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Artificial insemination

Karun Kaniyamattam, Jeremy Block, Peter J Hansen, Albert De Vries
The objective of this study was to find the optimal proportions of pregnancies from an in vitro-produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system and artificial insemination (AI) so that profitability is maximized over a range of prices for embryos and surplus dairy heifer calves. An existing stochastic, dynamic dairy model with genetic merits of 12 traits was adapted for scenarios where 0 to 100% of the eligible females in the herd were impregnated, in increments of 10%, using IVP-ET (ET0 to ET100, 11 scenarios). Oocytes were collected from the top donors selected for the trait lifetime net merit (NM$) and fertilized with sexed semen to produce IVP embryos...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
S G Moore, J F Hasler
Reproductive technology revolutionized dairy production during the past century. Artificial insemination was first successfully applied to cattle in the early 1900s. The next major developments involved semen extenders, invention of the electroejaculator, progeny testing, addition of antibiotics to semen during the 1930s and 1940s, and the major discovery of sperm cryopreservation with glycerol in 1949. The 1950s and 1960s were particularly productive with the development of protocols for the superovulation of cattle with both pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin/equine chorionic gonadotrophin and FSH, the first successful bovine embryo transfer, the discovery of sperm capacitation, the birth of rabbits after in vitro fertilization, and the development of insulated liquid nitrogen tanks...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
J S Stevenson, J H Britt
Basic knowledge of mechanisms controlling reproductive processes in mammals was limited in the early 20th century. Discoveries of physiologic processes and mechanisms made early in the last century laid the foundation to develop technologies and programs used today to manage and control reproduction in dairy cattle. Beyond advances made in understanding of gonadotropic support and control of ovarian and uterine functions in basic reproductive biology, advancements made in artificial insemination (AI) and genetics facilitated rapid genetic progress of economically important traits in dairy cattle...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
K A Weigel, P M VanRaden, H D Norman, H Grosu
In the early 1900s, breed society herdbooks had been established and milk-recording programs were in their infancy. Farmers wanted to improve the productivity of their cattle, but the foundations of population genetics, quantitative genetics, and animal breeding had not been laid. Early animal breeders struggled to identify genetically superior families using performance records that were influenced by local environmental conditions and herd-specific management practices. Daughter-dam comparisons were used for more than 30 yr and, although genetic progress was minimal, the attention given to performance recording, genetic theory, and statistical methods paid off in future years...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Olivier D'Amours, Gilles Frenette, Sylvie Bourassa, Ezequiel Calvo, Patrick Blondin, Robert Sullivan
Mammalian semen contains a heterogeneous population of sperm cells. This heterogeneity results from variability in the complex processes of cell differentiation in the testis, biochemical modifications undergone by spermatozoa during transit along the male reproductive tract, interactions with secretions from accessory sex glands at ejaculation, and, in the context of reproductive technologies, in the ability of ejaculated spermatozoa to resist damage associated with freeze-thaw procedures. When submitted to density gradient centrifugation, ejaculated spermatozoa distribute themselves into two distinct populations: a low-density population characterized by low motility parameters, and a high-density population with high motility characteristics...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Arslan Qayyum, Usman Arshad, Muhammad Rizwan Yousuf, Nasim Ahmad
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of breeding method and season on pregnancy rate and cumulative embryonic and fetal losses in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Estrus detection was performed twice a day by teaser buffalo bull for 1 hour each. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to address the breeding method and season. Buffaloes (n = 130) exhibiting estrus were randomly assigned to be bred either in peak breeding season (PBS; n = 80) or low breeding season (LBS; n = 50). Within each season, buffaloes were divided to receive either natural service (NS; n = 65) or artificial insemination (AI; n = 65)...
November 16, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
S Gizaw, A Tegegne
Low selection intensity due to few selection candidates available at any one time due to thinly spread year-round lambings in villages and prohibitively large nucleus requirements to provide sufficient improved rams to the production tier are the major challenges for designing effective village-based and central nucleus-based breeding programmes, respectively, for smallholder sheep farmers. To tackle these challenges, we used deterministic simulation to design three schemes in village-based programmes introducing hormonal oestrus synchronization (natural oestrus (VNE), single oestrus synchronization (VSE1) and double oestrus synchronization (VSE2)) and three schemes in central nucleus programme introducing artificial insemination (AI) (natural mating with nucleus sizes of 5% (CNM1) and 1% (CNM2) of the total ewe population and natural mating in breeding tier and AI in production tier (CAI))...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
O Bogado Pascottini, M Hostens, G Opsomer
This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence of cytological endometritis (CYTO) diagnosed at artificial insemination (AI); (ii) evaluate the effect of CYTO on the pregnancy outcome of the same AI sample; and (iii) determine the risk factors associated with CYTO diagnosed at AI in repeat breeder (RB) dairy cows. We analysed the productive and reproductive performances of 146 RB Holstein-Friesian cows. To obtain a CYTO sample at AI, we used the cytotape technique. Generalized mixed effect models were computed to find the risk factors associated with the pregnancy and CYTO outcome...
November 14, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Rupert P Amann, Richard G Saacke, Guy F Barbato, Dagmar Waberski
Fertility is a convenient but meaningless term unless the outcome measure is stipulated and accounts for dependence of male fertility on the female population. We describe outcome measures and detail the impacts of the physiological status of each female and her external environment, as well as management imposed by humans. We explain the dominant role of the female reproductive tract as a series of hurdles for sperm seeking an ovum. Each spermatozoon in an ejaculate is unique, although usually most are morphologically similar...
November 13, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Yue Liu, Leticia Torres, Terrence R Tiersch
Standardized evaluation of sperm quality is essential for research, commercial-scale cryopreservation, and induced spawning. However, standardized methods for evaluation of sperm bundles (spermatozeugmata or spermatophores) have not been established. The purpose of the present study was to use Redtail Splitfin (Xenotoca eiseni) as a model for freshwater livebearing fishes to establish initial standardized methods to collect sperm bundles, and quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate quality-related attributes...
October 28, 2017: Theriogenology
Heidi Signer-Hasler, Alexander Burren, Markus Neuditschko, Mirjam Frischknecht, Dorian Garrick, Christian Stricker, Birgit Gredler, Beat Bapst, Christine Flury
BACKGROUND: Domestication, breed formation and intensive selection have resulted in divergent cattle breeds that likely exhibit their own genomic signatures. In this study, we used genotypes from 27,612 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to characterize population structure based on 9214 sires representing nine Swiss dairy cattle populations: Brown Swiss (BS), Braunvieh (BV), Original Braunvieh (OB), Holstein (HO), Red Holstein (RH), Swiss Fleckvieh (SF), Simmental (SI), Eringer (ER) and Evolèner (EV)...
November 7, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Ryotaro Miura, Taiki Izumi
In this study, we examined the locational effect (left or right ovary) of the preovulatory follicle (PF) on fertility in dairy heifers. In total, 1,111 artificial inseminations (AI) were analyzed. At AI, PF locations were examined using rectal palpation, and heifers were divided into two groups on their PF locations: (i) the PF located in the left ovary (L-PF); and (ii) the PF located in the right ovary (R-PF). Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation 60 days after AI. The conception rate was 50.7% in all heifers...
November 8, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Javed Ahmed Malla, Soumendu Chakravarti, Vikas Gupta, Vishal Chander, Gaurav Kumar Sharma, Salauddin Qureshi, Adhiraj Mishra, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Sukdeb Nandi
Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) is a major viral pathogen affecting bovines leading to various clinical manifestations and causes significant economic impediment in modern livestock production system. Rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of BHV-1 infection at frozen semen stations or at dairy herds remains a priority for control of BHV-1 spread to susceptible population. Polymerase Spiral Reaction (PSR), a novel addition in the gamut of isothermal techniques, has been successfully implemented in initial optimization for detection of BHV-1 genomic DNA and further validated in clinical samples...
November 8, 2017: Gene
Francisco Marco-Jiménez, Ximo García-Domínguez, Jesús Valdes-Hernández, José Salvador Vicente
BACKGROUND: While ectopic pregnancies account for 1-2% of all pregnancies, abdominal pregnancy is extremely rare, accounting for approximately 1% of ectopic pregnancies. Extrauterine abdominal pregnancy is defined as the implantation and development of an embryo in the peritoneal cavity. The present report is the first of an incidental case of abdominal pregnancy within four full-term foetus simultaneously with 2 weeks of physiological gestation in a healthy doe rabbit. CASE PRESENTATION: The doe was born on November 3, 2014 and the first partum took place on May 18, 2015...
November 3, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Eduardo Kenji Nunes Arashiro, Rodolfo Ungerfeld, Raquel Perez Clariget, Pedro Henrique Nicolau Pinto, Mario Felipe Alvarez Balaro, Glaucia Mota Bragança, Lilian Santos Ribeiro, Jeferson Ferreira da Fonseca, Felipe Zandonadi Brandão
This study was designed to evaluate early pregnancy diagnosis using colour Doppler ultrasonography (US) for luteal vascularisation assessment. In Study 1, 28 ewes were artificially inseminated (Day 0), and luteal vascularisation was assessed from Day 12 to Day 19 by two evaluators using colour Doppler US, categorising the corpus luteum (CL) on a subjective scale ranging from 1 to 4. Females bearing a CL with score 2 or greater were presumably considered pregnant. Pregnancy was confirmed on Day 30 by B-Mode US...
October 22, 2017: Theriogenology
Sung Woo Kim, Min Su Ki, Chan-Lan Kim, In-Sul Hwang, Ik Soo Jeon
In the field of reproductive medicine, assessment of sperm motility is a key factor for achieving successful artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, or intracellular sperm injection. In this study, the motility of boar sperms was estimated using real-time imaging via confocal microscopy. To confirm this confocal imaging method, flagellar beats and whiplash-like movement angles were compared between fresh and low-temperature-preserved (17℃ for 24 h) porcine sperms. Low-temperature preservation reduced the number of flagellar beats from 11...
September 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Toshiaki Sumiyoshi, Natumi Endo, Tomomi Tanaka, Hideo Kamomae
Relaxation of the intravaginal part of the uterus is obvious around 6 to 18 h before ovulation, and this is considered the optimal time for artificial insemination (AI), as demonstrated in recent studies. Estrous signs have been suggested as useful criteria for determining the optimal time for AI. Therefore, this study evaluated the usefulness of estrous signs, particularly the relaxation of the intravaginal part of the uterus, as criteria for determining the optimal time for AI. A Total of 100 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows kept in tie-stall barns were investigated...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
N Oosthuizen, P L P Fontes, C D Sanford, F M Ciriaco, D D Henry, L B Canal, N DiLorenzo, G C Lamb
To determine the effects of estrus synchronization (ES) and fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) on calving distribution in Bos indicus influenced heifers, 751 Bos taurus × Bos indicus beef heifers were enrolled in a completely randomized design at 2 locations from January to May of 2016. Within location, all heifers were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 1) SYNCH (n = 371); heifers were exposed to the 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol where they were treated with 100 μg of GnRH, 25 mg of PGF2α, and a controlled internal drug releasing insert (CIDR) on d 0; heifers received 50 mg of PGF2α at CIDR removal on d 5, and were treated with 100 μg of GnRH and TAI 66 ± 2 h later on d 8; or 2) CONTROL (n = 380); heifers were exposed to natural service without ES or TAI...
October 20, 2017: Theriogenology
Xiaoxing Liu, Zulqarain Baloch, Ge Wang, Senren Xue, Qunshang Huang, Shihua Yang
BACKGROUND: The rat is one of the most important experimental animals, which plays an indispensable role in biomedical research, particularly in reproduction. However, according to our best knowledge, there is no easy and efficient method available for semen collection from rats. RESULTS: In this study, we successfully collected semen through penile vibratory stimulation ejaculation (PVSE) from laboratory rats. This is an easier and more efficient method compared with rectal probe electro-ejaculation (RPE)...
October 17, 2017: Theriogenology
A K Singh, A Kumar, M Honparkhe, S Kaur, H Kaur, Sps Ghuman, P S Brar
The objective of this study was to compare different extenders for post-thaw in vitro sperm function and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Accordingly, sperm of 30 ejaculates extended in egg yolk (TRIS with 20% egg yolk; EY), two soya lecithin-based (SL-1; AndroMed(®) and SL-2; Bioxcell(®) ) and a liposome-based extender (LS; OptiXcell(®) ) were tested. The post-thaw semen was evaluated for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), sperm viability, membrane and acrosome integrity, DNA integrity and acrosome reaction and first service pregnancy rate (FSPR) in a fixed-time artificial insemination programme...
October 28, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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