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Subventricular zone

Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Miłosz Piotr Kawa, Patrycja Kłos, Dorota Rogińska, Michał Rudnicki, Boehlke Marek, Piotr Waloszczyk, Bogusław Machaliński
Ionizing radiation can significantly affect brain function in children and young adults, particularly in the hippocampus where neurogenic niches are located. Injury to normal tissue is a major concern when whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is used to treat central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and the pathogenesis of this injury remains poorly understood. We assessed the expression of selected neurotrophins (NTs) and NT receptors (NTRs) in brains of young mice after a single 10 Gy gamma-ray exposure using morphological and molecular analyses [qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC)] to evaluate WBI-induced injury in its acute phase...
October 24, 2016: Radiation Research
Kirsty J Dixon, Jose Mier, Shyam Gajavelli, Alisa Turbic, Ross Bullock, Ann M Turnley, Daniel J Liebl
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a series of pathological events that can have profound influences on motor, sensory and cognitive functions. Conversely, TBI can also stimulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation leading to increased numbers of neuroblasts migrating outside their restrictive neurogenic zone to areas of damage in support of tissue integrity. Unfortunately, the factors that regulate migration are poorly understood. Here, we examine whether ephrinB3 functions to restrict neuroblasts from migrating outside the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS)...
September 28, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Yun Zhao, Qiongyi Pang, Meixia Liu, Jingzi Pan, Bingwu Xiang, Tingting Huang, Fengxia Tu, Chan Liu, Xiang Chen
Using a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we have previously demonstrated that treadmill exercise promotes angiogenesis in the ischemic penumbra through caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways. However, the function of caveolin-1/VEGF signaling in neurogenesis after MCAO has not been determined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of treadmill exercise to promote neurogenesis after MCAO and whether caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways are involved. After MCAO, rats were subjected to a program of treadmill exercise...
October 17, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Haiyan Lu, Xiaoyan Song, Feng Wang, Guodong Wang, Yuncheng Wu, Qiaoshu Wang, Yongting Wang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Zhijun Zhang
Endogenous Netrin-1 (NT-1) protein was significantly increased after cerebral ischemia, which may participate in the repair after transient cerebral ischemic injury. In this work, we explored whether NT-1 can be steadily overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV) and the exogenous NT-1 can promote neural stem cells migration from the subventricular zone (SVZ) region after cerebral ischemia. Adult CD-1 mice were injected stereotacticly with AAV carrying NT-1 gene (AAV-NT-1). Mice underwent 60 min of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion 1 week after injection...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Andrea Becerra-Calixto, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez
Cerebral ischemia is a cerebrovascular episode that generates a high incidence of death and physical and mental disabilities worldwide. Excitotoxicity, release of free radicals, and exacerbated immune response cause serious complications in motor and cognitive areas during both short and long time frames post-ischemia. CDK5 is a kinase that is widely involved in the functions of neurons and astrocytes, and its over-activation is implicated in neurodegenerative processes. In this study, we evaluated the brain parenchymal response to the transplantation of CDK5-knockdown astrocytes into the somatosensory cortex after ischemia in rats...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Ruilan Zhang, Zhenggang Zhang, Michael Chopp
Hypoxic/ischemic injury is the single most important cause of disabilities in infants, while stroke remains a leading cause of morbidity in children and adults around the world. The injured brain has limited repair capacity, and thereby only modest improvement of neurological function is evident post injury. In rodents, embryonic neural stem cells in the ventricular zone generate cortical neurons, and adult neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle produce new neurons through animal life...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Tao Yan, Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Alex Zacharek, Ruizhuo Ning, Cynthia Roberts, Yi Zhang, Mei Lu, Jieli Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Comorbidity of diabetes mellitus and stroke results in worse functional outcome, poor long-term recovery, and extensive vascular damage. We investigated the neurorestorative effects and mechanisms of stroke treatment with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were induced with T2DM, subjected to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated via tail-vein injection with (1) PBS (n=8) and (2) hMSCs (n=10; 5×10(6)) at 3 days after MCAo...
October 11, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
B Nourallah, R Digpal, R Jena, C Watts
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive adult brain tumour. Over the last 10 years it has emerged that the subventricular zone (SVZ), the largest adult neural stem cell niche, has an important role in the disease. Converging evidence has implicated transformation of adult neural stems in gliomagenesis and the permissive stem cell niche in disease recurrence. Concurrently, clinical studies have suggested that SVZ involvement is a negative prognostic marker. It would follow that irradiating the SVZ may improve outcomes in glioblastoma by directly targeting this putative sanctuary site...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Yi Pang, Xuemei Dai, Anna Roller, Kathleen Carter, Ian Paul, Abhay J Bhatt, Rick C S Lin, Lir-Wan Fan
Perinatal infection is a well-identified risk factor for a number of neurodevelopmental disorders, including brain white matter injury (WMI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The underlying mechanisms by which early life inflammatory events cause aberrant neural, cytoarchitectural, and network organization, remain elusive. This study is aimed to investigate how systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation affects microglia phenotypes and early neural developmental events in rats. We show here that LPS exposure at early postnatal day 3 leads to a robust microglia activation which is characterized with mixed microglial proinflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes...
2016: PloS One
S A Papadimitriou, M P Robin, D Ceric, R K O'Reilly, S Marino, M Resmini
Nanomaterials are emerging as strong candidates for applications in drug delivery and offer an alternative platform to modulate the differentiation and activity of neural stem cells. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of two different classes of polymeric nanoparticles: N-isopropylacrylamide-based thermoresponsive nanogels RM1 and P(TEGA)-b-P(d,lLA)2 nano-micelles RM2. We covalently linked the nanoparticles with fluorescent tags and demonstrate their ability to be internalized and tracked in neural stem cells from the postnatal subventricular zone, without affecting their proliferation, multipotency and differentiation characteristics up to 150 μg ml(-1)...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Yu-Hui Yan, Shao-Heng Li, Zhong Gao, Sa-Feng Zou, Hong-Yan Li, Zhen-Yu Tao, Jie Song, Jing-Xian Yang
AIMS: Recently, the potential for neural stem cells (NSCs) to be used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported; however, the therapeutic effects are modest by virtue of the low neural differentiation rate. In our study, we transfected bone marrow-derived NSCs (BM-NSCs) with Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a superactive neurotrophic factor that promotes neuronal survival, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells, to investigate the effects of NT-3 gene overexpression on the proliferation and differentiation into cholinergic neuron of BM-NSCs in vitro and its possible molecular mechanism...
October 6, 2016: Life Sciences
Marna Eliana Sakalem, Thomas Seidenbecher, Mingyue Zhang, Roja Saffari, Mykola Kravchenko, Stephanie Wördemann, Kai Diederich, Jens C Schwamborn, Weiqi Zhang, Oliver Ambrée
It is well known that adult neurogenesis occurs in two distinct regions, the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone along the walls of the lateral ventricles. Until now, the contribution of these newly born neurons to behavior and cognition is still uncertain. The current study tested the functional impacts of diminished hippocampal neurogenesis on emotional and cognitive functions in transgenic Gfap-tk mice. Our results showed that anxiety-related behavior evaluated both in the elevated plus maze as well as in the open field, social interaction in the sociability test, and spatial working memory in the spontaneous alternation test were not affected...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
Chiara Bardella, Osama Al-Dalahmah, Daniel Krell, Pijus Brazauskas, Khalid Al-Qahtani, Marketa Tomkova, Julie Adam, Sébastien Serres, Helen Lockstone, Luke Freeman-Mills, Inga Pfeffer, Nicola Sibson, Robert Goldin, Benjamin Schuster-Böeckler, Patrick J Pollard, Tomoyoshi Soga, James S McCullagh, Christopher J Schofield, Paul Mulholland, Olaf Ansorge, Skirmantas Kriaucionis, Peter J Ratcliffe, Francis G Szele, Ian Tomlinson
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations drive human gliomagenesis, probably through neomorphic enzyme activity that produces D-2-hydroxyglutarate. To model this disease, we conditionally expressed Idh1(R132H) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mouse brain. The mice developed hydrocephalus and grossly dilated lateral ventricles, with accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate and reduced α-ketoglutarate. Stem and transit amplifying/progenitor cell populations were expanded, and proliferation increased. Cells expressing SVZ markers infiltrated surrounding brain regions...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Cell
Claudia G Liberini, Tito Borner, Christina N Boyle, Thomas A Lutz
OBJECTIVE: Adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone and subventricular zone is generally accepted, but its existence in other brain areas is still controversial. Circumventricular organs, such as the area postrema (AP) have recently been described as potential neurogenic niches in the adult brain. The AP is the major site of action of the satiating hormone amylin. Amylin has been shown to promote the formation of neuronal projections originating from the AP in neonatal rodents but the role of amylin in adult neurogenesis remains unknown...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Magdalena Misiak, Rebeca Vergara Greeno, Beverly A Baptiste, Peter Sykora, Dong Liu, Stephanie Cordonnier, Evandro F Fang, Deborah L Croteau, Mark P Mattson, Vilhelm A Bohr
Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the progressive degeneration of neurons critical for learning and memory. In addition, patients with AD typically exhibit impaired olfaction associated with neuronal degeneration in the olfactory bulb (OB). Because DNA base excision repair (BER) is reduced in brain cells during normal aging and AD, we determined whether inefficient BER due to reduced DNA polymerase-β (Polβ) levels renders OB neurons vulnerable to degeneration in the 3xTgAD mouse model of AD. We interrogated OB histopathology and olfactory function in wild-type and 3xTgAD mice with normal or reduced Polβ levels...
September 30, 2016: Aging Cell
B S Mathew, S B Kaliyath, J Krishnan, S Bhasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
P Blumenfeld, M Guryildirim, G Tolekidis, J Y Shin, D Chan, M Thoma, M Kocak, A Diaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Mathieu Daynac, Linda Tirou, Hélène Faure, Marc-André Mouthon, Laurent R Gauthier, Heidi Hahn, François D Boussin, Martial Ruat
Identifying the mechanisms controlling quiescence and activation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is crucial for understanding brain repair. Here, we demonstrate that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling actively regulates different pools of quiescent and proliferative NSCs in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), one of the main brain neurogenic niches. Specific deletion of the Hh receptor Patched in NSCs during adulthood upregulated Hh signaling in quiescent NSCs, progressively leading to a large accumulation of these cells in the V-SVZ...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Gabriel Rusanescu, Jianren Mao
Unilateral peripheral nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) has been widely used as a research model of human neuropathic pain. Recently, CCI has been shown to induce spinal cord adult neurogenesis, which may contribute to the chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity. Here, we show that CCI also induces rapid and profound asymmetrical anatomical rearrangements in the adult rodent cerebellum and pons. This remodelling occurs throughout the hindbrain, and in addition to regions involved in pain processing, also affects other sensory modalities...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Inseyah Bagasrawala, Fani Memi, Nevena V Radonjić, Nada Zecevic
N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a subtype of glutamate receptor, have important functional roles in cellular activity and neuronal development. They are well-studied in rodent and adult human brains, but limited information is available about their distribution in the human fetal cerebral cortex. Here we show that 3 NMDAR subunits, NR1, NR2A, and NR2B, are expressed in the human cerebral cortex during the second trimester of gestation, a period of intense neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. With increasing fetal age, expression of the NMDAR-encoding genes Grin1 (NR1) and Grin2a (NR2A) increased while Grin2b (NR2B) expression decreased...
September 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
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