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Artificial insemination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548294/comparison-of-productive-and-reproductive-performance-and-hair-cortisol-levels-between-brown-swiss-cross-bred-and-holstein-cows-housed-in-the-same-barn
#1
Natsumi Endo, Reimi Kuroki, Tomomi Tanaka
The productive and reproductive characteristics of Brown Swiss (B) cross-bred cows were investigated by comparing with those of Holstein (H) cows housed in the same barn. Additionally, their hair cortisol levels were analyzed to evaluate the extent of stress experienced during dry and lactation periods. B cross-bred cows had lower milk yields and higher milk fat rates than H cows. Reproductive records showed that days from parturition to first artificial insemination (AI) in B cross-bred (n = 16) and H (n = 27) cows were not significantly different, but conception rate at first AI of B cross-bred cows tended to be higher than that of H cows...
May 26, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532844/effects-of-d-cloprostenol-on-different-layers-and-regions-of-the-bovine-uterus-during-the-follicular-and-luteal-phases
#2
M Piccinno, R L Sciorsci, V Masciopinto, M De Rosa, A Rizzo
INTRODUCTION: D-cloprostenol is a synthetic PGF2α, commonly used in bovine reproduction, that increases myometral contractility. However, little is known regarding its contractile behaviour and how it depends on the reproductive state and uterine topography (regions and muscular layers). HYPOTHESIS AND OBJECTIVES: These aspects would affect the action of d-cloprostenol on the uterus. Therefore, we hypothesize a possible use of this drug at the time of artificial insemination, to improve conception rates and, in the post-partum, in order to accelerate uterine involution in dairy cattle...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532841/quality-and-fertility-of-frozen-ovine-spermatozoa-from-epididymides-stored-at-room-temperature-18-25%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-for-up-to-48%C3%A2-h-post-mortem
#3
Tácia Gomes Bergstein-Galan, Romildo Romualdo Weiss, Melina Andrea F Bertol, Ana Cláudia M R Abreu, Eduarda Busato, Luiz E Kozicki, Sony Dimas Bicudo
This study investigates the effect of time of storage of epididymides at room temperature and the addition of 20% of seminal plasma to the cryopreservation extender, on post thaw quality and fertility of ovine spermatozoa collected from the cauda epididymis. Spermatic kinetics, integrity and the stability of plasma membrane, damage to the acrosome and fertility following laparoscopic artificial insemination were evaluated in samples collected in an artificial vagina (AV) and from epididymides stored at room temperature for zero (G0), six (G6), twelve (G12), twenty-four (G24) and forty-eight (G48) hours post mortem...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532825/growth-performance-reproductive-traits-and-offspring-survivability-of-genetically-modified-rams-overexpressing-toll-like-receptor-4
#4
Yu-Chang Yao, Hong-Bing Han, Xu-Ting Song, Shou-Long Deng, Yu-Feng Liu, Ming-Hai Lu, Yun-Hai Zhang, Mei-Yu Qi, Hai-Juan He, Su-Mei Wang, Guo-Shi Liu, Wu Li, Zheng-Xing Lian
Genetic modification provides a means to enhancing disease resistance in animals. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the TLR family, is critical for the recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria by host immune cells, which initiates cell activation and subsequently triggers a proinflammatory response to the invading pathogens. In this study, the first generation of genetically modified (GM) sheep overexpressing TLR4 was produced by microinjection for better disease resistance...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528496/artificial-insemination-of-holstein-heifers-with-sex-sorted-semen-during-the-hot-season-in-a-subtropical-region
#5
Lian-Ben Chang, Chih-Jen Chou, Jia-Shian Shiu, Po-An Tu, Shi-Xuan Gao, Shao-Yu Peng, Shinn-Chih Wu
Our aim was to investigate insemination techniques in order to improve pregnancy rates of artificial insemination (AI) using sex-sorted semen (sexed AI) in cattle in tropical and subtropical (T/ST) regions. In T/ST regions, the pregnancy rates by sexed AI are reportedly the lowest in the hottest months of the year, with less than 15% in cows and 35-40% in heifers (PMID 24048822). We compared sexed AI by depositing the semen into the uterine body (UB-AI, n = 12) versus the unilateral uterine horn (UUH-AI, n = 14) of pre-ovulation heifers...
May 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525345/in-vitro-production-of-sudanese-camel-camelus-dromedarius-embryos-from-epididymal-spermatozoa-and-follicular-oocytes-of-slaughtered-animals
#6
A E Abdelkhalek, Sh A Gabr, W A Khalil, Sh M Shamiah, L Pan, G Qin, M H Farouk
Application of assisted reproductive technology in camelidea, such as artificial insemination (AI) and embryo transfer, has been slow in comparison to that for other livestock species. In Egypt, there are few attempts to establish in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) techniques in dromedary camel. The present study was carried out to produce Sudanese camel embryos using in vitro matured oocytes and epididymal spermatozoa. Dromedary camel ovaries were collected from abattoirs and then, the oocytes were aspirated from all the visible follicles on the ovarian surface (~2-8 mm in a diameter)...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523637/the-invention-of-artificial-fertilization-in-the-eighteenth-and-nineteenth-century
#7
Barbara Orland
Artificial insemination and other fertilization techniques are today considered central to the history of reproductive medicine. The medical treatment of infertile couples, however, constitutes just a small part of the whole story of artificial fertilization. Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) in particular, said to have been the inventor of artificial insemination, did not develop this method for medical purposes. He belonged to a generation of naturalists to whom artificial insemination was part of a heterogeneous series of investigations that were undertaken to explore the natural history of animal generation...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521061/extracellular-camp-activates-molecular-signalling-pathways-associated-with-sperm-capacitation-in-bovines
#8
Carlos Agustín I Alonso, Claudia E Osycka-Salut, Luciana Castellano, Andreína Cesari, Nicolás Di Siervi, Adrián Mutto, Anders Johannisson, Jane M Morrell, Carlos Davio, Silvina Perez-Martinez
STUDY QUESTION: Is extracellular cAMP involved in the regulation of signalling pathways in bovine sperm capacitation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Extracellular cAMP-induced sperm capacitation through the activation of different signalling pathways that involve phospholipase C (PLC), PKC/ERK1-2 signalling and an increase in sperm Ca2+ levels, as well as soluble AC and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In order to fertilize the oocyte, ejaculated spermatozoa must undergo a series of changes in the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520723/follicular-size-predicts-success-in-artificial-insemination-with-frozen-thawed-sperm-in-donkeys
#9
Joseph Saragusty, Alemayehu Lemma, Thomas Bernd Hildebrandt, Frank Göritz
In asses, semen collection, cryopreservation, and artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen have been scarcely described and success rate, particularly following AI, is reportedly low. In the absence of reliable protocols, assisted reproductive technologies cannot support the conservation efforts aimed at endangered wild ass species and domestic donkey breeds. Two experiments were conducted in this study. In experiment 1 we evaluated freezing Abyssinian donkey (N = 5, 4 ejaculates each) spermatozoa using three freezing extenders (Berliner Cryomedium + glycerol, BC+G; BotuCrio, BOTU; INRAFreeze, INRA) and two cryopreservation techniques (liquid nitrogen vapour, LNV; directional freezing, DF)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497848/isolation-of-subtelomeric-sequences-of-porcine-chromosomes-for-translocation-screening-reveals-errors-in-the-pig-genome-assembly
#10
R E O'Connor, G Fonseka, R Frodsham, A L Archibald, M Lawrie, G A Walling, D K Griffin
Balanced chromosomal aberrations have been shown to affect fertility in most species studied, often leading to hypoprolificacy (reduced litter size) in domestic animals such as pigs. With an increasing emphasis in modern food production on the use of a small population of high quality males for artificial insemination, the potential economic and environmental costs of hypoprolific boars, bulls, rams etc. are considerable. There is therefore a need for novel tools to facilitate rapid, cost-effective chromosome translocation screening...
May 12, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497618/crocodilian-perivitelline-membrane-bound-sperm-detection
#11
Lauren Augustine
Advanced reproductive technologies (ART's) are often employed with various taxa to enhance captive breeding programs and maintain genetic diversity. Perivitelline membrane-bound (PVM-bound) sperm detection has previously been demonstrated in avian and chelonian species as a useful technique for breeding management. In the absence of embryotic development within an egg, this technique can detect the presence of sperm trapped on the oocyte membrane confirming breeding, male reproductive status, and pair compatibility...
May 11, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488738/comparison-of-three-different-extenders-on-murrah-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-semen-freezability
#12
M F Zorzetto, I Martin, Y F R Sancler-Silva, S Zoca, C P Freitas-Dell'Aqua, F O Papa, A A Ramos, J F Nunes, C C M Salgueiro, E Oba
The use of frozen semen for artificial insemination is the main approach utilised for the genetic improvement of most domesticated species. The advantages include lower transportation costs, continuous availability of semen, fewer occurrences of sexually transmitted diseases and the incorporation of desirable genes in a relatively short amount of time. Nevertheless, the use of frozen semen in buffalo herds remains limited due to the loss of sperm quality when buffalo semen is frozen. So, the goal of this study was to evaluate the pre- and post-cryopreservation quality of buffalo semen diluted in three distinct freezing media: Tris-egg yolk, Botu-bov® (BB) and ACP-111®...
May 10, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484201/epigenetic-analysis-of-bovine-parthenogenetic-embryonic-fibroblasts
#13
Masahiro Kaneda, Masashi Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Yamanaka, Koji Saito, Masanori Taniguchi, Satoshi Akagi, Shinya Watanabe, Takashi Nagai
Although more than 100 imprinted genes have already been identified in the mouse and human genomes, little is known about genomic imprinting in cattle. For a better understanding of these genes in cattle, parthenogenetically activated bovine blastocysts were transferred to recipient cows to obtain parthenotes, and fibroblasts derived from a Day 40 (Day 0 being the day of parthenogenetic activation) parthenogenetic embryo (BpEFs) were successfully obtained. Bovine embryonic fibroblasts (BEFs) were also isolated from a normal fertilized embryo obtained from an artificially inseminated cow...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475264/rfamide-related-peptide-3-and-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-ii-are-autocrine-paracrine-regulators-of-testicular-function-in-the-boar
#14
REVIEW
Clay A Lents, Jennifer F Thorson, Amy T Desaulniers, Brett R White
Widespread use of artificial insemination in swine requires millions of doses of boar semen each year. Subfertility of boars remains a major constraint, which can impact the reproductive efficiency of thousands of sows, so a better understanding of testicular function is needed in order to develop methods to improve semen production. With this in mind, the effects of RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP3) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-II (GnRH-II) on gonadotropin secretion and testicular function of pigs are reviewed here...
May 5, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464111/circulating-beta-hydroxybutyrate-concentration-may-be-a-predictive-measurement-for-young-cows-that-have-a-greater-probability-to-conceive-at-a-fixed-time-artificial-insemination
#15
J D Hobbs, S R Edwards, E R Cope, Z D McFarlane, K G Pohler, J T Mulliniks
Timing of conception, which has been indicated to be negatively influenced by metabolic dysfunctions, can influence lifetime productivity within the cow herd. Therefore, our objective was to analyze the association of milk production, serum metabolites as an indicator of nutrient status, cow BW and BW change, and calf BW with timing of pregnancy in 183 spring-calving beef cows. Cows were retrospectively classified by timing of pregnancy as cows that were diagnosed pregnant by timed AI (TAI; = 118) or natural breeding (NAT; = 65)...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464088/profile-and-reproductive-roles-of-seminal-plasma-melatonin-of-boar-ejaculates-used-in-artificial-insemination-programs
#16
I Barranco, A Casao, C Perez-Patiño, I Parrilla, T Muiño-Blanco, E A Martinez, J A Cebrian-Perez, J Roca
Melatonin (MLT) is present in seminal plasma (SP) of mammalian species, including pigs, and it is credited with antioxidant properties. This study aims to identify the sources of variation and the role of boar SP MLT on sperm quality and functionality and in vivo fertilizing ability of liquid-stored semen doses used in AI programs. The SP MLT was measured using an ELISA kit in a total of 219 ejaculates collected from 76 boars, and reproductive records of 5,318 AI sows were recorded. Sperm quality was assessed according to motility (computer-aided sperm analysis) and viability (cytometry evaluation)...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457554/comparison-between-an-exclusive-in-vitro-produced-embryo-transfer-system-and-artificial-insemination-for-genetic-technical-and-financial-herd-performance
#17
K Kaniyamattam, J Block, P J Hansen, A De Vries
The objective of this study was to implement an in vitro produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system in an existing stochastic dynamic dairy simulation model with multitrait genetics to evaluate the genetic, technical, and financial performance of a dairy herd implementing an exclusive IVP-ET or artificial insemination (AI) system. In the AI system, sexed semen was used on the genetically best heifers only. In the IVP-ET system, all of the animals in the herd were impregnated with female sexed embryos created through in vitro fertilization of oocytes collected from animals of superior genetics for different traits of interest...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456408/postnatal-phenotype-of-dairy-cows-is-altered-by-in-vitro-embryo-production-using-reverse-x-sorted-semen
#18
Luiz G B Siqueira, Serdal Dikmen, M Sofia Ortega, Peter J Hansen
Abnormal fetuses, neonates, and adult offspring derived by assisted reproductive technologies have been reported in humans and mice and have been associated with increased likelihood of certain adult diseases. To test the hypothesis that bovine females derived by assisted reproductive technologies have altered postnatal growth and adult function, a retrospective cohort study evaluated survival, growth, and production traits of offspring derived by in vitro embryo production (IVP) with conventional (IVP-conv) or reverse X-sorted semen (IVP-sexed), multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, and artificial insemination (AI) in a large dairy herd...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456404/effect-of-pre-and-postpartum-supplementation-with-lipid-encapsulated-conjugated-linoleic-acid-on-reproductive-performance-and-the-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-axis-in-multiparous-high-producing-dairy-cows
#19
Z Csillik, V Faigl, M Keresztes, E Galamb, H M Hammon, A Tröscher, H Fébel, M Kulcsár, F Husvéth, Gy Huszenicza, W R Butler
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of prepartum and postpartum (PP) supplementation with 2 isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on reproductive parameters and some related metabolic factors in dairy cows. High-producing, multiparous Holstein Friesian cows (n = 60) were allotted to 3 treatment groups: the CLA1 group (n = 20) was supplemented with 70 g of lipid-encapsulated CLA providing 7 g each of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA from d 21 (d 21) before expected calving until d 7 after artificial insemination (AI), that is, until 77 to 91 d PP; the CLA2 group (n = 20) was supplemented with the same amount of CLA beginning at calving until d 7 after AI; and the control group (n = 20) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and isolipidic diet...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456372/uterine-peristalsis-and-fertility-current-knowledge-and-future-perspectives-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Nienke Petronella Maria Kuijsters, Willem Gerardus Methorst, Madeleine Susanne Quirine Kortenhorst, Chiara Rabotti, Massimo Mischi, Benedictus Christiaan Schoot
Although uterine contractions in the non-pregnant uterus have been studied extensively, the knowledge gained has not been used in general fertility treatment work-up. In this review paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on uterine peristalsis (UP), based on the available literature. This literature shows that UP influences pregnancy chances in both natural and artificial cycles. Although the physiological background of these contractions is not completely clear, we know that several factors can be of influence, like uterine pathologies and hormones...
April 12, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
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