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Pallidal index

Mechelle M Lewis, Michael R Flynn, Eun-Young Lee, Scott Van Buren, Eric Van Buren, Guangwei Du, Rebecca C Fry, Amy H Herring, Lan Kong, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
OBJECTIVES: We demonstrated recently that the T1 relaxation rate (R1) captured short-term Mn exposure in welders with chronic, relatively low exposure levels in a cross-sectional study. In the current study, we used a longitudinal design to examine whether R1 values reflect the short-term dynamics of Mn exposure. METHODS: Twenty-nine welders were evaluated at baseline and 12 months. Occupational questionnaires estimated short-term welding exposure using welding hours in the 90days prior to each study visit (HrsW90)...
August 24, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Eun-Young Lee, Michael R Flynn, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Amy H Herring, Eric Van Buren, Scott Van Buren, Lan Kong, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
INTRODUCTION: Welding fumes contain several metals including manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) that at high exposure may co-influence welding-related neurotoxicity. The relationship between brain accumulation of these metals and neuropathology, especially in welders with subclinical exposure levels, is unclear. This study examined the microstructural integrity of basal ganglia (BG) regions in asymptomatic welders using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Subjects with (n = 43) and without (age- and gender-matched controls; n = 31) history of welding were studied...
September 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Clement Baumgarten, Yulong Zhao, Paul Sauleau, Cecile Malrain, Pierre Jannin, Claire Haegelen
Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus (GPm) is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning-based method called PyMAN (PTSE model based on artificial neural network) accounting for the current used in stimulation, the three-dimensional electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE...
April 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Christopher M Tolleson, Kanika Bagai, Arthur S Walters, Thomas L Davis
OBJECTIVE: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an established adjunctive surgical intervention to treat poorly controlled motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Both surgical targets (the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus) have proven equally efficacious in treating motor symptoms but unique differences may exist in effects on nonmotor symptoms. Sleep dysfunction, a common disabling symptom in PD, has only been examined directly in the subthalamic target, demonstrating some beneficial changes in sleep quality...
May 17, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Paul Sauleau, Sophie Drapier, Joan Duprez, Jean-François Houvenaghel, Thibaut Dondaine, Claire Haegelen, Dominique Drapier, Pierre Jannin, Gabriel Robert, Florence Le Jeune, Marc Vérin
The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin S C Wade, Shantanu H Joshi, Stephanie Njau, Amber M Leaver, Megha Vasavada, Roger P Woods, Boris A Gutman, Paul M Thompson, Randall Espinoza, Katherine L Narr
Patients with major depression show reductions in striatal and paleostriatal volumes. The functional integrity and connectivity of these regions are also shown to change with antidepressant response. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a robust and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. However, whether morphological changes in the dorsal and ventral striatum/pallidum relate to or predict therapeutic response to ECT is unknown. Using structural MRI, we assessed cross-sectional effects of diagnosis and longitudinal effects of ECT for volume and surface-based shape metrics of the caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens in 53 depressed patients (mean age: 44...
September 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Laurie-Anne Dion, Maryse F Bouchard, Sébastien Sauvé, Benoit Barbeau, Alan Tucholka, Philipe Major, Guillaume Gilbert, Donna Mergler, Dave Saint-Amour
BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) can have neurotoxic effects upon overexposure. We previously reported poorer cognitive and motor development in children exposed to Mn through drinking water, suggesting possible neurotoxic effects from Mn in water. Hyperintensity in the globus pallidus (GP) on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicates excessive brain Mn accumulation. Previous studies have reported GP hyperintensity related to Mn exposure in occupationally exposed individuals. However, no study has used MRI in children exposed to Mn in drinking water and who show no sign of overt intoxication...
March 2016: Neurotoxicology
Massimo Marano, Umberto Vespasiani Gentilucci, Claudia Altamura, Mariacristina Siotto, Rosanna Squitti, Serena Bucossi, Livia Quintiliani, Simone Migliore, Federico Greco, Laura Scarciolla, Carlo Cosimo Quattrocchi, Antonio Picardi, Fabrizio Vernieri
Dysfunctional metal homeostasis contributes to oxidative stress and neuronal damage. These have been implicated in hepatic encephalopathy pathogenesis. To investigate whether altered metal metabolism is associated with hepatic encephalopathy. Twenty-one controls and 34 HCV-cirrhotic patients (ENC/NEC patients according to presence/absence of previous overt episodes of hepatic encephalopathy) and a control group were studied. Serum iron, copper, ceruloplasmin, ceruloplasmin activity, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin/transferrin ratio were determined...
December 2015: Metabolic Brain Disease
Flavia Niccolini, Thomas Foltynie, Tiago Reis Marques, Nils Muhlert, Andri C Tziortzi, Graham E Searle, Sridhar Natesan, Shitij Kapur, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Paola Piccini, Marios Politis
The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and loss of dopaminergic signalling in Parkinson's disease are still only partially understood. Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a basal ganglia expressed dual substrate enzyme, which regulates cAMP and cGMP signalling cascades, thus having a key role in the regulation of dopaminergic signalling in striatal pathways, and in promoting neuronal survival. This study aimed to assess in vivo the availability of PDE10A in patients with Parkinson's disease using positron emission tomography molecular imaging with (11)C-IMA107, a highly selective PDE10A radioligand...
October 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Susan M Reid, Charuta D Dagia, Michael R Ditchfield, Dinah S Reddihough
AIMS: In a population cohort of children with grey matter injury (GMI) and cerebral palsy (CP), we aimed to describe and classify magnetic resonance imaging characteristics specific to GMI, and to identify key structure-function associations that serve as a basis for rating GMI in clinically relevant ways. METHOD: Symmetry, extent of cerebral injury, and pathological pattern for 54 children (37 males, 17 females) with CP and a predominant GMI pattern on chronic-phase magnetic resonance imaging were related to gross motor function, motor type and topography, epilepsy, intellectual disability, blindness, and deafness...
December 2015: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Eun-Young Lee, Michael R Flynn, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Rebecca Fry, Amy H Herring, Eric Van Buren, Scott Van Buren, Lisa Smeester, Lan Kong, Qing Yang, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
Although the essential element manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic at high doses, the effects of lower exposure are unclear. MRI T1-weighted (TIW) imaging has been used to estimate brain Mn exposure via the pallidal index (PI), defined as the T1W intensity ratio in the globus pallidus (GP) versus frontal white matter (FWM). PI may not, however, be sensitive to Mn in GP because Mn also may accumulate in FWM. This study explored: (1) whether T1 relaxation rate (R1) could quantify brain Mn accumulation more sensitively; and (2) the dose-response relationship between estimated Mn exposure and T1 relaxation rate (R1)...
August 2015: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Allison T Connolly, Alicia L Jensen, Kenneth B Baker, Jerrold L Vitek, Matthew D Johnson
The firing patterns of neurons in the basal ganglia are known to become more oscillatory and synchronized from healthy to parkinsonian conditions. Similar changes have been observed with local field potentials (LFPs). In this study, we used an unbiased machine learning approach to investigate the utility of pallidal LFPs for discriminating the stages of a progressive parkinsonian model. A feature selection algorithm was used to identify subsets of LFP features that provided the most discriminatory information for severity of parkinsonian motor signs...
July 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Kay Dickersin, Tianjing Li
BACKGROUND: Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is characterized by sudden and painless loss of vision in the eye, accompanied by pallid swelling of the optic disc. Its etiology is unknown and no medical therapy has been proven effective in treating this condition. Optic nerve decompression surgery, a proposed treatment for NAION, involves making two or more slits or a window in the tissue surrounding the optic nerve, thereby allowing cerebrospinal fluid to escape, and theoretically reducing the pressure surrounding the optic nerve...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ruben Smith, Kit Wu, Thomas Hart, Clare Loane, David J Brooks, Anders Björklund, Per Odin, Paola Piccini, Marios Politis
We have investigated the role of globus pallidus (GP) serotonergic terminals in the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied 12 PD patients without LIDs, 12 PD patients with LIDs, and 12 healthy control subjects. We used (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography (PET), a marker of serotonin transporter availability, and (11)C-raclopride PET to measure changes in synaptic dopamine levels following levodopa administration. PD patients without LIDs showed a significant reduction of GP serotonin transporter binding compared with healthy controls although this was within the normal range in PD patients with LIDs...
April 2015: Neurobiology of Aging
Christopher Tolleson, Srivatsan Pallavaram, Chen Li, John Fang, Fenna Phibbs, Peter Konrad, Peter Hedera, Pierre-François D'Haese, Benoit M Dawant, Thomas L Davis
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus is established as efficacious for dystonia, yet the optimal target within this structure is not well defined. Published evidence suggests that spatial normalization provides a better estimate of DBS lead location than traditional methods based on standard stereotactic coordinates. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our pallidal implanted dystonia population. Patient imaging scans were morphed into an MRI atlas using a nonlinear image registration algorithm...
2015: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Mariza Bortolanza, Roberta Cavalcanti-Kiwiatkoski, Fernando E Padovan-Neto, Célia Aparecida da-Silva, Miso Mitkovski, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Elaine Del-Bel
l-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease but can induce debilitating abnormal involuntary movements (dyskinesia). Here we show that the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the rat is accompanied by upregulation of an inflammatory cascade involving nitric oxide. Male Wistar rats sustained unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle. After three weeks animals started to receive daily treatment with L-DOPA (30 mg/kg plus benserazide 7...
January 2015: Neurobiology of Disease
Marissa G Baker, Susan R Criswell, Brad A Racette, Christopher D Simpson, Lianne Sheppard, Harvey Checkoway, Noah S Seixas
OBJECTIVE: Long-term, high-level exposure to manganese (Mn) is associated with impaired central nervous system (CNS) function. We quantitatively explored relations between low-level Mn exposure and selected neurological outcomes in a longitudinal inception cohort of asymptomatic welder trainees. METHODS: Welders with no previous occupational Mn exposure were observed approximately every three months over the course of the five-quarter traineeship. Fifty-six welders were assessed for motor function using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) and Grooved Pegboard tests...
January 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Joseph R Keen, Allison Przekop, Joffre E Olaya, Alexander Zouros, Frank P K Hsu
OBJECT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for dystonic cerebral palsy (CP) has rarely been reported, and its efficacy, though modest when compared with that for primary dystonia, remains unclear, especially in the pediatric population. The authors present a small series of children with dystonic CP who underwent bilateral pallidal DBS, to evaluate the treatment's efficacy and safety in the pediatric dystonic CP population. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective review of patients (under the age of 18 years) with dystonic CP who had undergone DBS of the bilateral globus pallidus internus between 2010 and 2012...
December 2014: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Anne Koy, K Amande M Pauls, Pia Flossdorf, Johannes Becker, Eckhard Schönau, Mohammad Maarouf, Thomas Liebig, Oliver Fricke, Gereon R Fink, Lars Timmermann
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological treatment of dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) is often ineffective. Data about outcome of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in these patients remains scarce. METHODS: Eight patients with dyskinetic CP and DBS of the Globus Pallidus internus were investigated. Using pre- and postoperative videos the severity of dystonia and changes thereof during standardized settings ('on') and after the stimulator had been switched off ('off') were assessed using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS)...
2014: European Neurology
Peter Y M Woo, Danny T M Chan, X L Zhu, Jonas H M Yeung, Anne Y Y Chan, Angie C W Au, K M Cheng, K Y Lau, Y K Wing, Vincent C T Mok, W S Poon
Tardive dystonia is an iatrogenic complication of dopamine receptor antagonist medication such as first-generation antipsychotics. It occurs in up to 2% of patients and only 10% recover after stopping medication. Deep brain stimulation for primary dystonia has proven to be effective and its application for secondary dystonias is gaining acceptance. We report our experience in treating three ethnic Chinese schizophrenia patients with severe medically refractory tardive dystonia by globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation...
October 2014: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
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