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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#1
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427408/time-averaged-simulated-microgravity-tasmg-inhibits-proliferation-of-lymphoma-cells-l-540-and-hdlm-2-using-a-3d-clinostat
#2
Yoon Jae Kim, Ae Jin Jeong, Myungjoon Kim, Chiwon Lee, Sang-Kyu Ye, Sungwan Kim
BACKGROUND: Gravity is omnipresent on Earth; however, humans in space, such as astronauts at the International Space Station, experience microgravity. Long-term exposure to microgravity is considered to elicit physiological changes, such as muscle atrophy, in the human body. In addition, certain types of cancer cells demonstrate inhibited proliferation under condition of time-averaged simulated microgravity (taSMG). However, the response of human Hodgkin's lymphoma cancer cells to reduced gravity, and the associated physiological changes in these cells, have not been elucidated...
April 20, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421821/modeling-and-dynamic-simulation-of-astronaut-s-upper-limb-motions-considering-counter-torques-generated-by-the-space-suit
#3
Jingwen Li, Qing Ye, Li Ding, Qianfang Liao
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is an inevitable task for astronauts to maintain proper functions of both the spacecraft and the space station. Both experimental research in a microgravity simulator (e.g. neutral buoyancy tank, zero-g aircraft or a drop tower/tube) and mathematical modeling were used to study EVA to provide guidance for the training on Earth and task design in space. Modeling has become more and more promising because of its efficiency. Based on the task analysis, almost 90% of EVA activity is accomplished through upper limb motions...
April 19, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421440/transcriptomic-changes-in-human-umbilical-cord-blood-endothelial-cells-under-simulated-microgravity
#4
E G Rudimov, E N Knjazev, N A Khaustova, O V Grigorieva, L B Buravkova
Microarray analysis of cultured endothelial cells was performed 24 h after simulated microgravity. A significant change in the expression of 177 genes that can be classified into several functional clusters was detected. Among the genes with overexpression, clusters of cell response to external stimuli and regulation of cell motility and proliferation can be reliably distinguished. Among down-regulated genes, clusters of transcription factors with the "zinc fingers" domain and factors involved in the regulation of morphogenesis and angiogenesis were distinguished...
January 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419128/cytoskeletal-stability-and-metabolic-alterations-in-primary-human-macrophages-in-long-term-microgravity
#5
Svantje Tauber, Beatrice A Lauber, Katrin Paulsen, Liliana E Layer, Martin Lehmann, Swantje Hauschild, Naomi R Shepherd, Jennifer Polzer, Jürgen Segerer, Cora S Thiel, Oliver Ullrich
The immune system is one of the most affected systems of the human body during space flight. The cells of the immune system are exceptionally sensitive to microgravity. Thus, serious concerns arise, whether space flight associated weakening of the immune system ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond the Earth's orbit. For human space flight, it is an urgent need to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which altered gravity influences and changes the functions of immune cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408692/draft-genome-sequences-of-several-fungal-strains-selected-for-exposure-to-microgravity-at-the-international-space-station
#6
Nitin K Singh, Adriana Blachowicz, Jillian Romsdahl, Clay Wang, Tamas Torok, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
The whole-genome sequences of eight fungal strains that were selected for exposure to microgravity at the International Space Station are presented here. These baseline sequences will help to understand the observed production of novel bioactive compounds.
April 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406700/moderate-exercise-based-on-artificial-gravity-preserves-orthostatic-tolerance-and-exercise-capacity-during-short-term-head-down-bed-rest
#7
Xiao-Tao Li, Chang-Bin Yang, Yong-Sheng Zhu, Jing Sun, Fei Shi, Yong-Chun Wang, Yuan Gao, Jiang-Dong Zhao, Xi-Qing Sun
Numerous countermeasures have been proposed to minimize microgravity-induced physical deconditioning, but their benefits are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether personalized aerobic exercise based on artificial gravity (AG) mitigates multisystem physical deconditioning. Fourteen men were assigned to the control group (n=6) and the countermeasure group (CM, n=8). Subjects in the CM group were exposed to AG (2Gz at foot level) for 30 min twice daily, during which time cycling exercise of 80-95% anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity was undertaken...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401467/response-of-extreme-haloarchaeon-haloarcula-argentinensis-rr10-to-simulated-microgravity-in-clinorotation
#8
Rebecca Thombre, Vinaya Shinde, Jyotsana Dixit, Sagar Jagtap, Pandit B Vidyasagar
Gravity is the fundamental force that may have operated during the evolution of life on Earth. It is thus important to understand as to what the effects of gravity are on cellular life. The studies related to effect of microgravity on cells may provide greater insights in understanding of how the physical force of gravity shaped life on Earth. The present study focuses on a unique group of organisms called the Haloarchaea, which are known for their extreme resistance to survive in stress-induced environments...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393904/transcriptomic-changes-in-an-animal-bacterial-symbiosis-under-modeled-microgravity-conditions
#9
Giorgio Casaburi, Irina Goncharenko-Foster, Alexandrea A Duscher, Jamie S Foster
Spaceflight imposes numerous adaptive challenges for terrestrial life. The reduction in gravity, or microgravity, represents a novel environment that can disrupt homeostasis of many physiological processes. Additionally, it is becoming increasingly clear that an organism's microbiome is critical for host health and examining its resiliency in microgravity represents a new frontier for space biology research. In this study, we examine the impact of microgravity on the interactions between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its beneficial symbiont Vibrio fischeri, which form a highly specific binary mutualism...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373722/simulated-microgravity-triggers-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-keratinocytes
#10
Danilo Ranieri, Sara Proietti, Simona Dinicola, Maria Grazia Masiello, Benedetta Rosato, Giulia Ricci, Alessandra Cucina, Angela Catizone, Mariano Bizzarri, Maria Rosaria Torrisi
The microgravitational environment is known to affect the cellular behaviour inducing modulation of gene expression and enzymatic activities, epigenetic modifications and alterations of the structural organization. Simulated microgravity, obtained in the laboratory setting through the use of a Random Positioning Machine (RPM), represents a well recognized and useful tool for the experimental studies of the cellular adaptations and molecular changes in response to weightlessness. Short exposure of cultured human keratinocytes to the RPM microgravity influences the cellular circadian clock oscillation...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341594/itraq-based-proteomics-analysis-of-hippocampus-in-spatial-memory-deficiency-rats-induced-by-simulated-microgravity
#11
Tingmei Wang, Hailong Chen, Ke Lv, Guohua Ji, Yongliang Zhang, Yanli Wang, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu
It has been demonstrated that simulated microgravity (SM) may lead to cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In present study, tail-suspension (30°) rat was employed to explore the effects of 28 days of SM on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory capability and the underlying mechanisms. We found that 28-day tail-suspension rats displayed decline of learning and memory ability in Morris water maze (MWM) test. Using iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis, a total of 4774 proteins were quantified in hippocampus...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339035/duration-of-simulated-microgravity-affects-the-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Li Xue, Yaohui Li, Jun Chen
Previous evidence has suggested that physical microenvironments and mechanical stresses, independent of soluble factors, influence mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate. In the present study, simulated microgravity (SMG) was demonstrated to regulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. This may be a novel strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Rat MSCs were cultured for 72 h or 10 days in either normal gravity or a clinostat to model microgravity, followed with culture in diverse differential media...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326563/early-structural-and-functional-signature-of-3-day-human-skeletal-muscle-disuse-using-the-dry-immersion-model
#13
Rémi Demangel, Loïc Treffel, Guillaume Py, Thomas Brioche, Allan F Pagano, Marie-Pierre Bareille, Arnaud Beck, Laurence Pessemesse, Robin Candau, Claude Gharib, Angèle Chopard, Catherine Millet
KEY POINTS: Our study contributes to the characterization of muscle loss and weakness processes induced by a sedentary life style, chronic hypoactivity, clinical bed rest, immobilization and microgravity. This study, by bringing together integrated and cellular evaluation of muscle structure and function, identifies the early functional markers and biomarkers of muscle deconditioning. Three days of muscle disuse in healthy adult subjects is sufficient to significantly decrease muscle mass, tone and force, and to induce changes in function relating to a weakness in aerobic metabolism and muscle fibre denervation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306276/condensation-on-highly-superheated-surfaces-unstable-thin-films-in-a-wickless-heat-pipe
#14
Akshay Kundan, Thao T T Nguyen, Joel L Plawsky, Peter C Wayner, David F Chao, Ronald J Sicker
A wickless heat pipe was operated on the International Space Station to provide a better understanding of how the microgravity environment might alter the physical and interfacial forces driving evaporation and condensation. Traditional heat pipes are divided into three zones: evaporation at the heated end, condensation at the cooled end, and intermediate or adiabatic in between. The microgravity experiments reported herein show that the situation may be dramatically more complicated. Beyond a threshold heat input, there was a transition from evaporation at the heated end to large-scale condensation, even as surface temperatures exceeded the boiling point by 160 K...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293395/expression-pattern-of-neurotrophins-and-their-receptors-during-neuronal-differentiation-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in-simulated-microgravity-condition
#15
Vajiheh Zarrinpour, Zahra Hajebrahimi, Mojtaba Jafarinia
OBJECTIVES: Studies have confirmed that microgravity, as a mechanical factor, influences both differentiation and function of mesenchymal stem cells. Here we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity on neural differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have used a fast rotating clinostat (clinorotation) to simulate microgravity condition. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry analysis were used to evaluate the regulation of neurotrophins, their receptors, and neural markers by simulated microgravity and their impact on neural differentiation of cells...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279266/parallels-between-astronauts-and-terrestrial-patients-taking-physiotherapy-rehabilitation-to-infinity-and-beyond
#16
Julie Hides, Gunda Lambrecht, Gita Ramdharry, Rebecca Cusack, Jacob Bloomberg, Maria Stokes
Exposure to the microgravity environment induces physiological changes in the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and sensorimotor systems in healthy astronauts. As space agencies prepare for extended duration missions, it is difficult to predict the extent of the effects that prolonged exposure to microgravity will have on astronauts. Prolonged bed rest is a model used by space agencies to simulate the effects of spaceflight on the human body, and bed rest studies have provided some insights into the effects of immobilisation and inactivity...
January 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273809/proteome-analysis-of-human-follicular-thyroid-cancer-cells-exposed-to-the-random-positioning-machine
#17
Johann Bauer, Sascha Kopp, Elisabeth Maria Schlagberger, Jirka Grosse, Jayashree Sahana, Stefan Riwaldt, Markus Wehland, Ronald Luetzenberg, Manfred Infanger, Daniela Grimm
Several years ago, we detected the formation of multicellular spheroids in experiments with human thyroid cancer cells cultured on the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), a ground-based model to simulate microgravity by continuously changing the orientation of samples. Since then, we have studied cellular mechanisms triggering the cells to leave a monolayer and aggregate to spheroids. Our work focused on spheroid-related changes in gene expression patterns, in protein concentrations, and in factors secreted to the culture supernatant during the period when growth is altered...
March 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273516/2-d-clinorotation-alters-the-uptake-of-some-nutrients-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Ellen Polinski, Oliver Schueler, Lars Krause, Monika A Wimmer, Ruth Hemmersbach, Heiner E Goldbach
Future long-term spaceflight missions rely on bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) in order to provide the required resources for crew survival. Higher plants provide an essential part since they supply food and oxygen and recycle carbon dioxide. There are indications that under space conditions plants might be inefficient regarding the uptake, transport and distribution of nutrients, which in turn affects growth and metabolism. Therefore, Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) seeds were germinated and grown for five days under fast clinorotation (2-D clinostat, 60rpm) in order to simulate microgravity...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271409/the-effect-of-spaceflight-and-microgravity-on-the-human-brain
#19
Angelique Van Ombergen, Athena Demertzi, Elena Tomilovskaya, Ben Jeurissen, Jan Sijbers, Inessa B Kozlovskaya, Paul M Parizel, Paul H Van de Heyning, Stefan Sunaert, Steven Laureys, Floris L Wuyts
Microgravity, confinement, isolation, and immobilization are just some of the features astronauts have to cope with during space missions. Consequently, long-duration space travel can have detrimental effects on human physiology. Although research has focused on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system in particular, the exact impact of spaceflight on the human central nervous system remains to be determined. Previous studies have reported psychological problems, cephalic fluid shifts, neurovestibular problems, and cognitive alterations, but there is paucity in the knowledge of the underlying neural substrates...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268313/alterations-in-cardiovascular-system-under-artificially-simulated-microgravity-preliminary-study
#20
Aleksandr A Fedotov, Sergey A Akulov, Anna S Akulova
The main goal of this work is to study the alterations occurred in human cardiovascular system under artificially simulated microgravity by using special short-arm centrifuge. We have used arterial blood pressure, ankle-brachial pressure index and accelerated photoplethysmography approach to determine the effects of artificially simulated microgravity on vascular system. The group of 30 healthy male volunteers was studied in a short-arm human centrifuge at two levels of gravity gradients along head-to-foot direction (Gz): normal gravity gradient of 1 Gz and so called microgravity mode of 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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