neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo transitions from neuroepithelial cells to radial glial cells (RGCs), and later, a subpopulation of slowly dividing RGCs gives rise to the quiescent adult NSCs that populate the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). Here we show that VCAM1, a transmembrane protein previously found in quiescent adult NSCs, is expressed by a subpopulation of embryonic RGCs, in a temporal and region-specific manner. Loss of VCAM1 reduced the number of active embryonic RGCs by stimulating their premature neuronal differentiation while preventing quiescence in the slowly dividing RGCs...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725659/explant-methodology-for-analyzing-neuroblast-migration
#3
Kirsty J Dixon, Alisa Turbic, Ann M Turnley, Daniel J Liebl
The subventricular zone (SVZ) in the mammalian forebrain contains stem/progenitor cells that migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb throughout adulthood. SVZ-derived explant cultures provide a convenient method to assess factors regulating the intermediary stage of neural stem/progenitor cell migration. Here, we describe the isolation of SVZ-derived RMS explants from the neonatal mouse brain, and the conditions required to culture and evaluate their migration.
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716558/emmprin-overexpression-in-svz-neural-progenitor-cells-increases-their-migration-towards-ischemic-cortex
#4
Michiko Kanemitsu, Oleg Tsupykov, Gaël Potter, Michael Boitard, Patrick Salmon, Eloisa Zgraggen, Eduardo Gascon, Galina Skibo, Alexandre G Dayer, Jozsef Z Kiss
Stimulation of endogenous neurogenesis and recruitment of neural progenitors from the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenic site may represent a useful strategy to improve regeneration in the ischemic cortex. Here, we tested whether transgenic overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), the regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, in endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) could increase migration towards ischemic injury. For this purpose, we applied a lentivector-mediated gene transfer system...
July 14, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709456/analyses-of-distribution-and-dosimetry-of-brain-metastases-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-relation-to-the-neural-stem-cell-regions-feasibility-of-sparing-the-hippocampus-in-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation
#5
Lei Zhao, Yan Shen, Jin-Dong Guo, Heng-Le Gu, Wen Yu, Jia-Ming Wang, Chang-Xing Lv, Jun Liu, Xu-Wei Cai, Xiao-Long Fu
BACKGROUND: This work aims to assess the feasibility of selectively sparing the hippocampus during prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). METHODS: SCLC patients with brain metastases (BMs) diagnosed with MRI were enrolled. Lesions localized to the neural stem cell (NSC) compartments [subventricular zone (SVZ) or hippocampus] were analyzed. Patients were categorized by the total number of intracranial metastases, the therapy processes and the symptoms...
July 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706205/the-alkaloids-of-banisteriopsis-caapi-the-plant-source-of-the-amazonian-hallucinogen-ayahuasca-stimulate-adult-neurogenesis-in-vitro
#6
Jose A Morales-García, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Sandra Alonso-Gil, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco, Amanda Feilding, Ana Perez-Castillo, Jordi Riba
Banisteriopsis caapi is the basic ingredient of ayahuasca, a psychotropic plant tea used in the Amazon for ritual and medicinal purposes, and by interested individuals worldwide. Animal studies and recent clinical research suggests that B. caapi preparations show antidepressant activity, a therapeutic effect that has been linked to hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we report that harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, the three main alkaloids present in B. caapi, and the harmine metabolite harmol, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698301/prdm16-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-postnatal-forebrain-and-their-differentiation-into-ependymal-cells
#7
Issei S Shimada, Melih Acar, Rebecca J Burgess, Zhiyu Zhao, Sean J Morrison
We and others showed previously that PR domain-containing 16 (Prdm16) is a transcriptional regulator required for stem cell function in multiple fetal and neonatal tissues, including the nervous system. However, Prdm16 germline knockout mice died neonatally, preventing us from testing whether Prdm16 is also required for adult stem cell function. Here we demonstrate that Prdm16 is required for neural stem cell maintenance and neurogenesis in the adult lateral ventricle subventricular zone and dentate gyrus. We also discovered that Prdm16 is required for the formation of ciliated ependymal cells in the lateral ventricle...
July 11, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694515/physical-binding-of-endothelial-mcam-and-neural-transmembrane-protease-matriptase-novel-cell-adhesion-in-neural-stem-cell-vascular-niche
#8
Hsiu-Hui Tung, Sheau-Ling Lee
Brain neural stem cells and transit amplifying cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles are in direct contact with the microvascular endothelium. The mechanisms/molecules of direct cell contact in the SVZ neurovascular niche are not fully understood. We previously showed that neural stem/progenitor (NS/P) cells induce brain endothelial signaling in direct cell contact through matriptase (MTP) on NS/P cell surface. In the present study, using pull-down and LC-MS/MS, we identified melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) the brain endothelial molecule that interacts with MTP...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694255/soluble-app-functions-as-a-vascular-niche-signal-that-controls-adult-neural-stem-cell-number
#9
Yuya Sato, Yutaka Uchida, Jingqiong Hu, Tracy L Young-Pearse, Takako Niikura, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
What controls neural stem cell (NSC) number in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain? Vascular niche signals regulate NSC quiescence and growth. Here, we have uncovered a role for soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) as a vascular niche signal in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of the adult brain. sAPP suppresses NSC growth in culture. Further in vivo studies on the role of APP for the NSC number in the SVZ clearly demonstrate that endothelial deletion of App causes a significant increase in the number of BrdU(+) label-retaining NSCs in the SVZ, while NSC/astrocyte deletion of App has no detectable effect on the NSC number...
July 10, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690140/new-neurons-in-adult-brain-distribution-molecular-mechanisms-and-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Annachiara Pino, Guido Fumagalli, Francesco Bifari, Ilaria Decimo
"Are new neurons added in the adult mammalian brain?" "Do neural stem cells activate following CNS diseases?" "How can we modulate their activation to promote recovery?" Recent findings in the field provide novel insights for addressing these questions from a new perspective. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about adult neurogenesis and neural stem cell niches in healthy and pathological conditions. We will first overview the milestones that have led to the discovery of the classical ventricular and hippocampal neural stem cell niches...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688273/leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-lrrk2-inhibitors-based-on-indolinone-scaffold-potential-pro-neurogenic-agents
#11
Irene G Salado, Josefa Zaldivar-Diez, Víctor Sebastián-Pérez, Lingling Li, Larissa Geiger, Silvia González, Nuria E Campillo, Carmen Gil, Aixa V Morales, Daniel I Perez, Ana Martinez
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is one of the most pursued targets for Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. Moreover, it has recently described its role in regulating Wnt signaling and thus, it may be involved in adult neurogenesis. This new hypothesis could give rise to double disease-modifying agents firstly by the benefits of inhibiting LRRK2 and secondly by promoting adult neurogenesis. Herein we report, the design, synthesis, biological evaluation, SAR and potential binding mode of indoline-like LRRK2 inhibitors and their preliminary neurogenic effect in neural precursor cells isolated from adult mice ventricular-subventricular zone...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687615/sox5-6-21-prevent-oncogene-driven-transformation-of-brain-stem-cells
#12
Idha Kurtsdotter, Danijal Topcic, Alexandra Karlén, Bhumica Singla, Daniel W Hagey, Maria Bergsland, Peter Siesjö, Monica Nistér, Joseph W Carlson, Veronique Lefebvre, Oscar Persson, Johan Holmberg, Jonas Muhr
Molecular mechanisms preventing self-renewing brain stem cells from oncogenic transformation are poorly defined. We show that the expression levels of SOX5, SOX6 and SOX21 (SOX5/6/21) transcription factors increase in stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) upon oncogenic stress, whereas their expression in human glioma decreases during malignant progression. Elevated levels of SOX5/6/21 promoted SVZ cells to exit the cell cycle, while genetic ablation of SOX5/6/21 dramatically increased the capacity of these cells to form glioma-like tumors in an oncogene-driven mouse brain tumor model...
July 7, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683812/mechano-growth-factor-a-splice-variant-of-igf-1-promotes-neurogenesis-in-the-aging-mouse-brain
#13
Jason J Tang, Jewel L Podratz, Miranda Lange, Heidi J Scrable, Mi-Hyeon Jang, Anthony J Windebank
Mechano growth factor (MGF) is a splice variant of IGF-1 first described in skeletal muscle. MGF induces muscle cell proliferation in response to muscle stress and injury. In control mice we found endogenous expression of MGF in neurogenic areas of the brain and these levels declined with age. To better understand the role of MGF in the brain, we used transgenic mice that constitutively overexpressed MGF from birth. MGF overexpression significantly increased the number of BrdU+ proliferative cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVG)...
July 7, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682902/long-term-outcomes-of-concomitant-chemoradiotherapy-with-temozolomide-for-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-patients-a-single-center-analysis
#14
Tae Hoon Roh, Hun Ho Park, Seok-Gu Kang, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Chang-Ki Hong, Sung Soo Ahn, Hye Jin Choi, Jaeho Cho, Se Hoon Kim, Seung Koo Lee, Dong Seok Kim, Sun Ho Kim, Chang-Ok Suh, Kyu Sung Lee, Jong Hee Chang
The present study analyzed outcomes of surgery followed by concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) at a single institution. Outcomes were retrospectively reviewed in 252 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed GBM who underwent surgery followed by CCRT with TMZ at the authors' institution between 2005 and 2013. At initial operation, 126 (50.0%), 55 (21.8%), 45 (17.9%), and 26 (10.3%) patients underwent gross total resection (GTR), subtotal resection, partial resection (PR), and biopsy, respectively...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677758/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-subventricular-zone-and-dentate-gyrus-in-an-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Xin-Jie Bao, Geng-Chao Wang, Fu-Xing Zuo, Xue-Yuan Li, Jun Wu, Guo Chen, Wan-Chen Dou, Yi Guo, Qin Shen, Ren-Zhi Wang
Adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ), as well as in the subgranular zone contributes to brain maintenance and regeneration. In the adult brain, dopamine (DA) can regulate the endogenous neural stem cells within these two regions, while a DA deficit may affect neurogenesis. Notably, the factors that regulate in vivo neurogenesis in these subregions have not yet been fully characterized, particularly following DA depletion. In thi study, we performed RNA sequencing to investigate transcriptomic changes in the SVZ and dentate gyrus (DG) of mice in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675430/parvalbumin-expressing-ependymal-cells-in-rostral-lateral-ventricle-wall-adhesions-contribute-to-aging-related-ventricle-stenosis-in-mice
#16
Federica Filice, Marco R Celio, Alexandre Babalian, Walter Blum, Viktoria Szabolcsi
Aging-associated ependymal-cell pathologies can manifest as ventricular gliosis, ventricle enlargement or ventricle stenosis. Ventricle stenosis and fusion of the lateral ventricle (LV) walls is associated with a massive decline of the proliferative capacities of the stem cell niche in the affected subventricular zone (SVZ) in aging mice. We examined the brains of adult C57BL/6 mice and found that ependymal cells located in the adhesions of the medial and lateral walls of the rostral LVs upregulated parvalbumin (PV) and displayed reactive phenotype, similarly to injury-reactive ependymal cells...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674431/9-cis-retinoic-acid-induces-neurorepair-in-stroke-brain
#17
Seong-Jin Yu, Mikko Airavaara, Kuo-Jen Wu, Brandon K Harvey, H S Liu, Yihong Yang, Alex Zacharek, Jieli Chen, Yun Wang
The purpose of this study was to examine the neurorestorative effect of delayed 9 cis retinoic acid (9cRA) treatment for stroke. Adult male rats received a 90-min right distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAo). Animals were separated into two groups with similar infarction sizes, based on magnetic resonance imaging on day 2 after dMCAo. 9cRA or vehicle was given via an intranasal route daily starting from day 3. Stroke rats receiving 9cRA post-treatment showed an increase in brain 9cRA levels and greater recovery in motor function...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673742/blue-light-potentiates-neurogenesis-induced-by-retinoic-acid-loaded-responsive-nanoparticles
#18
Tiago Santos, Raquel Ferreira, Emanuel Quartin, Carlos Boto, Cláudia Saraiva, José Bragança, João Peça, Cecília Rodrigues, Lino Ferreira, Liliana Bernardino
Neurogenic niches constitute a powerful endogenous source of new neurons that can be used for brain repair strategies. Neuronal differentiation of these cells can be regulated by molecules such as retinoic acid (RA) or by mild levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are also known to upregulate RA receptor alpha (RARα) levels. Data showed that neural stem cells from the subventricular zone (SVZ) exposed to blue light (405nm laser) transiently induced NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS, resulting in β-catenin activation and neuronal differentiation, and increased RARα levels...
June 30, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669915/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-odorant-activity-dependent-migration-of-neural-precursor-cells-and-olfactory-bulb-growth
#19
Nikorn Pothayee, Diana M Cummings, Timothy J Schoenfeld, Stephen Dodd, Heather A Cameron, Leonardo Belluscio, Alan P Koretsky
Neural progenitors or neuroblasts are produced by precursor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulbs (OB) throughout life. In the OB, these adult born neurons either die or replace existing olfactory interneurons, playing a critical role in the stabilization of OB circuitry. Although several aspects of the addition of new neurons into the OB have been studied, it is unclear whether long-distance activity from the OB can regulate the influx of migrating neuroblasts along the RMS...
June 30, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669622/smad4-is-essential-for-directional-progression-from-committed-neural-progenitor-cells-through-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-postnatal-mouse-brain
#20
Motoko Kawaguchi-Niida, Noriyuki Shibata, Yasuhide Furuta
Signaling by the TGFβ super-family, consisting of TGFβ/activin- and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) branch pathways, is involved in the central nervous system patterning, growth, and differentiation during embryogenesis. Neural progenitor cells are implicated in various pathological conditions, such as brain injury, infarction, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. However, the roles of TGFβ/BMP signaling in the postnatal neural progenitor cells in the brain are still poorly understood. We examined the functional contribution of Smad4, a key integrator of TGFβ/BMP signaling pathways, to the regulation of neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ)...
June 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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