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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941398/the-mechanisms-mediating-the-antiepileptic-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-and-potential-opportunities-for-improvement-with-metabolism-altering-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Neil A Youngson, Margaret J Morris, Bill Ballard
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly being used to treat patients with intractable epilepsy. Despite decades of research, the reason for its success, when anticonvulsants have failed, is still not completely understood. There are, however, many candidate mechanisms which can be grouped into those that alter neuronal excitability at the synapse, and those that confer neuroprotection. The molecular underpinning of these mechanisms centres on the shift from glucose- to lipid-based energy generation that accompanies a high fat/low carbohydrate diet...
September 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941397/semi-analytical-modeling-of-anchor-loss-in-plate-mounted-resonators
#2
Christoph Schaal, Robert M'Closkey, Ajit Mal
A semi-analytical technique for estimating the energy loss in a resonator mounted to an infinite plate substrate is proposed in this paper. In a plate, only Lamb waves have to be considered, leading to a simplified characterization of the energy carried away from a vibrating source on the plate surface. Instead of employing absorbing elements at the boundaries of the plate-resonator finite element model, it is shown how the semi-analytical approach of stitching together analytical Lamb wave expressions to the finite element model can be utilized...
September 14, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941391/chlorinated-paraffins-leaking-from-hand-blenders-can-lead-to-significant-human-exposures
#3
Bo Yuan, Anna Strid, Per Ola Darnerud, Cynthia A de Wit, Jessica Nyström, Åke Bergman
BACKGROUND: Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes) are versatile, high-production-volume chemicals. A previous study indicated that hand blenders leak CPs into prepared food. OBJECTIVES: (1) to estimate exposure to CPs from hand blender use compared to background CP exposure from diet; (2) to assess the risk from human dietary exposure to CPs from hand blender use; (3) to investigate how hand blenders leak out CPs. METHODS: CPs were analyzed in food market baskets, in cooking oil/water samples (1g oil/100mL water) mixed using 16 different hand blenders, and in dismantled components of the hand blenders...
September 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941378/associations-among-adolescent-sleep-problems-emotion-regulation-and-affective-disorders-findings-from-a-nationally-representative-sample
#4
Cara A Palmer, Benjamin Oosterhoff, Joanne L Bower, Julie B Kaplow, Candice A Alfano
Sleep problems in youth reliably forecast the development of anxiety and mood disorders, presumably due to increased emotional difficulties. However, precise emotional mechanisms have yet to be delineated. The current study investigated how sleep problems in adolescence are associated with different emotion regulation strategies, and how sleep and psychiatric risk may be indirectly associated via poor emotion regulation. This study utilized data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative sample from the United States (N = 10,148; age range 13-18 years)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#5
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
September 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941356/computational-approaches-to-identify-genetic-interactions-for-cancer-therapeutics
#6
Graeme Benstead-Hume, Sarah K Wooller, Frances M G Pearl
The development of improved cancer therapies is frequently cited as an urgent unmet medical need. Here we describe how genetic interactions are being therapeutically exploited to identify novel targeted treatments for cancer. We discuss the current methodologies that use 'omics data to identify genetic interactions, in particular focusing on synthetic sickness lethality (SSL) and synthetic dosage lethality (SDL). We describe the experimental and computational approaches undertaken both in humans and model organisms to identify these interactions...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938782/perch-use-by-broiler-breeders-and-its-implication-on-health-and-production
#7
S G Gebhardt-Henrich, M J Toscano, H Würbel
Broiler breeders are commonly kept without perches, although perching has been shown to be a high-priority behavior in laying hens. We studied whether broiler breeders used elevated perches of different lengths during the night and how access to perches affected health and production. Using the Ross 308 hybrid, pens offering 4 different perch spaces per bird (5, 10, 14, and 20 cm) in a cross-over design were compared with pens without perches. The number of birds on perches at midnight were recorded 7 times during production...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938750/allowable-warm-ischemic-time-and-morphological-and-biochemical-changes-in-uterine-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-cynomolgus-macaque-a-basic-study-for-uterus-transplantation
#8
Iori Kisu, Kiyoko Umeneo, Masataka Adachi, Katsura Emoto, Yuya Nogami, Kouji Banno, Iori Itagaki, Ikuo Kawamoto, Takahiro Nakagawa, Hayato Narita, Atsushi Yoshida, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Daisuke Aoki
STUDY QUESTION: How long is the allowable warm ischemic time of the uterus and what morphological and biochemical changes are caused by uterine ischemia/reperfusion injury in cynomolgus macaques? SUMMARY ANSWER: Warm ischemia in the uterus of cynomolgus macaques is tolerated for up to 4 h and reperfusion after uterine ischemia caused no further morphological and biochemical changes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Uterus transplantation is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938738/resolution-of-infertility-and-number-of-children-1386-couples-followed-for-a-median-of-13-years
#9
A A Righarts, A Gray, N P Dickson, L Parkin, W R Gillett
STUDY QUESTION: How common were children among infertile couples? SUMMARY ANSWER: A total of 61.7% of infertile couples presenting for care subsequently had live born children 13.1 years after first being clinically assessed, with a mean of 1.7 children among those who had at least one. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: While the prognoses for infertile couples undertaking specific treatments have been well described, less is known about those not undergoing these treatments or the total number of children...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938735/the-age-of-fathers-in-the-usa-is-rising-an-analysis-of-168-867-480-births-from-1972-to-2015
#10
Yash S Khandwala, Chiyuan A Zhang, Ying Lu, Michael L Eisenberg
STUDY QUESTION: How has the mean paternal age in the USA changed over the past 4 decades? SUMMARY ANSWER: The age at which men are fathering children in the USA has been increasing over time, although it varies by race, geographic region and paternal education level. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: While the rise in mean maternal age and its implications for fertility, birth outcomes and public health have been well documented, little is known about paternal characteristics of births within the USA...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938718/looking-back-forward-looking
#11
Scott C Edmunds, Nicole A Nogoy, Hans Zauner, Peter Li, Christopher I Hunter, Xiao Si Zhe, Laurie Goodman
GigaScience is now 5 years old, having been launched at the 2012 Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology conference. Anyone who has attended what is the largest computational biology conference since then has had the opportunity to join us for each birthday celebration-and receive 1 of our fun T-shirts as a party prize. Since launching, we have pushed our agenda of openness, transparency, reproducibility, and reusability. Here, we look back at our first 5 years and what we have done to forward our open science goals in scientific publishing...
September 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938605/combined-prognostic-effect-of-pd-l1-expression-and-immunoscore-in-microsatellite-unstable-advanced-gastric-cancers
#12
Kyung-Ju Kim, Han Kwang Yang, Woo Ho Kim, Gyeong Hoon Kang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate how programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression is linked to the immunoscore in the context of the tumor microenvironment and to assess the differential prognostic value of PD-L1 expression according to the immunoscore in 153 patients with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) advanced gastric cancer (GC). RESULTS: We found that T-PD-L1 (+) and I-PD-L1 (+) were significantly associated with a high immunoscore...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938577/mitochondria-chaperone-grp75-moonlighting-as-a-cell-cycle-controller-to-derail-endocytosis-provides-an-opportunity-for-nanomicrosphere-intracellular-delivery
#13
Zhihui Gao, Xiuran Niu, Qing Zhang, Hang Chen, Aiai Gao, Shanshan Qi, Rong Xiang, Mattias Belting, Sihe Zhang
Understanding how cancer cells regulate endocytosis during the cell cycle could lead us to capitalize this event pharmacologically. Although certain endocytosis pathways are attenuated during mitosis, the endocytosis shift and regulation during the cell cycle have not been well clarified. The conventional concept of glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) as protein folding chaperones was updated by discoveries that translocated GRPs assume moonlighting functions that modify the immune response, regulate viral release, and control intracellular trafficking...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938520/galangin-suppresses-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-by-reversing-the-warburg-effect
#14
Yajun Wang, Biyun Lin, Huimin Li, Liubo Lan, Huajun Yu, Shang Wu, Jun Wu, Haitao Zhang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer. The Warburg effect is an important way by which HCC adapts to a hypoxic environment. The aim of the present study was to determine whether and how galangin reverses the Warburg effect in HCC cells. We treated three HCC cell lines, HepG2, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5 with galangin for 24h, respectively. Cell proliferation was measured with MTT assay. Glucose uptake, lactate production and the oxygen consumption were measured. Pyruvate kinase activities were detected by measuring the consumption of NADH, and glycolytic pathway-related proteins were measured by Western blotting...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938479/pulmonary-function-and-sleep-breathing-two-new-targets-for-type-2-diabetes-care
#15
Albert Lecube, Rafael Simó, Maria Pallayova, Naresh M Punjabi, Carolina López-Cano, Cecilia Turino, Cristina Hernández, Ferran Barbé
Population based studies showing the negative impact of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on lung function are overviewed. Among the well-recognized pathophysiological mechanisms, the metabolic pathways related to insulin resistance, low-grade chronic inflammation, leptin resistance, microvascular damage, and autonomic neuropathy are emphasized. Histopathological changes are exposed, and findings reported from experimental models are clearly differentiated from those described in humans. The accelerated decline in pulmonary function that appears in patients with cystic fibrosis with related abnormalities of glucose tolerance and diabetes is considered as an example to further investigate the relationship between T2D and the lung...
September 4, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938463/role-of-cyp51-in-the-regulation-of-t3-and-fsh-induced-steroidogenesis-in-female-mice
#16
Juan Liu, Ye Tian, Yu Ding, Dai Heng, Kaili Xu, Wenbo Liu, Cheng Zhang
Cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) is a key enzyme in sterols and steroids biosynthesis that involved in folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation, which is regulated by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), as a key reproductive hormone during follicular development. Thyroid hormone (TH) is also important for normal reproductive function. Although T3 enhances FSH-induced preantral follicle growth, whether and how TH combines with FSH to regulate CYP51 expression during preantral to early antral transition stage is unclear...
August 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938443/microbiota-dependent-induction-of-colonic-cyp27b1-is-associated-with-colonic-inflammation-implication-of-locally-produced-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-in-inflammatory-regulation-in-the-colon
#17
Jie Du, Xinzhi Wei, Xin Ge, Yinyin Chen, Yan Chun Li
Our recent studies demonstrated that intestinal epithelial vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling plays a critical role in regulating colonic inflammation by protecting epithelial barrier integrity. Epithelial VDR is down-regulated in colitis, but how mucosal inflammation affects local 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) production is unknown. Here we showed that Cyp27b1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme required for 1,25(OH)2D3 biosynthesis, is highly induced in colonic mucosa in inflammatory response. While VDR is reduced in colon biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis, Cyp27b1 is markedly up-regulated in these samples...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938442/angiotensin-ii-causes-beta-cell-dysfunction-through-an-er-stress-induced-pro-inflammatory-response
#18
Stanley M H Chan, Yeh-Siang Lau, Alyson A Miller, Jacqueline M Ku, Simon Potocnik, Ji-Ming Ye, Owen L Woodman, Terence P Herbert
The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increase in the activation of renin angiotensin system (RAS) and inhibition of RAS reduces the incidence of new onset diabetes. Importantly, angiotensin II (AngII), independently of its vasoconstrictor action causes beta-cell inflammation and dysfunction, which may be an early step in the development of type-2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine how AngII causes beta cell dysfunction. Islets of Langerhans were isolated from C57BL/6J mice that had been infused with AngII in the presence or absence of taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and effects on ER stress, inflammation and beta cell function determined...
August 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938423/igfbp4-is-required-for-adipogenesis-and-influences-the-distribution-of-adipose-depots
#19
David E Maridas, Victoria E DeMambro, Phuong T Le, Subburaman Mohan, Clifford J Rosen
Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) induces adipogenesis in vitro. IGF Binding Protein 4 (IGFBP4) is highly expressed in adipocytes and osteoblasts and is inhibitory of IGFs in vitro. We previously reported that Igfbp4 null mice (Igfbp4-/-) had decreased fat proportions at 8 and 16 weeks of age. However, the mechanism leading to the reduced adiposity remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate how IGFBP4 mediates adipose tissue development in vivo. Our results showed that inguinal (iWAT) and gonadal (gWAT) white adipose tissues from Igfbp4-/- mice had decreased weights and Pparγ expression...
July 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938422/prepubertal-development-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neuron-activity-is-altered-by-sex-age-and-prenatal-androgen-exposure
#20
Eden A Dulka, Suzanne M Moenter
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate reproduction though pulsatile hormone release. Disruption of GnRH release as measured via LH pulses occurs in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in young hyperandrogenemic girls. In adult prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice, which exhibit many aspects of PCOS, increased LH is associated with increased GnRH neuron action potential firing. How GnRH neuron activity develops over the prepubertal period and whether or not this is altered by sex or prenatal androgen treatment are unknown...
September 15, 2017: Endocrinology
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