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Cui Zhang, Liang Li, Yuanda Jiang, Cuicui Wang, Baoming Geng, Yanqiu Wang, Jianling Chen, Fei Liu, Peng Qiu, Guangjie Zhai, Ping Chen, Renfu Quan, Jinfu Wang
Bone formation is linked with osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow. Microgravity in spaceflight is known to reduce bone formation. In this study, we used a real microgravity environment of the SJ-10 Recoverable Scientific Satellite to examine the effects of space microgravity on the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). hMSCs were induced toward osteogenic differentiation for 2 and 7 d in a cell culture device mounted on the SJ-10 Satellite...
March 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Min Jiang, Qiang Lyu, Yun-Gang Bai, Huan Liu, Jing Yang, Jiu-Hua Cheng, Ming Zheng, Jin Ma
Recent studies have suggested that microgravity-induced arterial remodelling contributes to post-flight orthostatic intolerance and that multiple mechanisms are involved in arterial remodelling. However, the initial mechanism by which haemodynamic changes induce arterial remodelling is unknown. Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic protein complexes that have mechanotransduction properties. This study aimed to investigate the role of FAs in simulated microgravity-induced basilar and femoral arterial remodelling...
March 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Setsu Nakae, Masafumi Shionyu, Tomohisa Ogawa, Tsuyoshi Shirai
The nacreous layer of pearl oysters is one of the major biominerals of commercial and industrial interest. Jacalin-related lectins, including PPL3 isoforms, are known to regulate biomineralization of the Pteria penguin pearl shell, although the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. The PPL3 crystal structures were determined partly by utilizing microgravity environments for three isoforms, namely, PPL3A, PPL3B, and PPL3C. The structures revealed a tail-to-tail dimer structure established by forming a unique inter-subunit disulfide bond at C-termini...
March 9, 2018: Proteins
Afshin Beheshti, Egle Cekanaviciute, David J Smith, Sylvain V Costes
Spaceflight introduces a combination of environmental stressors, including microgravity, ionizing radiation, changes in diet and altered atmospheric gas composition. In order to understand the impact of each environmental component on astronauts it is important to investigate potential influences in isolation. Rodent spaceflight experiments involve both standard vivarium cages and animal enclosure modules (AEMs), which are cages used to house rodents in spaceflight. Ground control AEMs are engineered to match the spaceflight environment...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Krzysztof Wrzesinski, Stephen J Fey
The recovery of physiological functionality, which is commonly seen in tissue mimetic three-dimensional (3D) cellular aggregates (organoids, spheroids, acini, etc.), has been observed in cells of many origins (primary tissues, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and immortal cell lines). This plurality and plasticity suggest that probably several basic principles promote this recovery process. The aim of this study was to identify these basic principles and describe how they are regulated so that they can be taken in consideration when micro-bioreactors are designed...
March 7, 2018: Bioengineering
Takayuki Uchida, Yoshihiro Sakashita, Kanako Kitahata, Yui Yamashita, Chisato Tomida, Yuki Kimori, Akio Komatsu, Katsuya Hirasaka, Ayako Ohno, Reiko Nakao, Atsushi Higashitani, Akira Higashibata, Noriaki Ishioka, Toru Shimazu, Takeshi Kobayashi, Yuushi Okumura, Inho Choi, Motoko Oarada, Edward M Mills, Shigetada Teshima-Kondo, Shin'ichi Takeda, Eiji Tanaka, Keiji Tanaka, Masahiro Sokabe, Takeshi Nikawa
Unloading-mediated muscle atrophy is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We previously demonstrated that elevated ubiquitin ligase casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b (Cbl-b) resulted in the loss of muscle volume [Nakao R. et al. Mol Cell Biol, 29: 4798-4811, 2009]. However, the pathological role of ROS production associated with unloading-mediated muscle atrophy still remains unknown. Here, we showed the ROS-mediated signal transduction caused by microgravity or its simulation contributes to Cbl-b expression...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Aaron Dentinger, Michael MacDonald, Douglas Ebert, Kathleen Garcia, Ashot Sargsyan
OBJECTIVE:  The objective is enhanced ophthalmic ultrasound imaging to monitor ocular structure and intracranial dynamics changes related to visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) induced by microgravity. The goals are to improve the ease of use and reduce operator variability by automatically rendering improved views of the anatomy and deriving new metrics of the morphology and dynamics. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A prototype three-dimensional (3-D) probe was integrated onto a portable ultrasound scanner...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Xin Tan, Aizhang Xu, Tuo Zhao, Qin Zhao, Jun Zhang, Cuihong Fan, Yulin Deng, Andrew Freywald, Harald Genth, Jim Xiang
Simulated microgravity (SMG) was reported to affect tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism is elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that clinostat-modelled SMG reduces BL6-10 melanoma cell proliferation, adhesion and invasiveness in vitro and decreases tumor lung metastasis in vivo. It down-regulates metastasis-related integrin α6β4, MMP9 and Met72 molecules. SMG significantly reduces formation of focal adhesions and activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rho family proteins (RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42) and of mTORC1 kinase, but activates AMPK and ULK1 kinases...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peng Yuan, Vincent Koppelmans, Patricia Reuter-Lorenz, Yiri De Dios, Nichole Gadd, Roy Riascos, Igor Kofman, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
Head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) has been used as a spaceflight analog to study some of the effects of microgravity on human physiology, cognition, and sensorimotor functions. Previous studies have reported declines in balance control and functional mobility after spaceflight and HDBR. Here we investigated how the brain activation for foot movement changed with HDBR. Eighteen healthy men participated in the current HDBR study. They were in a 6{degree sign} head-down tilt position continuously for 70 days. Functional MRI scans were acquired to estimate brain activation for foot movement pre-, during- and post-HDBR...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Giovanni Barassi, Rosa Grazia Bellomo, Annamaria Porreca, Giuseppe Giannuzzo, Giuseppe Irace, Leonardo Trivisano, Raoul Saggini
The aquatic environment has a high potential in rehabilitation treatment of acute lesions and in chronic diseases. The Safe Bearing Back method is proposed to stimulate the reorganization of deteriorated sensory neuromotor skills. The aim of the present study was to verify the effectiveness and the long-term maintenance of the benefits of a specific thermal rehabilitation training in neuromotor and neurological disabilities. Seventy four patients were evaluated using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Tinetti Gait-Balance Scale (TIN), and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain...
February 28, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Paul Childress, Alexander Brinker, Cynthia-May S Gong, Jonathan Harris, David J Olivos, Jeffrey D Rytlewski, David C Scofield, Sungshin Y Choi, Yasaman Shirazi-Fard, Todd O McKinley, Tien-Min G Chu, Carolynn L Conley, Nabarun Chakraborty, Rasha Hammamieh, Melissa A Kacena
Segmental bone defects (SBDs) secondary to trauma invariably result in a prolonged recovery with an extended period of limited weight bearing on the affected limb. Soldiers sustaining blast injuries and civilians sustaining high energy trauma typify such a clinical scenario. These patients frequently sustain composite injuries with SBDs in concert with extensive soft tissue damage. For soft tissue injury resolution and skeletal reconstruction a patient may experience limited weight bearing for upwards of 6 months...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
V Pereda-Loth, X Franceries, A S Afonso, A Ayala, B Eche, D Ginibrière, G Gauquelin-Koch, M Bardiès, L Lacoste-Collin, M Courtade-Saïdi
Astronauts are exposed to microgravity and chronic irradiation but experimental conditions combining these two factors are difficult to reproduce on earth. We have created an experimental device able to combine chronic irradiation and altered gravity that may be used for cell cultures or plant models in a ground based facility. Irradiation was provided by thorium nitrate powder, conditioned so as to constitute a sealed source that could be placed in an incubator. Cell plates or plant seedlings could be placed in direct contact with the source or at various distances above it...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
E A Radugina, E A C Almeida, E Blaber, V A Poplinskaya, Y V Markitantova, E N Grigoryan
Mechanical unloading in microgravity during spaceflight is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber composition, gene expression, and reduction in regenerative muscle growth. Although some limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time. Here we report on how long-term (30-day long) mechanical unloading in microgravity affects murine muscles of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 microgravity mice, in comparison to habitat (7), and vivarium (14) ground control mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Yuri Griko, Matthew D Regan
Animal research aboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station has provided vital information on the physiological, cellular, and molecular effects of spaceflight. The relevance of this information to human spaceflight is enhanced when it is coupled with information gleaned from human-based research. As NASA and other space agencies initiate plans for human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), incorporating animal research into these missions is vitally important to understanding the biological impacts of deep space...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Fred H Previc
INTRODUCTION: A theory is presented to explain the major findings regarding motion sickness and to synthetize current theories concerning its etiology. The theory proposes that an imbalance in the output of the two major organs of the labyrinth-favoring the semicircular canals over the otolith organs-is responsible for most instances of motion sickness as experienced in terrestrial and microgravity environments. METHODS: Strengths and limitations of current theories are first outlined before the different roles of the canals and otoliths in the genesis of motion sickness symptoms are described...
February 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Sivakumar Allur Subramaniyan, Sunirmal Sheet, Mohanraj Vinothkannan, Dong Jin Yoo, Yang Soo Lee, Shah Ahmed Belal, Kwan Seob Shim
Platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) was synthesized via a facile and cost competitive ont-pot green mediated synthesis using cell free cultural filtrate (microgravity simulated grown Penicillium chrysogenum) as a reducing agent. The toxicity effect of synthesized Pt NPs toward myoblast C2C12 carcinoma cells was then investigated. The particle size analyzer (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results demonstrates that both NG-Pt NPs and MG-Pt NPS are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm and 8...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Andrey Ratushnyy, Maria Ezdakova, Danila Yakubets, Ludmila Buravkova
Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are strongly involved in tissue homeostasis mainly through paracrine regulation. Here we examined the influence of simulated microgravity on the angiogenic potential of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs). The conditioned medium (CM) from RPM-exposed ASCs stimulated the formation of vessel network in ovo, endothelial cell (EC) capillary-like network ex ovo and non-directed EC migration in vitro. These effects were driven by alteration of both angiogenesis-related gene and protein expression...
February 12, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Shukuan Ling, Yuheng Li, Guohui Zhong, Yongjun Zheng, Qing Xu, Dingsheng Zhao, Weijia Sun, Xiaoyan Jin, Hongxing Li, Jianwei Li, Huiyuan Sun, Dengchao Cao, Jinping Song, Caizhi Liu, Xinxin Yuan, Xiaorui Wu, Yinlong Zhao, Zizhong Liu, Qi Li, Yingxian Li
Human cardiovascular system has adapted to Earth's gravity of 1G. The microgravity during space flight can induce cardiac remodeling and decline of cardiac function. At present, the mechanism of cardiac remodeling induced by microgravity remains to be disclosed. Casein kinase-2 interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1) is an important inhibitor of pressure-overload induced cardiac remodeling by decreasing the phosphorylation level of HDAC4. However, the role of CKIP-1 in the cardiac remodeling induced by microgravity is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Rahul Jandial, Reid Hoshide, J Dawn Waters, Charles L Limoli
Journey to Mars will be a large milestone for all humankind. Throughout history, we have learned lessons about the health dangers associated with exploratory voyages to expand our frontiers. Travelling through deep space, the final frontier, is planned for the 2030s by NASA. The lessons learned from the adverse health effects of space exposure have been encountered from previous, less-lengthy missions. Prolonged multiyear deep space travel to Mars could be encumbered by significant adverse health effects, which could critically affect the safety of the mission and its voyagers...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Anita Dittrich, Daniela Grimm, Jayashree Sahana, Johann Bauer, Marcus Krüger, Manfred Infanger, Nils E Magnusson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiovascular complications are common in astronauts returning from a prolonged spaceflight. These health problems might be driven by complex modulations of gene expression and protein synthesis in endothelial cells (ECs). Studies on the influence of microgravity on phenotype, growth pattern and biological processes of ECs can help to understand these complications. METHODS: We exposed ECs (EA.hy926) to a Random Positioning Machine (RPM). Proteins associated with cell structure, angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction were investigated in distinct pools of multicellular spheroids (MCS), adherent cells (AD) and tubular structures (TS) formed after a 35-day RPM-exposure...
January 24, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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