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Pallidal index

L Marti-Sanchez, J D Ortigoza-Escobar, A Darling, M Villaronga, H Baide, M Molero-Luis, M Batllori, M I Vanegas, J Muchart, L Aquino, R Artuch, A Macaya, M A Kurian, Pérez Dueñas
BACKGROUND: The SLC39A14, SLC30A10 and SLC39A8 are considered to be key genes involved in manganese (Mn) homeostasis in humans. Mn levels in plasma and urine are useful tools for early recognition of these disorders. We aimed to explore further biomarkers of Mn deposition in the central nervous system in two siblings presenting with acute dystonia and hypermanganesemia due to mutations in SLC39A14. These biomarkers may help clinicians to establish faster and accurate diagnosis and to monitor disease progression after chelation therapy is administered...
January 30, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Benjamin S C Wade, Jing Sui, Gerhard Hellemann, Amber M Leaver, Randall T Espinoza, Roger P Woods, Christopher C Abbott, Shantanu H Joshi, Katherine L Narr
Relapse of depression following treatment is high. Biomarkers predictive of an individual's relapse risk could provide earlier opportunities for prevention. Since electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) elicits robust and rapidly acting antidepressant effects, but has a >50% relapse rate, ECT presents a valuable model for determining predictors of relapse-risk. Although previous studies have associated ECT-induced changes in brain morphometry with clinical response, longer-term outcomes have not been addressed. Using structural imaging data from 42 ECT-responsive patients obtained prior to and directly following an ECT treatment index series at two independent sites (UCLA: n = 17, age = 45...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
Song Lee, Yoonho Nam, Jinhee Jang, Gun Hyung Na, Dong Goo Kim, Na-Young Shin, Hyun Seok Choi, So-Lyung Jung, Kook-Jin Ahn, Bum-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The liver is a central organ for the metabolism of iron and manganese and the places where those metals are commonly deposited overlap in the brain. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To elucidate the relationship between pallidal T1 hyperintensity and iron deposition in the deep gray matter of liver cirrhosis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective case-control study SUBJECTS: In all, 38 consecutive liver cirrhosis patients who received brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as pretransplant evaluation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Eun-Young Lee, Michael R Flynn, Mechelle M Lewis, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
Although an essential nutrient, manganese (Mn) can be toxic at high doses. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the effects of chronic low-level Mn-exposure. This review provides an overview of Mn-related brain and functional changes based on studies of a cohort of asymptomatic welders who had lower Mn-exposure than in most previous work. In welders with low-level Mn-exposure, we found: 1) Mn may accumulate in the brain in a non-linear fashion: MRI R1 (1/T1) signals significantly increased only after a critical level of exposure was reached (e...
January 2018: Neurotoxicology
Lisa A Bailey, Laura E Kerper, Julie E Goodman
Exposure to high levels of manganese (Mn) in occupational settings is known to lead to adverse neurological effects. Since Mn is an essential nutrient, there are mechanisms that maintain its homeostatic control in the body, and there is some level of Mn in air that does not perturb Mn homeostasis. However, the Mn exposure concentrations at which no adverse effects are expected in occupational settings vary considerably across regulatory agencies. We set out to derive a Mn Occupational Exposure Level (OEL) for welders based on a review of studies that evaluated Mn exposure concentrations from welding fumes and: (1) neurological effects in welders; (2) levels of Mn in the brains of welders (via pallidal index [PI] estimated from magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]); (3) other biomarkers of Mn exposure in welders (i...
January 2018: Neurotoxicology
Eun-Young Lee, Paul J Eslinger, Michael R Flynn, Daymond Wagner, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Lan Kong, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
OBJECTIVES: Welding fumes contain several metals including manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) that may affect the nervous system. Previous studies of potential welding-related neurotoxicity have focused primarily on Mn exposure. The current study examined neurobehavioral and brain imaging changes in asymptomatic welders and their associations with both Mn and Fe exposure measurements. METHODS: Data were obtained from subjects with (n=46) and without (controls; n=31) a history of welding exposure...
January 2017: Neurotoxicology
Mechelle M Lewis, Michael R Flynn, Eun-Young Lee, Scott Van Buren, Eric Van Buren, Guangwei Du, Rebecca C Fry, Amy H Herring, Lan Kong, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
OBJECTIVES: We demonstrated recently that the T1 relaxation rate (R1) captured short-term Mn exposure in welders with chronic, relatively low exposure levels in a cross-sectional study. In the current study, we used a longitudinal design to examine whether R1 values reflect the short-term dynamics of Mn exposure. METHODS: Twenty-nine welders were evaluated at baseline and 12 months. Occupational questionnaires estimated short-term welding exposure using welding hours in the 90days prior to each study visit (HrsW90 )...
December 2016: Neurotoxicology
Eun-Young Lee, Michael R Flynn, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Amy H Herring, Eric Van Buren, Scott Van Buren, Lan Kong, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
INTRODUCTION: Welding fumes contain several metals including manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) that at high exposure may co-influence welding-related neurotoxicity. The relationship between brain accumulation of these metals and neuropathology, especially in welders with subclinical exposure levels, is unclear. This study examined the microstructural integrity of basal ganglia (BG) regions in asymptomatic welders using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Subjects with (n = 43) and without (age- and gender-matched controls; n = 31) history of welding were studied...
September 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Clement Baumgarten, Yulong Zhao, Paul Sauleau, Cecile Malrain, Pierre Jannin, Claire Haegelen
Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus (GPm) is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning-based method called PyMAN (PTSE model based on artificial neural network) accounting for the current used in stimulation, the three-dimensional electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE...
April 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Christopher M Tolleson, Kanika Bagai, Arthur S Walters, Thomas L Davis
OBJECTIVE: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an established adjunctive surgical intervention to treat poorly controlled motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Both surgical targets (the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus) have proven equally efficacious in treating motor symptoms but unique differences may exist in effects on nonmotor symptoms. Sleep dysfunction, a common disabling symptom in PD, has only been examined directly in the subthalamic target, demonstrating some beneficial changes in sleep quality...
October 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Paul Sauleau, Sophie Drapier, Joan Duprez, Jean-François Houvenaghel, Thibaut Dondaine, Claire Haegelen, Dominique Drapier, Pierre Jannin, Gabriel Robert, Florence Le Jeune, Marc Vérin
The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin S C Wade, Shantanu H Joshi, Stephanie Njau, Amber M Leaver, Megha Vasavada, Roger P Woods, Boris A Gutman, Paul M Thompson, Randall Espinoza, Katherine L Narr
Patients with major depression show reductions in striatal and paleostriatal volumes. The functional integrity and connectivity of these regions are also shown to change with antidepressant response. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a robust and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. However, whether morphological changes in the dorsal and ventral striatum/pallidum relate to or predict therapeutic response to ECT is unknown. Using structural MRI, we assessed cross-sectional effects of diagnosis and longitudinal effects of ECT for volume and surface-based shape metrics of the caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens in 53 depressed patients (mean age: 44...
September 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Laurie-Anne Dion, Maryse F Bouchard, Sébastien Sauvé, Benoit Barbeau, Alan Tucholka, Philipe Major, Guillaume Gilbert, Donna Mergler, Dave Saint-Amour
BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) can have neurotoxic effects upon overexposure. We previously reported poorer cognitive and motor development in children exposed to Mn through drinking water, suggesting possible neurotoxic effects from Mn in water. Hyperintensity in the globus pallidus (GP) on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicates excessive brain Mn accumulation. Previous studies have reported GP hyperintensity related to Mn exposure in occupationally exposed individuals. However, no study has used MRI in children exposed to Mn in drinking water and who show no sign of overt intoxication...
March 2016: Neurotoxicology
Massimo Marano, Umberto Vespasiani Gentilucci, Claudia Altamura, Mariacristina Siotto, Rosanna Squitti, Serena Bucossi, Livia Quintiliani, Simone Migliore, Federico Greco, Laura Scarciolla, Carlo Cosimo Quattrocchi, Antonio Picardi, Fabrizio Vernieri
Dysfunctional metal homeostasis contributes to oxidative stress and neuronal damage. These have been implicated in hepatic encephalopathy pathogenesis. To investigate whether altered metal metabolism is associated with hepatic encephalopathy. Twenty-one controls and 34 HCV-cirrhotic patients (ENC/NEC patients according to presence/absence of previous overt episodes of hepatic encephalopathy) and a control group were studied. Serum iron, copper, ceruloplasmin, ceruloplasmin activity, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin/transferrin ratio were determined...
December 2015: Metabolic Brain Disease
Flavia Niccolini, Thomas Foltynie, Tiago Reis Marques, Nils Muhlert, Andri C Tziortzi, Graham E Searle, Sridhar Natesan, Shitij Kapur, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Paola Piccini, Marios Politis
The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and loss of dopaminergic signalling in Parkinson's disease are still only partially understood. Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a basal ganglia expressed dual substrate enzyme, which regulates cAMP and cGMP signalling cascades, thus having a key role in the regulation of dopaminergic signalling in striatal pathways, and in promoting neuronal survival. This study aimed to assess in vivo the availability of PDE10A in patients with Parkinson's disease using positron emission tomography molecular imaging with (11)C-IMA107, a highly selective PDE10A radioligand...
October 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Susan M Reid, Charuta D Dagia, Michael R Ditchfield, Dinah S Reddihough
AIMS: In a population cohort of children with grey matter injury (GMI) and cerebral palsy (CP), we aimed to describe and classify magnetic resonance imaging characteristics specific to GMI, and to identify key structure-function associations that serve as a basis for rating GMI in clinically relevant ways. METHOD: Symmetry, extent of cerebral injury, and pathological pattern for 54 children (37 males, 17 females) with CP and a predominant GMI pattern on chronic-phase magnetic resonance imaging were related to gross motor function, motor type and topography, epilepsy, intellectual disability, blindness, and deafness...
December 2015: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Eun-Young Lee, Michael R Flynn, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Rebecca Fry, Amy H Herring, Eric Van Buren, Scott Van Buren, Lisa Smeester, Lan Kong, Qing Yang, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
Although the essential element manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic at high doses, the effects of lower exposure are unclear. MRI T1-weighted (TIW) imaging has been used to estimate brain Mn exposure via the pallidal index (PI), defined as the T1W intensity ratio in the globus pallidus (GP) versus frontal white matter (FWM). PI may not, however, be sensitive to Mn in GP because Mn also may accumulate in FWM. This study explored: (1) whether T1 relaxation rate (R1) could quantify brain Mn accumulation more sensitively; and (2) the dose-response relationship between estimated Mn exposure and T1 relaxation rate (R1)...
August 2015: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Allison T Connolly, Alicia L Jensen, Kenneth B Baker, Jerrold L Vitek, Matthew D Johnson
The firing patterns of neurons in the basal ganglia are known to become more oscillatory and synchronized from healthy to parkinsonian conditions. Similar changes have been observed with local field potentials (LFPs). In this study, we used an unbiased machine learning approach to investigate the utility of pallidal LFPs for discriminating the stages of a progressive parkinsonian model. A feature selection algorithm was used to identify subsets of LFP features that provided the most discriminatory information for severity of parkinsonian motor signs...
July 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Kay Dickersin, Tianjing Li
BACKGROUND: Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is characterized by sudden and painless loss of vision in the eye, accompanied by pallid swelling of the optic disc. Its etiology is unknown and no medical therapy has been proven effective in treating this condition. Optic nerve decompression surgery, a proposed treatment for NAION, involves making two or more slits or a window in the tissue surrounding the optic nerve, thereby allowing cerebrospinal fluid to escape, and theoretically reducing the pressure surrounding the optic nerve...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ruben Smith, Kit Wu, Thomas Hart, Clare Loane, David J Brooks, Anders Björklund, Per Odin, Paola Piccini, Marios Politis
We have investigated the role of globus pallidus (GP) serotonergic terminals in the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied 12 PD patients without LIDs, 12 PD patients with LIDs, and 12 healthy control subjects. We used (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography (PET), a marker of serotonin transporter availability, and (11)C-raclopride PET to measure changes in synaptic dopamine levels following levodopa administration. PD patients without LIDs showed a significant reduction of GP serotonin transporter binding compared with healthy controls although this was within the normal range in PD patients with LIDs...
April 2015: Neurobiology of Aging
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