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Stone formation

Takumi Takeuchi, Mami Hattori-Kato, Yumiko Okuno, Atsushi Kanatani, Masayoshi Zaitsu, Koji Mikami
Various conditions including distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can induce stone formation in the kidney. dRTA is characterized by an impairment of urine acidification in the distal nephron. dRTA is caused by variations in genes functioning in intercalated cells including SLC4A1/AE1/Band3 transcribing two kinds of mRNAs encoding the Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger in erythrocytes and that expressed in α-intercalated cells (kAE1). With the acid-loading test, 25% of urolithiasis patients were diagnosed with incomplete dRTA...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matthew C Ferroni, Kevin J Rycyna, Timothy D Averch, Michelle J Semins
PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency is often detected during metabolic evaluation in the nephrolithiasis population. Multiple vitamin D repletion protocols exist, however their differing impact on urinary stone formation risk factors is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with a history of calcium stones and vitamin D deficiency (<30ng/ml) were randomized to receive either 1,000 International Units (IU) daily or 50,000 IU weekly of vitamin D supplementation for 6 weeks...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Urology
Naoya Niwa, Takashi Ohigashi, Hideharu Bessho, Takashi Arakawa
A bifid ureter with a distal blind-ending branch is a rare congenital anomaly. Most patients are asymptomatic; only patients with complications, such as infection, vesicoureteral reflux, or stone formation, present symptoms. We describe the case of a patient with urinary stone located in the distal blind-ending branch of a bifid ureter diagnosed during transurethral lithotripsy. Preoperative noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography did not reveal a stone in the distal blind-ending branch of the bifid ureter, but a rigid ureteroscope did; however, it could not reach the stone...
October 17, 2016: Urology
Chi-Fai Ng, Sylvia Luke, Chi-Hang Yee, Winnie Chu, Ka-Tak Wong, John Yuen
Objectives To perform a prospective study to evaluate the renal protective effects of ramping protocol and pause protocol for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in human subjects. Patients and Methods 320 patients with solitary renal stone <15mm, were randomized to receive one of four protocols: (1) 80% power from beginning until the end of treatment; (2) the first 100 SWs at 40% power, and then 80% power until the end of treatment; (3) the first 100 shocks at 40% power, followed by a 3-minute pause and then further SWs at 80% power until the end of treatment; and (4) the first 100 shocks at 80% power, followed by a 3-minute pause and then further SWs at 80% power until the end of treatment...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Endourology
Oscar Trujillo, Madeleine A Drusin, Rahmatullah Rahmati
The objective of this report was to identify potential factors associated with recurrent sialolithiasis after surgical intervention. This is a report of a woman with recurrent submandibular sialolithiasis after surgical intervention. Several characteristics of this patient indicate that she may have been predisposed to recurrent stone formation. Patient and disease factors leading to recurrent salivary stone formation are not well known. Notwithstanding, there may be stone factors and intraoperative findings that aid in determining whether a patient is likely to be successfully treated with a gland-sparing approach...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
Zhuo Liu, Hongyang Jiang, Jun Yang, Tao Wang, Yufeng Ding, Jihong Liu, Shaogang Wang, Zhangqun Ye
Calcium oxalate stones account for >80% of urinary stones, however the mechanisms underlying their formation remains to be elucidated. Hyperoxaluria serves an important role in the pathophysiological process of stone formation. In the present study, differences in the miRNA expression profiles between experimental hyperoxaluric rats and normal rats were analyzed, in order to identify target genes and signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of hyperoxaluria. Ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride was fed to male hyperoxaluric rats (EXP) and normal age‑matched male rats (CON)...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Vishnubhotla Venkata Ravikanth, Guduru Venkat Rao, Bale Govardhan, Mitnala Sasikala, Chivukula Subramanyam, H V Vivekananda Murthy, Siddapuram Siva Prasad, G Deepika, Rebala Pradeep, Duvvuru Nageshwar Reddy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pigmentous gallstones occur in South Indians despite significant higher levels of circulating cholesterol. This study was conducted to identify the biochemical and/or genetic causes for the formation of pigmentous gallstones in this ethnic group. METHODS: Plasma lipid profile, bile cholesterol, acids, and phospholipid levels were estimated in patients with gall stone disease and age, sex matched controls using standard protocols. Twenty-seven SNPs related to cholesterol and bilirubin metabolism pathway genes were genotyped in the study population using the Sequenom platform...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Tae Hoon Lee, Bong Seok Jang, Min Kyo Jung, Chan Gi Pack, Jun-Ho Choi, Do Hyun Park
To reduce tissue or tumor ingrowth, covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) have been developed. The effectiveness of covered SEMSs may be attenuated by sludge or stone formation or by stent clogging due to the formation of biofilm on the covering membrane. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a silicone membrane containing silver particles (Ag-P) would prevent sludge and biofilm formation on the covered SEMS. In vitro, the Ag-P-integrated silicone polymer-covered membrane exhibited sustained antibacterial activity, and there was no definite release of silver ions from the Ag-P-integrated silicone polymer membrane at any time point...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Benjamin J Schoville, Kyle S Brown, Jacob A Harris, Jayne Wilkins
The Middle Stone Age (MSA) is associated with early evidence for symbolic material culture and complex technological innovations. However, one of the most visible aspects of MSA technologies are unretouched triangular stone points that appear in the archaeological record as early as 500,000 years ago in Africa and persist throughout the MSA. How these tools were being used and discarded across a changing Pleistocene landscape can provide insight into how MSA populations prioritized technological and foraging decisions...
2016: PloS One
Karolína Drbalová, Kateřina Herdová, Petr Krejčí, Monika Nývltová, Svatopluk Solař, Lenka Vedralová, Pavel Záruba, David Netuka, Petr Bavor
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) is a condition in which several endocrine organs of an individual are affected by adenoma, hyperplasia and less often carcinoma, either simultaneously or at different stages of life. Two existing syndromes, MEN1 and MEN2 (2A, 2B), in literature is also mentioned MEN4, are associated also with other non-endocrine disorders. MEN1 (Wermer syndrome) affects the pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic area. 95 % of patients show very early manifestation of hyperparathyroidism, often before 40 years of age...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Babak Javanmard, Amir Hossein Kashi, Mohammad Mohsen Mazloomfard, Anahita Ansari Jafari, Saeed Arefanian
PURPOSE: To compare outcomes of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for stones ≤ 2 cm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with kidney stones of ≤ 2 cm underwent RIRS or SWL in a parallel group randomized clinical trial with balanced randomization [1:1] from 2011 to 2014. The primary outcome of interest was stone free rate after a single session intervention. Patients were evaluated by ultrasonography and KUB at 1 and 3 months after the intervention for the presence of residual stone by a radiologist who was blinded to the study...
October 10, 2016: Urology Journal
Kazumi Taguchi, Atsushi Okada, Shuzo Hamamoto, Rei Unno, Yoshinobu Moritoki, Ryosuke Ando, Kentaro Mizuno, Keiichi Tozawa, Kenjiro Kohri, Takahiro Yasui
In our previous report, M2-macrophage (Mφs) deficient mice showed increased renal calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation; however, the role of Mφs-related-cytokines and chemokines that affect kidney stone formation remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of M1/M2s in crystal development by using in vitro and in vivo approaches. The crystal phagocytic rate of bone marrow-derived M2Mφs was higher than that of bone marrow-derived Mφs and M1Mφs and increased on co-culture with renal tubular cells (RTCs)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Daniel Turudic, Danica Batinic, Anja Tea Golubic, Mila Lovric, Danko Milosevic
: Diagnostic criteria for determination of inclination towards idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis based on biochemical urine parameters are not sufficiently well defined in children. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of CaOx urolithiasis in children from concentrations of calcium, oxalate, citrate, and glycosaminoglycans in urine and their ratios, all standardized in respect to creatinine. We collected and analyzed 24-h urine samples of children with CaOx urolithiasis (n = 61) and compared with urine samples of matched control group of healthy children (n = 25)...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Katherine V Oliver, Annalisa Vilasi, Amandine Maréchal, Shabbir H Moochhala, Robert J Unwin, Peter R Rich
Cystinuria is the commonest inherited cause of nephrolithiasis (~1% in adults; ~6% in children) and is the result of impaired cystine reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. Cystine is poorly soluble in urine with a solubility of ~1 mM and can readily form microcrystals that lead to cystine stone formation, especially at low urine pH. Diagnosis of cystinuria is made typically by ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) detection and quantitation, which is slow, laboursome and costly. More rapid and frequent monitoring of urinary cystine concentration would significantly improve the diagnosis and clinical management of cystinuria...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yajuan Hao, Qiangqiang Tang, Xiaohong Li, Meirong Zhang, Yingbo Wan, Lai Feng, Ning Chen, Zdeněk Slanina, Ludwik Adamowicz, Filip Uhlík
It has been proposed that the fullerene formation mechanism involves either a top-down or bottom-up pathway. Despite different starting points, both mechanisms approve that particular fullerenes or metallofullerenes are formed through a consecutive stepwise process involving Stone-Wales transformations (SWTs) and C2 losses or additions. However, the formation pathway has seldomly been defined at the atomic level due to the missing-link fullerenes. Herein, we present the isolation and crystallographic characterization of two isomeric clusterfullerenes Sc2O@C2v(3)-C78 and Sc2O@D3h(5)-C78, which are closely related via a single-step Stone-Wales (SW) transformation...
October 9, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Tarik Emre Sener, Goksel Sener, Ozge Cevik, Pinar Eker, Sule Cetinel, Olivier Traxer, Yiloren Tanidir, Cem Akbal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effects of melatonin (Mel) on an ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis model in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups; control, ethylene glycol (EG), melatonin prevention (Mel+EG+Mel), melatonin treatment (EG+Mel) groups. 0.75% EG was added to drinking water to create nephrolithiasis model. EG group received EG and Mel+EG+Mel group received both EG and melatonin for 8 weeks. In EG+Mel group, EG is given for 8 weeks and melatonin is given for the last 4 weeks of the experiment...
October 4, 2016: Urology
Elisa Cicerello, Mario Mangano, Gian Davide Cova, Franco Merlo, Luigi Maccatrozzo
Fifty-four patients with infected renal lithiasis underwent complete metabolic evaluation searching for underlying factors contributing to stone formation including urine analysis and culture. Metabolic abnormalities were significantly more present in patients with mixed infected stones (struvite+/-apatite and calcium oxalate) than in patients with pure infected stones (struvite+/-carbonate apatite): hypercalciuria in 40%, hyperoxaluria in 34% and hyperuricosuria in 28% (p < 0.05). Urinary excretion of citrate was low in both groups without statistically significant difference (238+/-117 mg/24 h vs 214+/-104 mg/24/h, t = 0...
October 5, 2016: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Mangesh V Suryavanshi, Shrikant S Bhute, Swapnil D Jadhav, Manish S Bhatia, Rahul P Gune, Yogesh S Shouche
Hyperoxaluria due to endogenously synthesized and exogenously ingested oxalates is a leading cause of recurrent oxalate stone formations. Even though, humans largely rely on gut microbiota for oxalate homeostasis, hyperoxaluria associated gut microbiota features remain largely unknown. Based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons, targeted metagenomic sequencing of formyl-CoA transferase (frc) gene and qPCR assay, we demonstrate a selective enrichment of Oxalate Metabolizing Bacterial Species (OMBS) in hyperoxaluria condition...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
X Cheng, Y Xiong, D H Li, J Cheng, Y P Cao, C C Yan, Q Jin, N Sun, Y P Cai, Y Lin
With high nutritional value in its fruits, Dangshan Su pear has been widely cultivated in China. The stone cell content in fruits is a key factor affecting fruit quality in pear, and the formation of stone cells has been associated with lignin biosynthesis. O-Methyltransferase (OMT) is a key enzyme involved in lignin metabolism within the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here, we screened 26 OMT genes from the Pyrus bretschneideri cv. Dangshan Su genome using the DNATOOLs software. To characterize the OMT gene family in pear, gene structure, chromosomal localization, and conserved motifs of PbOMTs were analyzed...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
David E Rapp, Nada L Wood, Matthew Bassignani, Luke Gergoudis, Sarah Caulkins, Eugene V Kramolowsky
INTRODUCTION: Non-contrast CT (NCT) is commonly used to evaluate flank pain (FP). We sought to evaluate incidence of ureteral calculi on NCT in patients with FP, and to determine if clinical variables are associated with higher detection rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review identified 613 patients undergoing NCT for FP. Patient clinical data, NCT findings, and intervention were analyzed. Focus was placed on variables commonly associated with urolithiasis (Vstone), comprising hematuria, nausea/vomiting, and prior stone history...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Urology
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