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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812535/associating-mutations-causing-cystinuria-with-disease-severity-with-the-aim-of-providing-precision-medicine
#1
Henry J Martell, Kathie A Wong, Juan F Martin, Ziyan Kassam, Kay Thomas, Mark N Wass
BACKGROUND: Cystinuria is an inherited disease that results in the formation of cystine stones in the kidney, which can have serious health complications. Two genes (SLC7A9 and SLC3A1) that form an amino acid transporter are known to be responsible for the disease. Variants that cause the disease disrupt amino acid transport across the cell membrane, leading to the build-up of relatively insoluble cystine, resulting in formation of stones. Assessing the effects of each mutation is critical in order to provide tailored treatment options for patients...
August 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808737/development-of-neutron-imaging-quantitative-data-treatment-to-assess-conservation-products-in-cultural-heritage
#2
Marco Realini, Chiara Colombo, Claudia Conti, Francesco Grazzi, Enrico Perelli Cippo, Jan Hovind
Distribution, penetration depth and amount of new mineralogical phases formed after the interaction between an inorganic treatment and a matrix are key factors for the evaluation of the conservation treatment behaviour. Nowadays, the conventional analytical methodologies, such as vibrational spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, provide only qualitative and spot information. Here, we report, for the first time, the proof of concept of a methodology based on neutron imaging able to achieve quantitative data useful to assess the formation of calcium oxalate in a porous carbonatic stone treated with ammonium oxalate...
August 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808392/antiurolithiatic-effect-of-sirupeelai-samoola-kudineer-a-polyherbal-siddha-decoction-on-ethylene-glycol-induced-renal-calculus-in-experimental-rats
#3
A Hannah Rachel Vasanthi, V Muthulakshmi, V Gayathri, R Manikandan, S Ananthi, Sarah Kuruvilla
BACKGROUND: Sirupeelai Samoola Kudineer (SK), a polyherbal decoction containing four medicinal plants has been used in Siddha system of medicine, practiced in Southern parts of India for the management of urolithiasis. OBJECTIVE: The present study is carried out to scientifically validate the traditional claim and to study the mechanism of action of the drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, anti-urolithiatic effect of SK was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats using ethylene glycol through drinking water and intraperitoneal injection of sodium oxalate...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802723/site-formation-processes-of-the-early-acheulean-assemblage-at-ef-hr-olduvai-gorge-tanzania
#4
Ignacio de la Torre, Karol Wehr
This paper investigates the formation history of the early Acheulean site of EF-HR (Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania). Our study focuses on the main site (T2-Main Trench) and adjacent trenches (T12 and T9), which constitute the bulk of the archaeological assemblage recently excavated in the EF-HR area (de la Torre et al., submitted). Site formation processes are investigated through taphonomic proxies and spatial analysis, and consider artifact features, orientation patterns, and topographic data retrieved during archaeological excavation...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802109/influence-of-the-properties-of-granitic-rocks-on-their-bioreceptivity-to-subaerial-phototrophic-biofilms
#5
Daniel Vázquez-Nion, Benita Silva, Beatriz Prieto
As any stone substrate is susceptible to biological colonisation, the choice of lithotype used for construction is a key strategy for preventing biodeterioration. For this purpose, a comprehensive evaluation of the primary bioreceptivity to phototrophic biofilms of eleven varieties of granitic rocks, commonly used as building material, was carried out. Blocks were inoculated with a multi-species phototrophic culture and subjected to standardised growth conditions for three months. Biofilm formation was assessed by chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence, colour measurements and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) quantification...
August 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792520/comparison-of-porous-and-nano-zinc-oxide-for-replacing-high-dose-dietary-regular-zinc-oxide-in-weaning-piglets
#6
Lina Long, Jiashun Chen, Yonggang Zhang, Xiao Liang, Hengjia Ni, Bin Zhang, Yulong Yin
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dietary supplementation with low dose of porous and nano zinc oxide (ZnO) on weaning piglets, and to evaluate the possibility of using them as an alternative to high dose of regular ZnO. Piglets were randomly allocated into four treatment groups fed with four diets: (1) basal diet (NC), (2) NC+ 3000 mg/kg ZnO (PC), (3) NC + 500 mg/kg porous ZnO (HiZ) and (4) NC + 500 mg/kg nano ZnO (ZNP). The result showed that piglets in HiZ group had less diarrhea than ZNP group (P < 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776078/sarna-mediated-activation-of-trpv5-reduces-renal-calcium-oxalate-deposition-in-rat-via-decreasing-urinary-calcium-excretion
#7
Tao Zeng, Xiaolu Duan, Wei Zhu, Yang Liu, Wenqi Wu, Guohua Zeng
Hypercalciuria is a main risk factor for kidney stone  formation. TRPV5 is the gatekeeper protein for mediating calcium transport and reabsorption in the kidney. In the present study, we tested the effect of TRPV5 activation with small activating RNA (saRNA), which could induce gene expression by targeting the promoter of the gene, on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals formation in rat kidney. Five pairs of RNA activation sequences targeting the promoter of rat TRPV5 were designed and synthesized...
August 3, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775336/shape-dependent-cellular-toxicity-on-renal-epithelial-cells-and-stone-risk-of-calcium-oxalate-dihydrate-crystals
#8
Xin-Yuan Sun, Jian-Ming Ouyang, Kai Yu
Renal epithelial cell injury causes crystal retention and leads to renal stone formation. However, the effects of crystal shape on cell injury and stone risk remain unclear. This study compared the cytotoxicity degrees of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals having different shapes toward human kidney proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells to reveal the effect of crystal shape on cell injury and to elucidate the pathological mechanism of calcium oxalate kidney stones. The effects of exposure to cross-shaped (COD-CS), flower-like (COD-FL), bipyramid (COD-BD), and elongated-bipyramid (COD-EBD) COD crystals on HK-2 cells were investigated by examining the cell viability, cell membrane integrity, cell morphology change, intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and apoptotic and/or necrotic rate...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764766/physicians-pharmacogenomics-information-needs-and-seeking-behavior-a-study-with-case-vignettes
#9
Bret S E Heale, Aly Khalifa, Bryan L Stone, Scott Nelson, Guilherme Del Fiol
BACKGROUND: Genetic testing, especially in pharmacogenomics, can have a major impact on patient care. However, most physicians do not feel that they have sufficient knowledge to apply pharmacogenomics to patient care. Online information resources can help address this gap. We investigated physicians' pharmacogenomics information needs and information-seeking behavior, in order to guide the design of pharmacogenomics information resources that effectively meet clinical information needs...
August 1, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764245/bilateral-staghorn-calculus-with-forgotten-double-j-stent-in-ileal-conduit-patient-a-rare-urological-challenge
#10
Rupesh Gupta, Ranjan Kumar Dey, Rakesh Sharma, Sweta Gupta
Forgotten DJ stent associated stone formation is not an uncommon entity. Here we are reporting the uncommon case of bilateral staghorn calculus due to forgotten DJ stent who had undergone radical cystectomy with ileal conduit diversion six years back. Management of these cases is a challenging urological situation due to inaccessible ureteric orifices. Patient was successfully treated with minimally invasive therapy in the form of combined bilateral PCNL (Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy) and ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy) therapy...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762682/-use-of-citrate-in-patients-with-nephrolithiasis
#11
REVIEW
Martino Marangella
Citrate is a tricarboxylic acid and an intermediate metabolite of Krebs cycle. It contributes to oxidative metabolism of both kidney and liver. Alkaline sodium or potassium salts have the potential to increase alkaline reserve. In the kidney citrate is completely filtered at the glomerulus, undergoing to 10-40% tubular resorption. Renal insufficiency, even early, metabolic acidosis, potassium depletion induce hypocitraturia. Its importance in nephrolithiasis stems from its ability to form soluble complexes with calcium and to interfere with crystal formation, thus exerting a dual inhibition, thermodynamic and kinetic...
August 1, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761331/antiglycation-radical-scavenging-and-semicarbazide-sensitive-amine-oxidase-inhibitory-activities-of-acetohydroxamic-acid-in-vitro
#12
Yuh-Hwa Liu, Yeh-Lin Lu, Der-Zen Liu, Wen-Chi Hou
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) can promote intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and the levels of AGEs are highly correlated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes complications. Acetohydroxamic acid (acetH) is a bacterial urease inhibitor drug used to treat kidney stones and infections in the urinary tract, and hydroxyurea (HU) is a drug used for antineoplasm and sickle cell diseases. Both acetH and HU are hydroxamic acid derivatives. It was found that acetH and HU at 2.5 or 5 mM showed anti-AGE formation by lowering the AGEs' fluorescent intensities and N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine formation in bovine serum albumin/galactose models, and both showed better and significant differences (P<0...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760580/landscape-scale-heterogeneity-in-the-east-turkana-ecosystem-during-the-okote-member-1-56-1-38-ma
#13
D B Patterson, D R Braun, A K Behrensmeyer, S B Lehmann, S R Merritt, J S Reeves, B A Wood, R Bobe
Placing the biological adaptations of Pleistocene hominins within a well-resolved ecological framework has been a longstanding goal of paleoanthropology. This effort, however, has been challenging due to the discontinuous nature of paleoecological data spanning many important periods in hominin evolution. Sediments from the Upper Burgi (1.98-1.87 Ma), KBS (1.87-1.56 Ma) and Okote (1.56-1.38 Ma) members of the Koobi Fora Formation at East Turkana in northern Kenya document an important time interval in the evolutionary history of the hominin genera Homo and Paranthropus...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726709/impact-of-surface-condition-and-roughness-on-sediment-formation-an-experimental-sewer-system-operated-with-real-wastewater
#14
S Berzio, R-L Lange, M Schlüter, S Ulutaş, B Bosseler, M Wichern
Regular sewer cleaning in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) generates annual costs of around 50 million Euros. This leads to the question of whether and to what extent sewer cleaning is necessary. To determine the effect of roughness, sewer surface condition and discharge, experiments with real wastewater were performed, using a sewer test track with acrylic glass tubes (DN 300) prepared with abrasive paper and nature stone tiles at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) Bochum-Ölbachtal (Ruhrverband, Germany)...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725901/zinc-binding-sites-in-pra1-a-zincophore-from-candida-albicans
#15
Dorota Łoboda, Magdalena Rowińska-Żyrek
The aim of this work is to understand the interactions of Zn(ii) with Pra1, a zincophore from Candida albicans, one of the most common causes of serious fungal infections in humans. Pra1 is a 299 amino acid protein, secreted from the fungus to specifically bind Zn(ii) and deliver it to a transmembrane zinc transporter, Zrt1. We take the first step towards understanding the bioinorganic chemistry of this process, by pointing out the Zn(ii) binding sites in Pra1 and understanding the thermodynamics of such interactions...
July 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720371/genetic-risk-factors-for-idiopathic-urolithiasis-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-causal-network-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Kazumi Taguchi, Takahiro Yasui, Dawn Schmautz Milliner, Bernd Hoppe, Thomas Chi
CONTEXT: Urolithiasis has a high prevalence and recurrence rate. Prevention is key to patient management, but risk stratification is challenging. In particular, genetic predisposition for urinary stones is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To review current evidence of potential causative genes for idiopathic urolithiasis and map their relationships to one another. This evidence is essential for future establishment of molecular targeted therapy. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic literature review from 2007 to 2017 was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses guidelines...
February 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720370/the-swiss-kidney-stone-cohort-an-observational-study-to-unravel-the-cause-of-renal-stone-formation
#17
Beat Roth, Olivier Bonny
Its nationwide character, standardized and extensive patient work-up, long-term follow-up, and significant number of patients recruited make the Swiss Kidney Stone Cohort a valuable tool to better understand the pathophysiology of kidney stone formation.
February 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720369/metabolic-work-up-of-patients-with-urolithiasis-indications-and-diagnostic-algorithm
#18
REVIEW
Hans-Göran Tiselius, Michel Daudon, Kay Thomas, Christian Seitz
CONTEXT: The incidence of urinary tract stone disease is increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high. Appropriate therapeutic procedures with the aim of counteracting the progress of stone formation are highly desirable. Metabolic work-up is considered essential as a base for optimal design and follow-up of effective recurrence prevention. OBJECTIVE: To scrutinize the current literature with regard to principles of metabolic work-up for this heterogeneous group of patients...
February 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718989/formation-of-stone-wales-edge-multistep-reconstruction-and-growth-mechanisms-of-zigzag-nanographene
#19
Jing-Shuang Dang, Wei-Wei Wang, Jia-Jia Zheng, Shigeru Nagase, Xiang Zhao
Although the existence of Stone-Wales (5-7) defect at graphene edge has been clarified experimentally, theoretical study on the formation mechanism is still imperfect. In particular, the regioselectivity of multistep reactions at edge (self-reconstruction and growth with foreign carbon feedstock) is essential to understand the kinetic behavior of reactive boundaries but investigations are still lacking. Herein, by using finite-sized models, multistep reconstructions and carbon dimer additions of a bared zigzag edge are introduced using density functional theory calculations...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707190/novel-porcine-model-for-calcium-oxalate-stone-formation
#20
Brandon P Trojan, Sara J Trojan, Andrew Navetta, Bryce Staches, Bryan Sutton, Stephanie Filleur, Thomas Nelius
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms for calcium-based stone formation are not clearly delineated. Porcine are the most anatomically and physiologically congruent mammal to humans. Our objectives were to develop a cost-effective and easily reproducible porcine model for the study of calcium-based nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Crossbred male pigs (n = 16) were assigned randomly to one of the following treatments: (1) control; (2) ethylene glycol (EG) + vitamin D (VD); (3) EG + ammonium chloride (AC); (4) EG + gentamicin (G); (5) EG + Lasix; (6) EG + VD + AC; (7) EG + VD + G...
July 13, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
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