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Xinjian Mao, Zhe Chen, Qing Luo, Bingyu Zhang, Guanbin Song
Exposure to microgravity during space flight affects almost all human physiological systems. Migration, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells are crucial for tissues repair and regeneration. However, the effect of microgravity on the migration potentials of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is unclear, which are important progenitor and supporting cells. Here, we utilized a clinostat to model simulated microgravity (SMG) and found that SMG obviously inhibited migration of rat BMSCs. We detected significant reorganization of F-actin filaments and increased Young's modulus of BMSCs after exposure to SMG...
October 15, 2016: Cytotechnology
V N Naumkin, D I Zhukhovitskii, V I Molotkov, A M Lipaev, V E Fortov, H M Thomas, P Huber, G E Morfill
We propose a method of determination of the dust particle spatial distribution in dust clouds that form in three-dimensional (3D) complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. The method utilizes the data obtained during the 3D scanning of a cloud, and it provides reasonably good accuracy. Based on this method, we investigate the particle density in a dust cloud realized in gas discharge plasma in the PK-3 Plus setup onboard the International Space Station. We find that the treated dust clouds are both anisotropic and inhomogeneous...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Gwen E Owens, Danielle M New, Alejandra I Olvera, Julia Ashlyn Manzella, Brittney L Macon, Joshua C Dunn, David A Cooper, Robyn L Rouleau, Daniel S Connor, Pamela J Bjorkman
Huntington's disease is one of nine neurodegenerative diseases caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ)-repeat expansion. An anti-polyQ antigen-binding fragment, MW1 Fab, was crystallized both on Earth and on the International Space Station, a microgravity environment where convection is limited. Once the crystals returned to Earth, the number, size and morphology of all crystals were recorded, and X-ray data were collected from representative crystals. The results generally agreed with previous microgravity crystallization studies...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Xueliang Shang, Bo Xu, Qun Li, Baohui Zhai, Xiaxia Xu, Tao Zhang
This study aims to investigate if neural oscillations can play a role as a bridge between the alteration of glutamatergic system and emotional behaviors in simulated microgravity (SM) mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: SM and control groups. The animal model was established by hindlimb unloading (HU). The mice were exposed to HU continued for 14days. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured. The degree of anxious and depressive was evaluated by Open field test and Elevated plus maze test...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Araceli Espinosa-Jeffrey, Kevin Nguyen, Shalini Kumar, Ochiai Toshimasa, Ryuji Hirose, Karen Reue, Laurent Vergnes, Jason Kinchen, Jean de Vellis
The primary energy sources of mammalian cells are proteins, fats, and sugars that are processed by well-known biochemical mechanisms that have been discovered and studied in 1G (terrestrial gravity). Here we sought to determine how simulated microgravity (sim-µG) impacts both energy and lipid metabolism in oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system. We report increased mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis 24 hr after exposure to sim-µG. Moreover, examination of the secretome after 3 days' exposure of OLs to sim-µG increased the Krebs cycle (Krebs and Weitzman, ) flux in sim-µG...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Takeshi Shimoide, Naoyuki Kawao, Yukinori Tamura, Hironobu Morita, Hiroshi Kaji
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and wasting are induced by hypergravity and microgravity, respectively. However, the mechanisms by which gravity change regulates muscle mass still remain unclear. We previously reported that hypergravity increases muscle mass via the vestibular system in mice. In this study, we performed comparative DNA microarray analysis of the soleus muscle from mice kept in 1 or 3 g environments with or without vestibular lesions. Mice were kept in 1 g or 3 g environment for 4 weeks by using a centrifuge 14 days after surgical bilateral vestibular lesions...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Bryan J Feger, J Will Thompson, Laura G Dubois, Reddy P Kommaddi, Matthew W Foster, Rajashree Mishra, Sudha K Shenoy, Yoichiro Shibata, Yared H Kidane, M Arthur Moseley, Lisa S Carnell, Dawn E Bowles
On Earth, biological systems have evolved in response to environmental stressors, interactions dictated by physical forces that include gravity. The absence of gravity is an extreme stressor and the impact of its absence on biological systems is ill-defined. Astronauts who have spent extended time under conditions of minimal gravity (microgravity) experience an array of biological alterations, including perturbations in cardiovascular function. We hypothesized that physiological perturbations in cardiac function in microgravity may be a consequence of alterations in molecular and organellar dynamics within the cellular milieu of cardiomyocytes...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xinchang Zhang, Qiangsong Wang, Zongming Wan, Jianyu Li, Lu Liu, Xizheng Zhang
Casein kinase 2-interacting protein 1 (CKIP-1) is a negative regulator for bone formation. CKIP-1 knockout (KO) mice are very important for research on countermeasures to bone loss induced by space microgravity. Under simulated microgravity, the bone metabolism of CKIP-1 KO mice was different than that of wild-type (WT) mice. Many experiments all showed that the KO mice had significantly enhanced ossification in the tail suspension conditions, and the differences were closely related to the time the mice were exposed to the microgravity environment...
September 22, 2016: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
N T Shepard, G P Jacobson
The test of caloric thermal irrigations is one of the first tests for sensitivity of the peripheral vestibular systems dating to the late 1800s. This chapter reviews the various protocols that have been developed over the years using thermal irrigations to the external auditory canals. The discussion covers the interpretations of the protocols and makes recommendations for those protocols that have the best performance and at the same time are practical to perform. The primary utility of the caloric test has remained the same since its origination - the comparison of the relative sensitivity of the right versus left peripheral vestibular function...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Julielynn Y Wong, Andreas C Pfahnl
INTRODUCTION: The first space-based fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer became operational in 2014. This study evaluated whether Mars simulation crewmembers of the Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) II mission with no prior surgical experience could utilize acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic surgical instruments FDM 3D printed on Earth to complete simulated surgical tasks. METHODS: This study sought to examine the feasibility of using 3D printed surgical tools when the primary crew medical officer is incapacitated and the back-up crew medical officer must conduct a surgical procedure during a simulated extended space mission...
September 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
David J Lerner, Allen J Parmet, Steven Don, Joshua S Shimony, Manu S Goyal
INTRODUCTION: Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure Syndrome (VIIP) has caused symptomatology during and after long duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Only indirect measurements of intracranial pressure (ICP), such as ultrasound, have been performed on ISS. Discussion and interest has happened at NASA about performing lumbar puncture (LP) in microgravity. Only the "blind" palpation approach and the ultrasound-assisted approach have been discussed. This article, as proof of concept, discusses the possibility of portable radiography to assist lumbar punctures in microgravity...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Hironobu Morita, Chikara Abe, Kunihiko Tanaka
The vestibular system is known to have an important role in controlling blood pressure upon posture transition (vestibulo-cardiovascular reflex, VCR). However, under a different gravitational environment, the sensitivity of the vestibular system may be altered. Thus, the VCR may become less sensitive after spaceflight because of orthostatic intolerance potentially induced by long-term exposure to microgravity. To test this hypothesis in humans, we investigated the ability of the VCR to maintain blood pressure upon head-up tilt before and after a 4-6 months stay on the International Space Station...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ellen E Higginson, James E Galen, Myron M Levine, Sharon M Tennant
Space exploration programs have long been interested in the effects of spaceflight on biology. This research is important not only in its relevance to future deep space exploration, but also because it has allowed investigators to ask questions about how gravity impacts cell behavior here on Earth. In the 1980s, scientists designed and built the first rotating wall vessel, capable of mimicking the low shear environment found in space. This vessel has since been used to investigate growth of both microorganisms and human tissue cells in low shear modeled microgravity conditions...
November 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Jayter Silva Paula, Sanjay Girdhari Asrani, Eduardo Melani Rocha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Raktim Roy, P Phani Shilpa, Sangram Bagh
UNLABELLED: Bacteria are important organisms for space missions due to their increased pathogenesis in microgravity that poses risks to the health of astronauts and for projected synthetic biology applications at the space station. We understand little about the effect, at the molecular systems level, of microgravity on bacteria, despite their significant incidence. In this study, we proposed a systems biology pipeline and performed an analysis on published gene expression data sets from multiple seminal studies on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under spaceflight and simulated microgravity conditions...
September 2016: Astrobiology
Peng Yuan, Vincent Koppelmans, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Yiri E De Dios, Nichole E Gadd, Scott J Wood, Roy Riascos, Igor S Kofman, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
Head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) has been used as a spaceflight analog to simulate the effects of microgravity exposure on human physiology, sensorimotor function, and cognition on Earth. Previous studies have reported that concurrent performance of motor and cognitive tasks can be impaired during space missions. Understanding the consequences of HDBR for neural control of dual tasking may possibly provide insight into neural efficiency during spaceflight. In the current study, we evaluated how dual task performance and the underlying brain activation changed as a function of HDBR...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Zhe Chen, Qing Luo, Lin Yuan, Guanbin Song
Stem cells are the cell of origin for organisms and their organs. These cells are critical for tissue regeneration, as well as regenerative medicine. Mechanical forces, such as gravity, have been demonstrated to provide important signals for stem cell fate. In fact, the absence of gravity, that is, microgravity, affects almost all aspects of human physiology, which has been partly attributed to changes in the biological behaviors of stem cells. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the effects of microgravity on stem cell differentiation that control the fate of stem cells...
September 1, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
M Janmaleki, M Pachenari, S M Seyedpour, R Shahghadami, A Sanati-Nezhad
This study focused on the effects of simulated microgravity (s-μg) on mechanical properties, major cytoskeleton biopolymers, and morphology of endothelial cells (ECs). The structural and functional integrity of ECs are vital to regulate vascular homeostasis and prevent atherosclerosis. Furthermore, these highly gravity sensitive cells play a key role in pathogenesis of many diseases. In this research, impacts of s-μg on mechanical behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were investigated by utilizing a three-dimensional random positioning machine (3D-RPM)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Roy Yuen-Chi Lau, Xing Qian, Kai-Ting Po, Lu-Ming Li, Xia Guo
PURPOSE: Immobilization of weight bearing skeletons or microgravity results in disuse osteoporosis in both human and animals. Our previous study demonstrated that electrical stimulation at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with an implantable micro-electrical stimulation system (IMESS) could trigger secretion of bone anabolic calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and prevent bone loss in a short-term hindlimb unloading rat model. This study was designed to further investigate whether electrical stimulation to the DRG could prevent bone loss due to prolonged unloading...
August 31, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Lei Zhao, Ying Gao, Dong Mi, Yeqing Sun
To identify the potential biomarkers associated with space flight, a combined algorithm, which integrates the feature selection techniques, was used to deal with the microarray datasets of Caenorhabditis elegans obtained in the Shenzhou-8 mission. Compared with the ground control treatment, a total of 86 differentially expressed (DE) genes in responses to space synthetic environment or space radiation environment were identified by two filter methods. And then the top 30 ranking genes were selected by the random forest algorithm...
September 2016: Mutation Research
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