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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433964/ethical-management-of-substance-use-disorders-the-indian-scenario
#1
Arpit Parmar, Vaibhav Patil, Siddharth Sarkar
Substance use disorders are among the most prevalent and emergent public health problems in India. The treatment of individuals with these disorders is associated with many ethical dilemmas. Due to the pervasiveness of substance use disorders, the majority of mental health professionals working in the area of addiction medicine face several ethical dilemmas. When discussing substance use disorders, it must be borne in mind that there are important differences between India and the western countries in terms of the social and cultural aspects, as well as the legislative framework and healthcare delivery system...
April 4, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431457/precision-medicine-and-pharmacogenetics-what-does-oncology-have-that-addiction-medicine-does-not
#2
Henry R Kranzler, Rachel V Smith, Robert Schnoll, Afaf Moustafa, Emma Greenstreet-Akman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Precision, personalized or stratified medicine, which promises to deliver the right treatment to the right patient, is a topic of international interest in both the lay press and the scientific literature. A key aspect of precision medicine is the identification of biomarkers that predict the response to medications (i.e. pharmacogenetics). We examined why, despite the great strides that have been made in biomarker identification in many areas of medicine, only in oncology has there been substantial progress in their clinical implementation...
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417948/erbb-family-signalling-a-paradigm-for-oncogene-addiction-and-personalized-oncology
#3
REVIEW
Nico Jacobi, Rita Seeboeck, Elisabeth Hofmann, Andreas Eger
ErbB family members represent important biomarkers and drug targets for modern precision therapy. They have gained considerable importance as paradigms for oncoprotein addiction and personalized medicine. This review summarizes the current understanding of ErbB proteins in cell signalling and cancer and describes the molecular rationale of prominent cases of ErbB oncoprotein addiction in different cancer types. In addition, we have highlighted experimental technologies for the development of innovative cancer cell models that accurately predicted clinical ErbB drug efficacies...
April 12, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410120/snp_tata_comparator-genomewide-landmarks-for-preventive-personalized-medicine
#4
Mikhail Ponomarenko, Dmitry Rasskazov, Irina Chadaeva, Ekaterina Sharypova, Petr Ponomarenko, Olga Arkova, Elena Kashina, Nikita Ivanisenko, Dmitry Zhechev, Ludmila Savinkova, Nikolay Kolchanov
Year after year, conditions, quality, and duration of human lives have been improving due to the progress of science, technology, education, and medicine, which however has a downside. Owing to improvement in children's nutrition, developmental acceleration occurs that imbalances a child's system. Because of virtual worlds of the Internet, social experience of teenagers expands and clashes with puberty of adolescents. Due to the comfort of cities, urbanization emerges and causes stress to adults because of artificial light, noise, pollution, violations of personal space, and family disruption...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394732/impact-of-a-brief-addiction-medicine-training-experience-on-knowledge-self-assessment-among-medical-learners
#5
Jan Klimas, Keith Ahamad, Christoper Fairgrieve, Mark McLean, Annabel Mead, Seonaid Nolan, Evan Wood
BACKGROUND: Implementation of evidence-based approaches to the treatment of various substance use disorders is needed to tackle the existing epidemic of substance use and related harms. Most clinicians, however, lack knowledge and practical experience with these approaches. Given this deficit, the authors examined the impact of an inpatient elective in addiction medicine amongst medical trainees on addiction-related knowledge and medical management. METHODS: Trainees who completed an elective with a hospital-based Addiction Medicine Consult Team (AMCT) in Vancouver, Canada, from May 2015 to May 2016, completed a 9-item self-evaluation scale before and immediately after the elective...
February 21, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386785/assessing-the-prognostic-features-of-a-pain-classification-system-in-advanced-cancer-patients
#6
Joseph Arthur, Kimberson Tanco, Ali Haider, Courtney Maligi, Minjeong Park, Diane Liu, Eduardo Bruera
PURPOSE: The Edmonton Classification System for Cancer Pain (ECS-CP) has been shown to predict pain management complexity based on five features: pain mechanism, incident pain, psychological distress, addictive behavior, and cognitive function. The main objective of our study was to explore the association between ECS-CP features and pain treatment outcomes among outpatients managed by a palliative care specialist-led interdisciplinary team. METHODS: Initial and follow-up clinical information of 386 eligible supportive care outpatients were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed...
April 6, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379862/vermont-hub-and-spoke-model-of-care-for-opioid-use-disorder-development-implementation-and-impact
#7
John R Brooklyn, Stacey C Sigmon
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorders (OUDs) are reaching epidemic proportions in the United States, and many geographic areas struggle with a persistent shortage in availability of opioid agonist treatment. Over the past 5 years, Vermont addiction medicine physicians and public health leaders have responded to these challenges by developing an integrated hub-and-spoke opioid treatment network. METHODS: In the present report, we review the development, implementation, and impact of this novel hub-and-spoke model for expanding OUD treatment in Vermont...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379504/low-risk-of-producing-an-opioid-use-disorder-in-primary-care-by-prescribing-opioids-to-prescreened-patients-with-chronic-noncancer-pain
#8
Martin D Cheatle, Rollin M Gallagher, Charles P O'Brien
Objective. : To examine the risk of developing aberrant behaviors that might lead to a substance use disorder (addiction) when prescribing opioids for the relief of chronic noncancer pain in primary care settings. Design. : Longitudinal, prospective, descriptive design with repeated measures. Setting. : Private community-based internal medicine and family medicine clinics. Subjects. : Patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain...
March 31, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375881/institutional-substance-use-disorder-intervention-improves-general-internist-preparedness-attitudes-and-clinical-practice
#9
Sarah E Wakeman, Genevieve Pham Kanter, Karen Donelan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of hospital substance use disorder (SUD) initiative, which, beginning in October 2014, implemented an inpatient addiction consult team, a postdischarge addiction clinic, recovery coaches, and SUD treatment within primary care on general internists' attitudes, clinical practice, and preparedness to care for SUD. METHODS: Pre and postintervention survey of general internal medicine physicians at Massachusetts General Hospital, in Boston, Massachusetts, in September 2014 (n = 290) and 2015 (n = 296) was conducted...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363315/providing-chronic-pain-management-in-the-fifth-vital-sign-era-historical-and-treatment-perspectives-on-a-modern-day-medical-dilemma
#10
REVIEW
D Andrew Tompkins, J Greg Hobelmann, Peggy Compton
BACKGROUND: Over 100 million Americans are living with chronic pain, and pain is the most common reason that patients seek medical attention. Despite the prevalence of pain, the practice of pain management and the scientific discipline of pain research are relatively new fields compared to the rest of medicine - contributing to a twenty-first century dilemma for health care providers asked to relieve suffering in the "Fifth Vital Sign" era. METHODS: This manuscript provides a narrative review of the basic mechanisms of chronic pain and history of chronic pain management in the United States - including the various regulatory, health system and provider factors that contributed to the decline of multidisciplinary pain treatment in favor of the predominant opioid treatment strategy seen today...
April 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347837/a-novel-therapeutic-with-two-snap-25-inactivating-proteases-shows-long-lasting-anti-hyperalgesic-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#11
Jiafu Wang, Laura Casals-Diaz, Tomas Zurawski, Jianghui Meng, Orla Moriarty, John Nealon, Om Prakash Edupuganti, Oliver Dolly
A pressing need exists for long-acting, non-addictive medicines to treat chronic pain, a major societal burden. Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) complex - a potent, specific and prolonged inhibitor of neuro-exocytosis - gives some relief in several pain disorders, but not for all patients. Our study objective was to modify BoNT/A to overcome its inability to block transmitter release elicited by high [Ca(2+)]i and increase its limited analgesic effects. This was achieved by fusing a BoNT/A gene to that for the light chain (LC) of type/E...
March 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346058/promising-pharmacogenetic-targets-for-treating-alcohol-use-disorder-evidence-from-preclinical-models
#12
Jennifer A Rinker, Patrick J Mulholland
Inherited genetic variants contribute to risk factors for developing an alcohol use disorder, and polymorphisms may inform precision medicine strategies for treating alcohol addiction. Targeting genetic mutations linked to alcohol phenotypes has provided promising initial evidence for reducing relapse rates in alcoholics. Although successful in some studies, there are conflicting findings and the reports of adverse effects may ultimately limit their clinical utility, suggesting that novel pharmacogenetic targets are necessary to advance precision medicine approaches...
March 27, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339439/dezocine-antagonizes-morphine-analgesia-upon-simultaneous-administration-in-rodent-models-of-acute-nociception
#13
Na-Na Li, Ya-Qin Huang, Ling-Er Huang, Shao-Hui Guo, Maxwell R Shen, Chen-Ling Guo, Sheng-Mei Zhu, Yong-Xing Yao
BACKGROUND: Dezocine is a powerful analgesic that can be less addictive than morphine, yet how the two drugs interact in vivo is poorly understood. Here we administered dezocine alone or in combination with morphine to different acute nociception paradigms to explore the interactions of the 2 drugs upon co-administration. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how dezocine interacts with morphine in different acute nociception paradigms. STUDY DESIGN: Laboratory animal study...
March 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330725/a-botanical-phytochemical-and-ethnomedicinal-review-of-the-genus-mitragyna-korth-implications-for-products-sold-as-kratom
#14
REVIEW
Paula N Brown, Jensen A Lund, Susan J Murch
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Mitragyna (Rubiacaeae) has been traditionally used in parts of Africa, Asia and Oceania. In recent years, there has been increased interest in species of Mitragyna with the introduction of products to western markets and regulatory uncertainty. AIM OF THE STUDY: This paper reviewed the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of leaves for species belonging to the genus Mitragyna with reference to the botany and known chemistry in order to highlight areas of interest for products currently being sold as kratom...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328384/the-surgeon-general-s-facing-addiction-report-an-historic-document-for-healthcare
#15
Sharon Levy, J Paul Seale, Victoria A Osborne, Kevin L Kraemer, Daniel P Alford, Jeffrey Baxter, Deborah S Finnell, Hillary Kunins, Alexander Y Walley, David C Lewis, Doreen MacLane-Baeder, Adam J Gordon
The publication of Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health presents an historic moment not only for the field of addiction medicine, but also for the United States as a nation. The Board of Directors of the Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse (AMERSA), on behalf of our organization, would like to express our appreciation of the efforts of Dr. Vivek Murthy and the Surgeon General's Office to publish the first surgeon general's report covering substance misuse and substance use disorders...
March 22, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323547/the-extent-that-health-professionals-suspect-and-address-addiction-to-medicines-in-primary-care-findings-from-a-survey-in-northwest-england
#16
Geoff Bates, Madeleine Cochrane, Adam John Mackridge
Addiction to medicines available over the counter or via prescription is of growing international concern. The authors of the current article ran an online survey of health professionals in general medical practice and community pharmacy settings in Northwest England to explore the frequency of suspecting and responding to addiction to medicines. Health professionals reported frequently identifying addiction to medicines among patients including those with long-term pain, mental health problems, sleep disorders, and other substance use disorders, but that these addictions often go unchallenged...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319167/association-between-internet-addiction-and-depression-in-thai-medical-students-at-faculty-of-medicine-ramathibodi-hospital
#17
Thummaporn Boonvisudhi, Sanchai Kuladee
OBJECTIVE: To study the extent of Internet addiction (IA) and its association with depression in Thai medical students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital. Participants were first- to fifth-year medical students who agreed to participate in this study. Demographic characteristics and stress-related factors were derived from self-rated questionnaires. Depression was assessed using the Thai version of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306416/the-addiction-benefits-scorecard-a-framework-to-promote-health-insurer-accountability-and-support-consumer-engagement
#18
Itai Danovitch, David Kan
Health care insurance plans covering treatment for substance use disorders (SUD) offer a wide range of benefits. Distinctions between health plan benefits are confusing, and consumers making selections may not adequately understand the characteristics or significance of the choices they have. The California Society of Addiction Medicine sought to help consumers make informed decisions about plan selections by providing education on the standard of care for SUD and presenting findings from an expert analysis of selected health plans...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302035/translational-multimodality-neuroimaging
#19
Sushil K Sharma
Recently high-resolution, noninvasive, multimodality in-vivo molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, CT and MRI, employing fusion algorithms has revolutionized personalized medicine. However, specific radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and other cognitive impairments still remain in developmental phase. Currently, multimodality fusion neuroimaging is utilized for the determination of: pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs); in-vivo monitoring of stem cell transplantation therapy; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) investigations; and regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in cognitively-impaired subjects employing noninvasive microPET and nano-SPECT imaging...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301369/-should-patients-with-substance-use-disorders-be-prescribed-benzodiazepines-no
#20
Robert L DuPont
Patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) should not use benzodiazepines to treat anxiety, insomnia, or anything else, for the same reasons that they should not drink any alcohol or use other drugs, regardless of their primary drug used. Once the addiction "switch" is thrown on, it never again goes off. This question has additional relevance today because in 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration put black box warnings on all benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics about the serious risks associated with their concomitant use...
March 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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