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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910670/mental-imagery-of-gravitational-motion
#1
Silvio Gravano, Myrka Zago, Francesco Lacquaniti
There is considerable evidence that gravitational acceleration is taken into account in the interaction with falling targets through an internal model of Earth gravity. Here we asked whether this internal model is accessed also when target motion is imagined rather than real. In the main experiments, naïve participants grasped an imaginary ball, threw it against the ceiling, and caught it on rebound. In different blocks of trials, they had to imagine that the ball moved under terrestrial gravity (1g condition) or under microgravity (0g) as during a space flight...
August 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894789/impact-of-the-mk-vi-skinsuit-on-skin-microbiota-of-terrestrial-volunteers-and-an-international-space-station-bound-astronaut
#2
Richard A Stabler, Helena Rosado, Ronan Doyle, David Negus, Philip A Carvil, Juan G Kristjánsson, David A Green, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Cadi Davies, Andreas Mogensen, Jonathan Scott, Peter W Taylor
Microgravity induces physiological deconditioning due to the absence of gravity loading, resulting in bone mineral density loss, atrophy of lower limb skeletal and postural muscles, and lengthening of the spine. SkinSuit is a lightweight compression suit designed to provide head-to-foot (axial) loading to counteract spinal elongation during spaceflight. As synthetic garments may impact negatively on the skin microbiome, we used 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon procedures to define bacterial skin communities at sebaceous and moist body sites of five healthy male volunteers undergoing SkinSuit evaluation...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894439/phenotypic-changes-exhibited-by-e-coli-cultured-in-space
#3
Luis Zea, Michael Larsen, Frederico Estante, Klaus Qvortrup, Ralf Moeller, Sílvia Dias de Oliveira, Louis Stodieck, David Klaus
Bacteria will accompany humans in our exploration of space, making it of importance to study their adaptation to the microgravity environment. To investigate potential phenotypic changes for bacteria grown in space, Escherichia coli was cultured onboard the International Space Station with matched controls on Earth. Samples were challenged with different concentrations of gentamicin sulfate to study the role of drug concentration on the dependent variables in the space environment. Analyses included assessments of final cell count, cell size, cell envelope thickness, cell ultrastructure, and culture morphology...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890347/high-resolution-structure-discloses-the-potential-for-allosteric-regulation-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-kinase-7
#4
Takayoshi Kinoshita, Takuma Hashimoto, Yuri Sogabe, Harumi Fukada, Takashi Matsumoto, Masaaki Sawa
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MAP2K7) regulates stress and inflammatory responses, and is an attractive drug discovery target for several diseases including arthritis and cardiac hypertrophy. Intracellular proteins such as MAP2K7 are prone to aggregation due to cysteine-driven oxidation in in vitro experiments. MAP2K7 instability due to the four free cysteine residues on the molecular surface abrogated the crystal growth and led to a low-resolution structure with large residual errors. To acquire a higher resolution structure for promoting rational drug discovery, we explored stable mutants of MAP2K7 by replacing the surface cysteine residues, Cys147, Cys218, Cys276 and Cys296...
September 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883615/development-of-new-experimental-platform-mars-multiple-artificial-gravity-research-system-to-elucidate-the-impacts-of-micro-partial-gravity-on-mice
#5
Dai Shiba, Hiroyasu Mizuno, Akane Yumoto, Michihiko Shimomura, Hiroe Kobayashi, Hironobu Morita, Miki Shimbo, Michito Hamada, Takashi Kudo, Masahiro Shinohara, Hiroshi Asahara, Masaki Shirakawa, Satoru Takahashi
This Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency project focused on elucidating the impacts of partial gravity (partial g) and microgravity (μg) on mice using newly developed mouse habitat cage units (HCU) that can be installed in the Centrifuge-equipped Biological Experiment Facility in the International Space Station. In the first mission, 12 C57BL/6 J male mice were housed under μg or artificial earth-gravity (1 g). Mouse activity was monitored daily via downlinked videos; μg mice floated inside the HCU, whereas artificial 1 g mice were on their feet on the floor...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877184/microgravity-validation-of-a-novel-system-for-rna-isolation-and-multiplex-quantitative-real-time-pcr-analysis-of-gene-expression-on-the-international-space-station
#6
Macarena Parra, Jimmy Jung, Travis D Boone, Luan Tran, Elizabeth A Blaber, Mark Brown, Matthew Chin, Tori Chinn, Jacob Cohen, Robert Doebler, Dzung Hoang, Elizabeth Hyde, Matthew Lera, Louie T Luzod, Mark Mallinson, Oana Marcu, Youssef Mohamedaly, Antonio J Ricco, Kathleen Rubins, Gregory D Sgarlato, Rafael O Talavera, Peter Tong, Eddie Uribe, Jeffrey Williams, Diana Wu, Rukhsana Yousuf, Charles S Richey, Julie Schonfeld, Eduardo A C Almeida
The International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory is dedicated to studying the effects of space on life and physical systems, and to developing new science and technologies for space exploration. A key aspect of achieving these goals is to operate the ISS National Lab more like an Earth-based laboratory, conducting complex end-to-end experimentation, not limited to simple microgravity exposure. Towards that end NASA developed a novel suite of molecular biology laboratory tools, reagents, and methods, named WetLab-2, uniquely designed to operate in microgravity, and to process biological samples for real-time gene expression analysis on-orbit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875158/thirty-days-of-spaceflight-does-not-alter-murine-calvariae-structure-despite-increased-sost-expression
#7
Timothy R Macaulay, Jamila H Siamwala, Alan R Hargens, Brandon R Macias
Previously our laboratory documented increases in calvaria bone volume and thickness in mice exposed to 15 days of spaceflight aboard the NASA Shuttle mission STS-131. However, the tissues were not processed for gene expression studies to determine what bone formation pathways might contribute to these structural adaptations. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate both the structural and molecular changes in mice calvariae after a longer duration of spaceflight. The primary purpose was to determine the calvaria bone volume and thickness of mice exposed to 30 days of spaceflight using micro-computed tomography for comparison with our previous findings...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869392/intracranial-pressure-induced-optic-nerve-sheath-response-as-a-predictive-biomarker-for-optic-disc-edema-in-astronauts
#8
Peter Wostyn, Peter Paul De Deyn
A significant proportion of the astronauts who spend extended periods in microgravity develop ophthalmic abnormalities. Understanding this syndrome, called visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP), has become a high priority for National Aeronautics and Space Administration, especially in view of future long-duration missions (e.g., Mars missions). Moreover, to ensure selection of astronaut candidates who will be able to complete long-duration missions with low risk of the VIIP syndrome, it is imperative to identify biomarkers for VIIP risk prediction...
September 4, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868355/stability-of-gene-expression-in-human-t-cells-in-different-gravity-environments-is-clustered-in-chromosomal-region-11p15-4
#9
Cora S Thiel, Andreas Huge, Swantje Hauschild, Svantje Tauber, Beatrice A Lauber, Jennifer Polzer, Katrin Paulsen, Hartwin Lier, Frank Engelmann, Burkhard Schmitz, Andreas Schütte, Liliana E Layer, Oliver Ullrich
In the last decades, a plethora of in vitro studies with living human cells contributed a vast amount of knowledge about cellular and molecular effects of microgravity. Previous studies focused mostly on the identification of gravity-responsive genes, whereas a multi-platform analysis at an integrative level, which specifically evaluates the extent and robustness of transcriptional response to an altered gravity environment was not performed so far. Therefore, we investigated the stability of gene expression response in non-activated human Jurkat T lymphocytic cells in different gravity environments through the combination of parabolic flights with a suborbital ballistic rocket and 2D clinostat and centrifuge experiments, using strict controls for excluding all possible other factors of influence...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868354/differential-dynamic-microscopy-of-bidisperse-colloidal-suspensions
#10
Mohammad S Safari, Ryan Poling-Skutvik, Peter G Vekilov, Jacinta C Conrad
Research tasks in microgravity include monitoring the dynamics of constituents of varying size and mobility in processes such as aggregation, phase separation, or self-assembly. We use differential dynamic microscopy, a method readily implemented with equipment available on the International Space Station, to simultaneously resolve the dynamics of particles of radius 50 nm and 1 μm in bidisperse aqueous suspensions. Whereas traditional dynamic light scattering fails to detect a signal from the larger particles at low concentrations, differential dynamic microscopy exhibits enhanced sensitivity in these conditions by accessing smaller wavevectors where scattering from the large particles is stronger...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863691/tinylev-a-multi-emitter-single-axis-acoustic-levitator
#11
Asier Marzo, Adrian Barnes, Bruce W Drinkwater
Acoustic levitation has the potential to enable novel studies due to its ability to hold a wide variety of substances against gravity under container-less conditions. It has found application in spectroscopy, chemistry, and the study of organisms in microgravity. Current levitators are constructed using Langevin horns that need to be manufactured to high tolerance with carefully matched resonant frequencies. This resonance condition is hard to maintain as their temperature changes due to transduction heating...
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862767/modification-of-growth-anisotropy-and-cortical-microtubule-dynamics-in-arabidopsis-hypocotyls-grown-under-microgravity-conditions-in-space
#12
Kouichi Soga, Chiaki Yamazaki, Motoshi Kamada, Naoki Tanigawa, Haruo Kasahara, Sachiko Yano, Kei H Kojo, Natsumaro Kutsuna, Takehide Kato, Takashi Hashimoto, Toshihisa Kotake, Kazuyuki Wakabayashi, Takayuki Hoson
We carried out a space experiment, denoted as Aniso Tubule, to examine the effects of microgravity on the growth anisotropy and cortical microtubule dynamics in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, using lines in which microtubules are visualized by labelling tubulin or microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) with green fluorescent protein (GFP). In all lines, GFP-tubulin6 (TUB6)-, basic proline-rich protein1 (BPP1)-GFP- and spira1-like3 (SP1L3)-GFP-expressing using a constitutive promoter, and spiral2 (SPR2)-GFP- and GFP-65 kDa MAP-1 (MAP65-1)-expressing using a native promoter, the length of hypocotyls grown under microgravity conditions in space was longer than that grown at 1 g conditions on the ground...
September 1, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861052/expose-r2-the-astrobiological-esa-mission-on-board-of-the-international-space-station
#13
Elke Rabbow, Petra Rettberg, Andre Parpart, Corinna Panitz, Wolfgang Schulte, Ferdinand Molter, Esther Jaramillo, René Demets, Peter Weiß, Rainer Willnecker
On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861024/gravity-cues-embedded-in-the-kinematics-of-human-motion-are-detected-in-form-from-motion-areas-of-the-visual-system-and-in-motor-related-areas
#14
Fabien Cignetti, Pierre-Yves Chabeauti, Jasmine Menant, Jean-Luc J J Anton, Christina Schmitz, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
The present study investigated the cortical areas engaged in the perception of graviceptive information embedded in biological motion (BM). To this end, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the cortical areas active during the observation of human movements performed under normogravity and microgravity (parabolic flight). Movements were defined by motion cues alone using point-light displays. We found that gravity modulated the activation of a restricted set of regions of the network subtending BM perception, including form-from-motion areas of the visual system (kinetic occipital region, lingual gyrus, cuneus) and motor-related areas (primary motor and somatosensory cortices)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860998/human-biomechanical-and-cardiopulmonary-responses-to-partial-gravity-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Charlotte Richter, Bjoern Braunstein, Andrew Winnard, Mona Nasser, Tobias Weber
The European Space Agency has recently announced to progress from low Earth orbit missions on the International Space Station to other mission scenarios such as exploration of the Moon or Mars. Therefore, the Moon is considered to be the next likely target for European human space explorations. Compared to microgravity (μg), only very little is known about the physiological effects of exposure to partial gravity (μg < partial gravity <1 g). However, previous research studies and experiences made during the Apollo missions comprise a valuable source of information that should be taken into account when planning human space explorations to reduced gravity environments...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857747/investigation-of-cerebral-venous-outflow-in-microgravity
#16
Angelo Taibi, Giacomo Gadda, Mauro Gambaccini, Erica Menegatti, Francesco Sisini, Paolo Zamboni
The gravitational gradient is the major component to face when considering the physiology of venous return and there is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms ensuring the heart filling in the absence of gravity for astronauts who perform long-term space missions. The purpose of the Drain Brain project was to monitor the cerebral venous outflow of the crew member during an experiment on the International Space Station, so as to study the compensatory mechanisms that facilitate this essential physiological action in subjects living in a microgravity environment...
August 31, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827451/comparative-transcriptomics-indicate-changes-in-cell-wall-organization-and-stress-response-in-seedlings-during-spaceflight
#17
Christina M Johnson, Aswati Subramanian, Sivakumar Pattathil, Melanie J Correll, John Z Kiss
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Plants will play an important role in the future of space exploration as part of bioregenerative life support. Thus, it is important to understand the effects of microgravity and spaceflight on gene expression in plant development. METHODS: We analyzed the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana using the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware during Space Shuttle mission STS-131. The bioinformatics methods used included RMA (robust multi-array average), MAS5 (Microarray Suite 5...
August 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821629/effects-of-spaceflight-on-the-muscles-of-the-murine-shoulder
#18
Hua Shen, Chanteak Lim, Andrea G Schwartz, Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alix C Deymier, Stavros Thomopoulos
Mechanical loading is necessary for the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Removal of loading via microgravity, paralysis, or bed rest leads to rapid loss of muscle mass and function; however, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these changes are largely unknown, particularly for the spaceflight (SF) microgravity environment. Furthermore, few studies have explored these effects on the shoulder, a dynamically stabilized joint with a large range of motion; therefore, we examined the effects of microgravity on mouse shoulder muscles for the 15-d Space Transportation System (STS)-131, 13-d STS-135, and 30-d Bion-M1 missions...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821547/cultivation-in-space-flight-produces-minimal-alterations-in-the-susceptibility-of-bacillus-subtilis-cells-to-72-different-antibiotics-and-growth-inhibiting-compounds
#19
Michael D Morrison, Patricia Fajardo-Cavazos, Wayne L Nicholson
Past results have suggested that bacterial antibiotic susceptibility is altered during space flight. To test this notion, Bacillus subtilis cells were cultivated in matched hardware, medium, and environmental conditions either in spaceflight microgravity on the International Space Station, termed Flight (FL) samples, or at Earth-normal gravity, termed Ground Control (GC) samples. Susceptibility of FL and GC samples was compared to 72 antibiotics and growth-inhibitory compounds using the Omnilog Phenotype Microarray (PM) system...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818998/lower-body-negative-pressure-reduces-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-during-head-down-tilt
#20
Karina Marshall-Goebel, Robert Terlević, Darius A Gerlach, Simone Kuehn, Edwin Mulder, Jörn Rittweger
The microgravity ocular syndrome (MOS) results in significant structural and functional ophthalmic changes during 6-month spaceflight missions consistent with an increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure compared to the preflight upright position. A ground-based study was performed to assess two of the major hypothesized contributors to MOS, headward fluid shifting and increased ambient CO2, on intracranial and periorbital CSF. In addition, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was assessed as a countermeasure to headward fluid shifting...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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