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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784858/production-of-staphylococcal-complement-inhibitor-scin-and-other-immune-modulators-during-the-early-stages-of-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-in-a-mammalian-cell-culture-medium
#1
Andi R Sultan, Jasper W Swierstra, Nicole A Lemmens-den Toom, Susan V Snijders, Silvie Hansenová Maňásková, Annelies Verbon, Willem J B van Wamel
Immune modulators are known to be produced by matured biofilms and during different stages of planktonic growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Little is known about immune modulator production during the early stages of biofilm formation, thus raising the question: how does S. aureus protect itself from the innate immune responses at these stages? Therefore, we determined the production of the following immune modulators: chemotaxis inhibitory protein of staphylococci (CHIPS), staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN), formyl peptide receptor-like 1 inhibitor, gamma-hemolysin component B, leukocidin D, E, and S, staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 1, 3, 5 and 9, and staphylococcal enterotoxin A...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782346/claudins-and-nephrolithiasis
#2
Allein Plain, R Todd Alexander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The greatest risk factor for kidney stone formation is increased urinary calcium excretion. Most filtered calcium is reabsorbed from the proximal tubule and the thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop via a paracellular pathway. Claudins are tight junction proteins that confer the permeability properties of an epithelium. We review the contribution of renal claudins to nephron calcium permeability and how perturbations in these pathways cause alterations in tubular calcium transport, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, or nephrolithiasis...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779738/culture-and-art-importance-of-art-practice-not-aesthetics-to-early-human-culture
#3
Dahlia W Zaidel
Art is expressed in multiple formats in today's human cultures. Physical traces of stone tools and other archaeological landmarks suggest early nonart cultural behavior and symbolic cognition in the early Homo sapiens (HS) who emerged ~300,000-200,000 years ago in Africa. Fundamental to art expression is the neural underpinning for symbolic cognition, and material art is considered its prime example. However, prior to producing material art, HS could have exploited symbolically through art-rooted biological neural pathways for social purpose, namely, those controlling interpersonal motoric coordination and sound codependence...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777258/development-of-a-two-stage-in-vitro-model-system-to-investigate-the-mineralization-mechanisms-involved-in-idiopathic-stone-formation-stage-1-biomimetic-randall-s-plaque-using-decellularized-porcine-kidneys
#4
Archana C Lovett, Saeed R Khan, Laurie B Gower
Idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers form stones that are commonly attached to calcium phosphate (CaP) deposits in the renal tissue, known as Randall's plaques (RP). Plaques are suggested to originate in the renal tubular basement membrane, where they exhibit a morphology of concentrically laminated apatitic spherules, while in the interstitial regions, the collagen fibrils and vesicles become mineralized. We hypothesize that these minerals might form by non-classical crystallization mechanisms, such as via amorphous precursors, some of which might originate from a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process...
May 18, 2018: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775211/proanthocyanidins-will-they-effectively-restrain-conspicuous-bacterial-strains-devolving-on-urinary-tract-infection
#5
REVIEW
Venkataseshan Jagannathan, Pragasam Viswanathan
Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762122/distinct-myocardial-lineages-break-atrial-symmetry-during-cardiogenesis-in-zebrafish
#6
Almary Guerra, Raoul Fv Germano, Oliver Stone, Rima Arnaout, Stefan Guenther, Suchit Ahuja, Verónica Uribe, Benoit Vanhollebeke, Didier Yr Stainier, Sven Reischauer
The ultimate formation of a four-chambered heart allowing the separation of the pulmonary and systemic circuits was key for the evolutionary success of tetrapods. Complex processes of cell diversification and tissue morphogenesis allow the left and right cardiac compartments to become distinct but remain poorly understood. Here, we describe an unexpected laterality in the single zebrafish atrium analogous to that of the two atria in amniotes, including mammals. This laterality appears to derive from an embryonic antero-posterior asymmetry revealed by the expression of the transcription factor gene meis2b ...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761202/kinetic-theory-for-the-formation-of-diamond-nanothreads-with-desired-configurations-a-strain-temperature-controlled-phase-diagram
#7
Junfeng Gao, Gang Zhang, Boris I Yakobson, Yong-Wei Zhang
Diamond nanothreads (DNTs) are a brand-new one-dimensional carbon nanomaterial that was synthesized recently by compressing benzene. Compared with sp2 carbon nanotubes, DNTs may possess a much higher interfacial load-transfer ability. However, previous studies have shown that the mechanical properties of DNTs are highly sensitive to the composition of Stone-Wales (SW) transformed sites. Up to now, it remained unclear what roles SWs play in the structure stability and how to engineer its molecular structure for novel mechanical properties...
May 15, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755786/laparoscopic-assisted-transgastric-ercp-a-single-institution-experience
#8
Katherine Habenicht Yancey, Lauren Katherine McCormack, Stephen Samuel McNatt, Myron Sheavictor Powell, Adolfo Zachariah Fernandez, Carl Joseph Westcott
Background: Laparoscopic-assisted transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (LAERCP) is used for treatment in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), where transoral access to the biliary tree is not possible. We describe our technique and experience with this procedure. Methods: Electronic medical record search was performed from September 2012 to January 2016, identifying patients who underwent LAERCP per operative records. Charts were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and outcomes data...
2018: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753848/outcomes-of-conservative-management-of-asymptomatic-live-donor-kidney-stones
#9
Mehmet Sarier, Ibrahim Duman, Mehmet Callioglu, Ahmet Soylu, Sabri Tekin, Emrah Celep, Hasan Turan, Asuman Havva Yavuz, Alper Demirbas, Erdal Kukul
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of asymptomatic stones ≤4 mm which are left in situ during renal transplantation (RT). METHODS: Between 2009 and 2017, 31 patients who received stone-bearing (≤4 mm) kidneys were analyzed. At their last follow-up, the patients were evaluated with CT imaging and the results were compared to the initial CT findings obtained during donor evaluation. RESULTS: The mean stone size was 2.9mm (range 1-4...
May 10, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753441/a-new-tephrochronology-for-early-diverse-stone-tool-technologies-and-long-distance-raw-material-transport-in-the-middle-to-late-pleistocene-kapthurin-formation-east-africa
#10
Nick Blegen, Brian R Jicha, Sally McBrearty
The Middle to Late Pleistocene (780-10 ka) of East Africa records evidence of significant behavioral change, early fossils of Homo sapiens, and the dispersals of our species across and out of Africa. Studying human evolution in this time period thus requires an extensive and precise chronology relating behavioral evidence from archaeological sequences to aspects of hominin biology and evidence of past environments from fossils and geological sequences. Tephrochronology provides the chronostratigraphic resolution to achieve this through correlation and dating of volcanic ashes...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750296/hyperoside-protects-human-kidney%C3%A2-2-cells-against-oxidative-damage-induced-by-oxalic-acid
#11
Yongliang Chen, Lihong Ye, Wangjian Li, Dongzhang Li, Feng Li
The majority of renal calculi (kidney stones) are calcium stones. Oxidative damage to renal tubular epithelial cells induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the predominant cause of calcium oxalate stone formation. Hyperoside (Hyp) is a flavonol glycoside extracted from medicinal plants and appears to exhibit potent antioxidant activity in various cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Hyp on renal cells exposed to oxidative stress simulated by oxalic acid (OA), and to determine whether the underlying mechanism involves the nuclear factor E2‑related factor2 (Nrf2)‑antioxidative response element signaling pathway...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745818/novel-insights-into-renal-mineralization-and-stone-formation-through-advanced-imaging-modalities
#12
Scott V Wiener, Ling Chen, Alex R Shimotake, Misun Kang, Marshall L Stoller, Sunita P Ho
Purpose/Aim: The most common kidney stone composed of calcium oxalate forms on interstitial calcium phosphate mineral known as a Randall's plaque (RP). Due to limited information about events leading to the initial deposition of nanometer size interstitial calcium phosphate pre-clusters, there continues to be a debate on the initial site of calcium phosphate deposition and factors leading to stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT), and light and electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize human renal pyramids and five representative kidney stones with identifiable stems...
December 2018: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744728/correction-to-aminoglycoside-damage-and-hair-cell-regeneration-in-the-chicken-utricle
#13
Mirko Scheibinger, Daniel C Ellwanger, C Eduardo Corrales, Jennifer S Stone, Stefan Heller
This article was updated to correct a formatting error in Table 1.
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740643/vibrational-satellites-of-c-2-s-c-3-s-and-c-4-s-microwave-spectral-taxonomy-as-a-stepping-stone-to-the-millimeter-wave-band
#14
Brett A McGuire, Marie-Aline Martin-Drumel, Kin Long Kelvin Lee, John F Stanton, Carl A Gottlieb, Michael C McCarthy
We present a microwave spectral taxonomy study of several hydrocarbon/CS2 discharge mixtures in which more than 60 distinct chemical species, their more abundant isotopic species, and/or their vibrationally excited states were detected using chirped-pulse and cavity Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopies. Taken together, in excess of 85 unique variants were detected, including several new isotopic species and more than 25 new vibrationally excited states of C2S, C3S, and C4S, which have been assigned on the basis of published vibration-rotation interaction constants for C3S, or newly calculated ones for C2S and C4S...
May 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729567/source-apportionment-of-fine-particulate-matter-organic-carbon-in-shenzhen-china-by-chemical-mass-balance-and-radiocarbon-methods
#15
Ibrahim M Al-Naiema, Subin Yoon, Yu-Qin Wang, Yuan-Xun Zhang, Rebecca J Sheesley, Elizabeth A Stone
Chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling and radiocarbon measurements were combined to evaluate the sources of carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in Shenzhen, China during and after the 2011 summer Universiade games when air pollution control measurements were implemented to achieve air quality targets. Ambient PM2.5 filter samples were collected daily at two sampling sites (Peking University Shenzhen campus and Longgang) over 24 consecutive days, covering the controlled and uncontrolled periods. During the controlled period, the average PM2...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719337/the-impact-of-stone-composition-on-renal-function
#16
Anmar Nassir, Hesham Saada, Taghreed Alnajjar, Jomanah Nasser, Waed Jameel, Soha Elmorsy, Hattan Badr
Background: Nephrolithiasis is a common condition that has various classifications according to stone composition. Stone formation can affect renal function; it can be a strong risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The main objective of this study is to explore the association between creatinine clearance and different stone compositions. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between 2005 and 2014...
April 2018: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713752/-a-mobile-app-for-patients-suffering-from-kidney-stones
#17
B Becker, N Gadzhiev, M Popiolek, A J Gross, C Netsch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kidney stone disease has become an important worldwide socioeconomic issue. However, metaphylaxis fails due to low compliance rates. Therefore, we developed a mobile app (StoneMD: Kidney Stones) for patients with kidney stones to increase compliance in stone metaphylaxis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To identify the most appropriate design of the app, we searched through the App Store and the Google Play Store and integrated the clinical recommendations of the European Association of Urology (EAU) and the American Urological Association (AUA)...
May 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713573/percutaneous-management-of-biliary-enteric-anastomotic-strictures-an-institutional-review
#18
Muhammad Azeemuddin, Nauman Turab, Mustafa Belal H Chaudhry, Shoaib Hamid, Mohammad Hasan, Raza Sayani
Purpose Stricture formation at the biliary enteric anastomotic site is a common complication due to fibrotic healing. Few therapeutic options are available for biliary-enteric anastomotic site stricture (BES) including new surgical reconstruction or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage followed by balloon dilation of BES or stent placement. The purpose of this study is to assess the technical success, complications and reintervention rate of percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilatation (PTBD) of BES after iatrogenic bile duct injuries (BDI)...
February 26, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713336/molecular-characterization-evolution-and-expression-profiling-of-the-dirigent-dir-family-genes-in-chinese-white-pear-pyrus-bretschneideri
#19
Xi Cheng, Xueqiang Su, Abdullah Muhammad, Manli Li, Jinyun Zhang, Yanming Sun, Guohui Li, Qing Jin, Yongping Cai, Yi Lin
Stone cells content and size are the key factors determining the internal quality of the pear fruit. Synthesis of lignin and thickening of secondary cell wall are the keys to the development of stone cells. The polymerization of monolignols and secondary cell wall formation requires the participation of dirigent proteins (DIRs). In recent years, DIR family have been studied in higher plants, but lack of comprehensive study in the pear DIR ( PbDIR ) family. This study focuses on the identification and analysis of PbDIR family for the first time...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709861/ambient-air-quality-and-exposure-assessment-study-of-the-gulf-cooperation-council-countries-a-critical-review
#20
REVIEW
Hamid Omidvarborna, Mahad Baawain, Abdullah Al-Mamun
With rapid urbanization and economic growth, many developing countries have faced a greater share of air pollutants in recent years. An increasing number of exposure studies on air pollutants have been reported lately. However, due to lack of strict regulations and monitoring stations among developing countries, such as Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, limited air pollution and exposure assessment studies have been conducted in this region. Thus, the objective of this critical review was to identify the major sources of air pollutants in the region with hot and arid/semiarid climate for the main categories contributing to specific pollutants...
April 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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