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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787034/critical-preparation-and-readiness-to-support-future-change
#1
Elizabeth Curtis, Emma Duffy, Frank O'Rourke, Sylvia Huntley-Moore, Annabel Walsh, Ken Coogan, Catherine Comiskey
The challenging nature of change is well documented and adequate preparation before implementing a change initiative is critical to reducing resistance and increasing its chances of success. This article describes a service review conducted in preparation for possible change and improvement at an internationally ranked school of nursing and midwifery in an Irish tertiary education institution. The purpose of the review was to examine organisational structures and work activities, including pressures facing the administrative team that supports the school, and to establish whether operations were fit for purpose and capable of continuing to support the international ranking...
May 22, 2018: Nursing Management (Harrow)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786971/intergenerational-teen-pregnancy-a-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Ning Liu, Simone N Vigod, M Michèle Farrugia, Marcelo L Urquia, Joel G Ray
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the intergenerational association in teenage pregnancy, and whether there is a coupling tendency between a mother and daughter in how their teen pregnancies end, such as an induced abortion (IA) vs. a livebirth. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. POPULATION: 15,097 mothers and their 16,177 daughters. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations generated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of a daughter experiencing a teen pregnancy in relation to the number of teen pregnancies her mother had...
May 22, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786968/p62-mediated-autophagy-affects-nutrition-dependent-insulin-receptor-substrate-1-dynamics-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#3
Hirobumi Igawa, Akihiro Kikuchi, Hirofumi Misu, Kiyo-Aki Ishii, Shuichi Kaneko, Toshinari Takamura
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that the organism's nutritional status changes the protein levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in a tissue-specific manner. Although the mechanisms underlying the regulation of IRS-1 in the nutrient-rich conditions associated with diabetes and insulin resistance have been well studied, those under nutrient-poor conditions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how IRS-1 protein levels change depending on the nutritional status of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786958/variability-in-student-perceptions-of-mistreatment
#4
Samantha Ellis, Joel Purkiss, Emily Abdoler, Amanda Opaskar, Rajesh S Mangrulkar, Joseph C Kolars, Sally A Santen
BACKGROUND: As medical schools strive to improve the learning environment, it is important to understand medical students' perceptions of mistreatment. The purpose of this study was to explore student interpretations of previously reported mistreatment incidents to better understand how they conceptualise the interactions. METHODS: Medical students were presented with case scenarios of previously reported instances of mistreatment and asked to indicate their agreement as to whether the scenarios demonstrated mistreatment, using a five-point Likert scale (1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree)...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786957/statistical-approaches-to-adjusting-weights-for-dependent-arms-in-network-meta-analysis
#5
Yu-Xuan Su, Yu-Kang Tu
Network meta-analysis compares multiple treatments in terms of their efficacy and harm by including evidence from randomized controlled trials. Most clinical trials use parallel design, where patients are randomly allocated to different treatments and receive only one treatment. However, some trials use within person designs such as split-body, split-mouth and cross-over designs, where each patient may receive more than one treatment. Data from treatment arms within these trials are no longer independent, so the correlations between dependent arms need to be accounted for within the statistical analyses...
May 22, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786905/quasi-3d-structured-interfaces-by-polymer-brushes
#6
REVIEW
Edmondo M Benetti
The fabrication of polymer brushes via surface-initiated controlled radical polymerizations has progressively developed beyond a simple surface functionalization technique, enabling the design of complex polymer interfaces with a quasi-3D molecular organization. The modulation of polymer brush structure has led to an extremely broad tuning potential for technologically relevant interfacial, physicochemical properties, allowing one to precisely tune swelling, nanomechanical, and nanotribological characteristics of polymer films...
May 22, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786902/engineered-metalloenzymes-with-non-canonical-coordination-environments
#7
Takahiro Hayashi, Donald Hilvert, Anthony P Green
Nature employs a limited number of genetically encoded, metal coordinating residues to create metalloenzymes with diverse structures and functions. Engineered components of the cellular translation machinery can now be exploited to genetically encode non-canonical ligands with user-defined electronic and structural properties. This ability to efficiently install 'chemically programmed' ligands into proteins can provide powerful chemical probes of metalloenzyme mechanisms and presents excellent opportunities to create metalloprotein catalysts with augmented properties and novel activities...
May 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786880/metagenomic-study-of-bacterial-microbiota-in-persistent-endodontic-infections-using-next-generation-sequencing
#8
G Sánchez-Sanhueza, H Bello-Toledo, G González-Rocha, A T Gonçalves, V Valenzuela, C Gallardo-Escárate
AIM: To determine the bacterial microbiota in root canals associated with persistent apical periodontitis and their relationship with the clinical characteristics of patients using next-generation sequencing (NGS). METHODOLOGY: Bacterial samples from root canals associated with teeth having persistent apical periodontitis were taken from 24 patients undergoing root canal retreatment. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and V3-V4 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified...
May 22, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786874/meta-analysis-of-the-association-of-alcohol-related-social-media-use-with-alcohol-consumption-and-alcohol-related-problems-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#9
REVIEW
Brenda L Curtis, Samantha J Lookatch, Danielle E Ramo, James R McKay, Richard S Feinn, Henry R Kranzler
Despite the pervasive use of social media by young adults, there is comparatively little known about whether, and how, engagement in social media influences this group's drinking patterns and risk of alcohol-related problems. We examined the relations between young adults' alcohol-related social media engagement (defined as the posting, liking, commenting, and viewing of alcohol-related social media content) and their drinking behavior and problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the association of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems with alcohol-related social media engagement...
May 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786833/assessment-of-cerebral-perfusion-and-edema-in-preeclampsia-with-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-mri
#10
Maria Nelander, Daniel Hannsberger, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Lina Bergman, Jan Weis, Helena Åkerud, Johan Wikström, Anna-Karin Wikström
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral complications are the main reasons for morbidity and mortality in preeclampsia and eclampsia. Still we do not know if the pathophysiology entails hypo- or hyperperfusion of the brain, or how and when edema emerges, due to the difficulty to examine the cerebral circulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have used a non-invasive diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, intravoxel incoherent motion, to study cerebral perfusion on the capillary level and cerebral edema in women with preeclampsia (n=30), normal pregnancy (n=32) and non-pregnant women (n=16)...
May 22, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786795/protocols-for-studies-on-stromal-cells-in-prostate-cancer
#11
Damien A Leach, Grant Buchanan
Interactions between tumor cells and fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cancer development and progression. Indeed, the paracrine communication between these two cell types is known to have physiological effects that alter carcinogenic and metastatic potential. An often overlooked player in these interactions is the involvement of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The network of ECM proteins secreted from fibroblasts is reportedly altered with cancer initiation and progression, and in several cases has been associated with patient outcome...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786791/protocols-for-studies-on-tmprss2-erg-in-prostate-cancer
#12
Hubert Pakula, Douglas E Linn, Daniel R Schmidt, Marit Van Gorsel, Matthew G Vander Heiden, Zhe Li
TMPRSS2/ERG is the most common type of gene fusions found in human prostate cancer. There are two important features of TMPRSS2/ERG fusions. One is that these gene fusions lead to ectopic expression of ERG, an ETS family transcription factor, in prostate epithelial cells from the 5' control region of an androgen/estrogen dual-responsive gene, TMPRSS2; the other is that ~60% of these fusions are generated via intrachromosomal deletion of the interstitial region between TMPRSS2 and ERG. To recapitulate these important aspects of TMPRSS2/ERG fusions, we generated several TMPRSS2/ERG knockin mouse models based on the endogenous Tmprss2 locus...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786771/analysis-of-letter-representation-using-latin-and-arabic-scripts-a-masked-priming-study
#13
Julien Dirani, Arne Dietrich
Reading plays an essential role in our everyday lives. The aim of this study is to investigate how letters are represented in the brain using the unique characteristics of the Arabic language, which can be written with 2 different scripts. The hypothesis proposed is that the processing of script is sound based: Phonology is what determines letter identity. Using a forward-masked priming paradigm, we showed that Latin-script primes facilitated the recognition of subsequent Arabic-script targets which differed in orthography but shared phonology, thus suggesting a common level of phonological processing...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786761/engineering-terpenoid-production-through-transient-expression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#14
REVIEW
James Reed, Anne Osbourn
Terpenoids are the most structurally diverse class of plant natural products with a huge range of commercial and medical applications. Exploiting this enormous potential has historically been hindered due to low levels of these compounds in their natural sources, making isolation difficult, while their structural complexity frequently makes synthetic chemistry approaches uneconomical. Engineering terpenoid biosynthesis in heterologous host production platforms provides a means to overcome these obstacles. In particular, plant-based production systems are attractive as they provide the compartmentalisation and cofactors necessary for the transfer of functional pathways from other plants...
May 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786716/unexpected-protonation-state-of-glu197-discovered-from-simulations-of-tacrine-in-butyrylcholinesterase
#15
Xiao Wan, Yuan Yao, Lei Fang, Junjun Liu
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) has been actively involved in drug discoveries from many fields for decades. In the crystal structure of the BChE-tacrine complex, there is an unanticipated formyl-proline molecule resolved very close to tacrine, raising an essential question on how reliable it is to apply the binding pose in a crystal structure to analyze related experimental observations, in which no formyl-proline is actually involved. In this study, by performing a series of 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that it is safe to employ the structural information from this crystal structure to analyze related experimental observations...
May 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786698/a-reconstruction-of-global-hydroclimate-and-dynamical-variables-over-the-common-era
#16
Nathan J Steiger, Jason E Smerdon, Edward R Cook, Benjamin I Cook
Hydroclimate extremes critically affect human and natural systems, but there remain many unanswered questions about their causes and how to interpret their dynamics in the past and in climate change projections. These uncertainties are due, in part, to the lack of long-term, spatially resolved hydroclimate reconstructions and information on the underlying physical drivers for many regions. Here we present the first global reconstructions of hydroclimate and associated climate dynamical variables over the past two thousand years...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786693/hormonebase-a-population-level-database-of-steroid-hormone-levels-across-vertebrates
#17
Maren N Vitousek, Michele A Johnson, Jeremy W Donald, Clinton D Francis, Matthew J Fuxjager, Wolfgang Goymann, Michaela Hau, Jerry F Husak, Bonnie K Kircher, Rosemary Knapp, Lynn B Martin, Eliot T Miller, Laura A Schoenle, Jennifer J Uehling, Tony D Williams
Hormones are central regulators of organismal function and flexibility that mediate a diversity of phenotypic traits from early development through senescence. Yet despite these important roles, basic questions about how and why hormone systems vary within and across species remain unanswered. Here we describe HormoneBase, a database of circulating steroid hormone levels and their variation across vertebrates. This database aims to provide all available data on the mean, variation, and range of plasma glucocorticoids (both baseline and stress-induced) and androgens in free-living and un-manipulated adult vertebrates...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786645/skeletal-muscle-micrornas-as-key-players-in-the-pathogenesis-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Lorena Di Pietro, Wanda Lattanzi, Camilla Bernardini
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, for which, to date, no effective treatment to ameliorate the clinical manifestations is available. The long-standing view of ALS as affecting only motor neurons has been challenged by the finding that the skeletal muscle plays an active role in the disease pathogenesis and can be a valuable target for therapeutic strategies. In recent years, non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, have emerged as important molecules that play key roles in several cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying various human conditions...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786623/rating-of-perceived-exertion-as-a-method-of-volume-autoregulation-within-a-periodized-program
#19
Eric R Helms, Matt R Cross, Scott R Brown, Adam Storey, John Cronin, Michael C Zourdos
Helms, ER, Cross, MR, Brown, SR, Storey, A, Cronin, J, and Zourdos, MC. Rating of perceived exertion as a method of volume autoregulation within a periodized program. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1627-1636, 2018-The purpose of this investigation was to observe how a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-based autoregulation strategy impacted volume performed by powerlifters. Twelve (26 ± 7 years, n = 9 men, n = 3 women) nationally qualified powerlifters performed the back squat, bench press, and deadlift 3x per week on nonconsecutive days in a session order of hypertrophy, power, and then strength; for 3 weeks...
June 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786608/microscopic-aspects-of-wetting-using-classical-density-functional-theory
#20
Peter Yatsyshin, Miguel A Duran-Olivencia, Serafim Kalliadasis
Wetting is a rather efficient mechanism for nucleation of a phase (typically liquid) on the interface
 between two other phases (typically solid and gas). In many experimentally
 accessible cases of wetting, the interplay between the substrate structure,
 and the fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate intermolecular interactions brings
 about an entire ``zoo" of possible fluid configurations, such as liquid
 films with a thickness of a few nanometers, liquid nanodrops and liquid
 bridges...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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