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Artificial insemination

D J Miller
Millions or billions of sperm are deposited by artificial insemination or natural mating into the cow reproductive tract but only a few arrive at the site of fertilization and only one fertilizes an oocyte. The remarkable journey that successful sperm take to reach an oocyte is long and tortuous, and includes movement through viscous fluid, avoiding dead ends and hostile immune cells. The privileged collection of sperm that complete this journey must pass selection steps in the vagina, cervix, uterus, utero-tubal junction and oviduct...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Edel M Murphy, Ciara O' Meara, Bernard Eivers, Patrick Lonergan, Sean Fair
Temperature regulation of liquid bovine semen can be difficult in field situations. Two experiments were carried out to assess the effect of storage temperature on in vitro sperm characteristics and 60-d nonreturn rate (NRR) following artificial insemination (AI) of liquid bovine semen. In experiment 1, the effect of storage of liquid bovine semen in INRA96 diluent (IMV Technologies, L'Aigle, France) at 1 of 5 storage temperatures (5, 15, or 28°C, and fluctuating between 5 and 15°C or 5 and 28°C) on total and progressive motility and kinematic parameters was assessed objectively via computer-assisted sperm analyzer on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 after collection...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Sellappan Selvaraju, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Lakshminarayana Somashekar, B Krishnan Binsila, Atul P Kolte, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra, Stephen A Krawetz
With artificial insemination (AI) and other precision dependent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) being followed in large scale in human and animal reproduction, assessing semen quality and fertilizability is under continuous scrutiny. Various tests have been developed to predict semen quality, but so far no single, highly reliable test is available. In this regard, transcriptomic profiling of spermatozoa assumes significance as it carries the information about spermatogenesis, sperm function, and paternal roles in post-fertilization events...
March 14, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Zineb Moussafir, Larbi Allai, Kawtar El Khalil, Abdelkhaled Essamadi, Bouchra El Amiri
The aim of the present study was to compare a Bovine Pregnancy Rapid Test (Ubio quickVET; BPRT) with a commercial ELISA-PAG test (Bovine Pregnancy Test DG29®) for early pregnancy diagnosis based on the presence of the PAG (pregnancy-associated glycoprotein) in dairy cattle between 30 and 40 days after artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were collected from 212 cows between 30 and 40 days after artificial insemination (AI) to quantify the concentrations of PAG in each sample. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) diagnosis of pregnancy was conducted at day 45 ± 3 after AI as the reference standard for the two PAG tests...
March 2, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Vera Haapala, Tarja Pohjanvirta, Nella Vähänikkilä, Jani Halkilahti, Henri Simonen, Sinikka Pelkonen, Timo Soveri, Heli Simojoki, Tiina Autio
Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the cattle industry, have significant welfare effects and increase antibiotic use. The pathogen is often introduced into naive herds through healthy carrier animals. In countries with a low prevalence of M. bovis, transmission from less common sources can be better explored as the pathogen has limited circulation compared to high prevalence populations. In this study, we describe how M. bovis was introduced into two closed and adequately biosecure dairy herds through the use of contaminated semen during artificial insemination (AI), leading to mastitis outbreak in both herds...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Gessica Araujo Franco, Rogerio Fonseca Guimaraes Peres, Cicero Fleury Guedes Martins, Sydney Taylor Reese, Jose Luiz Moraes Vasconcelos, Ky Garrett Pohler
Pregnancy loss is a major contributing factor to reproductive inefficiency in both the beef and dairy industries. Sires can have a significant influence on the amount of pregnancy loss; however, this relationship is still poorly investigated. The primary objective of this study was to identify sires associated with high or low incidence of pregnancy loss (between d 30 and 100 of gestation) and investigate their effect on concentration of circulating pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs). Postpartum multiparous Nelore cows were inseminated artificially at a fixed time (FTAI, d 0) after synchronization of ovulation...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
P Karan, T K Mohanty, A Kumaresan, M Bhakat, R K Baithalu, K Verma, S Kumar, M Das Gupta, K K Saraf, S C Gahlot
To achieve the targeted artificial insemination coverage with the current rate of semen production, without affecting the conception rate, it needs to reduce the number of spermatozoa per insemination dose in India as per international practice. Therefore, this study was planned to perform different levels of semen dilution, compare in vitro post-thaw semen quality and develop a modified low-dose semen packaging method in French mini straw to minimise semen dilution effect. Sixteen ejaculates were collected from Karan Fries bulls (n = 4)...
March 7, 2018: Andrologia
J L Schenk
Knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the reproductive capacity of bulls is vital in maximizing reproductive efficiencies. Bull semen collection guidelines established by researchers and industry personnel to maximize the sperm harvest from bulls have been evolving for more than 60 years. Today, a mature artificial insemination industry employs those strategies to meet demands. These efficient management schemes exploit the reproductive potential of each sire while minimizing the associated risk of injury to bulls and reduce associated production costs...
March 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
R Olivera, L N Moro, R Jordan, N Pallarols, A Guglielminetti, C Luzzani, S G Miriuka, G Vichera
Introduction: Cell plasticity is crucial in cloning to allow an efficient nuclear reprogramming and healthy offspring. Hence, cells with high plasticity, such as multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), may be a promising alternative for horse cloning. In this study, we evaluated the use of bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) as nuclear donors in horse cloning, and we compared the in vitro and in vivo embryo development with respect to fibroblasts. Materials and methods: Zona-free nuclear transfer was performed using BM-MSCs (MSC group, n=3432) or adult fibroblasts (AF group, n=4527)...
2018: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
E M Murphy, C O'Meara, B Eivers, P Lonergan, S Fair
Diluents using components of plant origin have been developed as an alternative to animal based extenders for the dilution of bull semen, however, it is unclear if use of these diluents results in in vivo fertility rates similar to those that occur with use of traditional egg yolk-based diluents. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of semen diluent on 60-day non-return rate (NRR) following artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed bull semen. The effect of semen dilution in one of three different commercial diluents (BullXcell - egg yolk-based, OptiXcell - plant-based or AndroMed - plant-based) on post-thaw total and progressive motility as well as kinematic parameters (Experiment 1) and field fertility (Experiment 2, n = 1,480 inseminations) was assessed...
February 15, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Gianluca Neglia, Massimo Capuano, Anna Balestrieri, Roberta Cimmino, Francesco Iannaccone, Francesco Palumbo, Giorgio A Presicce, Giuseppe Campanile
The combined effect of six consecutive timed artificial inseminations (TAIs) on pregnancy rates, following two different synchronization protocols on buffalo heifers, over a period of seven months typically characterized by low breeding performances, were investigated in this study. A total of 2189 TAIs were performed on 1463 buffalo heifers within a large buffalo farm in the south of Italy. Individual animals were allowed to undergo synchronization protocol (either a slightly modified Ovsynch or Progesterone treatment) and TAI until establishment of pregnancy or else for not more than six consecutive times...
February 8, 2018: Theriogenology
Jane-Fang Yu, Yu-Hua Lai, Tse-En Wang, Yu-Syuan Wei, Yu-Jia Chang, Sheng-Hsiang Li, Shih-Chien Chin, Radhika Joshi, Hui-Wen Chang, Pei-Shiue Tsai
BACKGROUND: Semen from the chimpanzee species becomes a colloidal solid after ejaculation. The formation of this copulatory plug is believed to prevent additional spermatozoa of subsequent mating events from accessing the ova. However, this naturally preserved strategy hampers the processes for sperm preparation. In this study, we investigated whether collagenase can be used to degelify the semen plug and accelerate the semen liquefaction process in zoo captive chimpanzee species (Pan troglodytes)...
February 27, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
B R Harstine, M D Utt, J M DeJarnette
The technology available to assess sperm population characteristics has advanced greatly in recent years. Large artificial insemination (AI) organizations that sell bovine semen utilize many of these technologies not only for novel research purposes, but also to make decisions regarding whether to sell or discard the product. Within an AI organization, the acquisition, interpretation and utilization of semen quality data is often performed by a quality control department. In general, quality control decisions regarding semen sales are often founded on the linkages established between semen quality and field fertility...
February 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Ignacio M Helbling, Carlos A Busatto, Silvana A Fioramonti, Juan I Pesoa, Liliana Santiago, Diana A Estenoz, Julio A Luna
PURPOSE: Planned reproduction in cattle involves regulation of estrous cycle and the use of artificial insemination. Cycle control includes the administration of exogenous progesterone during 5-8 days in a controlled manner allowing females to synchronize their ovulation. Several progesterone delivery systems are commercially available but they have several drawbacks. The aim of the present contribution was to evaluate chitosan microparticles entrapping progesterone as an alternative system...
February 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
E Martínez-Paredes, L Ródenas, J J Pascual, D Savietto
Factors influencing early development such as birth weight, nest competition, and the diet received during rearing have been proposed as elements conditioning the future reproductive performance of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) females. To evaluate their effects, we followed the life of 1513 females from birth to time of death, culling or censoring (animals alive at a fixed date). Between 0 and 63 days of age 353 females died. From the remaining 1160 females, 864 were chosen based on their birth weight to be transferred from the selection to the production farm...
February 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Takuro Fujikawa, Shuji Imamura, Motoyuki Tokumaru, Takaaki Ando, Yuki Gen, Suong-Hyu Hyon, Chikara Kubota
In this study, investigating Carboxylated Poly-L-Lysine (CPLL) for its effectiveness as a new cryoprotectant for bovine sperm is aimed. CPLL is an ampholytic polymer compound, has cryoprotective properties similar to those of anti-freeze protein. The cryopreservation medium used for control group consisted of 6.5% (v/v) glycerol, the cryopreservation medium used for experimental group consisted of 3.25% (v/v) glycerol + 0.5% (w/v) CPLL. There was no consequential difference in sperm motility parameter after thawing whereas there was huge distinction for sperm membrane integrity rate (control vs experimental; 49...
February 16, 2018: Cryobiology
J J Bromfield
Artificial insemination has been a landmark procedure in improving animal agriculture over the past 150 years. The utility of artificial insemination has facilitated a rapid improvement in animal genetics across agricultural species, leading to improvements of growth, health and productivity in poultry, swine, equine and cattle species. The utility of artificial insemination, as with all assisted reproductive technologies side-steps thousands of years of evolution that has led to the development of physiological systems to ensure the transmission of genetics from generation to generation...
February 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Kerry Hancuch, Jared Baeten, Kenneth Ngure, Connie Celum, Nelly Mugo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Renee Heffron
For HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, HIV-1 exposure and risk of transmission is heightened during pregnancy attempts, but safer conception strategies can reduce risk. As safer conception programs are scaled up, understanding couples' preferences and experiences can be useful for programmatic recommendations. We followed 1013 high-risk, heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda for two years in an open-label delivery study of integrated pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), the Partners Demonstration Project...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Care
Jeremy F Taylor, Robert D Schnabel, Peter Sutovsky
Whole genome sequencing has identified millions of bovine genetic variants; however, there is currently little understanding about which variants affect male fertility. It is imperative that we begin to link detrimental genetic variants to sperm phenotypes via the analysis of semen samples and measurement of fertility for bulls with alternate genotypes. Artificial insemination (AI) bulls provide a useful model system because of extensive fertility records, measured as sire conception rates (SCR). Genetic variants with moderate to large effects on fertility can be identified by sequencing the genomes of fertile and subfertile or infertile sires identified with high or low SCR as adult AI bulls or yearling bulls that failed Breeding Soundness Evaluation...
February 10, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
C D Dechow, G W Rogers
Expectation of genetic merit in commercial dairy herds is routinely estimated using a 4-path genetic selection model that was derived for a closed population, but commercial herds using artificial insemination sires are not closed. The 4-path model also predicts a higher rate of genetic progress in elite herds that provide artificial insemination sires than in commercial herds that use such sires, which counters other theoretical assumptions and observations of realized genetic responses. The aim of this work is to clarify whether genetic merit in commercial herds is more accurately reflected under the assumptions of the 4-path genetic response formula or by a genetic lag formula...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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