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Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Quang N Nguyen, David R Martinez, Jonathon E Himes, R Whitney Edwards, Qifeng Han, Amit Kumar, Riley Mangan, Nathan I Nicely, Guanhua Xie, Nathan Vandergrift, Xiaoying Shen, Justin Pollara, Sallie R Permar
BACKGROUND: The initial envelope (Env)-specific antibody response in acutely HIV-1-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs) is dominated by non-neutralizing antibodies targeting Env gp41. In contrast, natural primate SIV hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGMs), develop a predominant Env gp120-specific antibody response to SIV infection. However, the fine-epitope specificity and function of SIV Env-specific plasma IgG, and their potential role on autologous virus co-evolution in SIV-infected AGMs and RMs remain unclear...
March 9, 2018: Retrovirology
Matthew Stephen Mangan, Eicke Latz
In this issue of JEM, Malireddi et al. ( demonstrate that macrophage-specific loss of TAK1 causes spontaneous NLRP3 inflammasome activation, driven by unregulated TNF secretion and signaling. This has implications for therapeutically targeting TAK1, enhancing its potential function as an anticancer drug treatment.
March 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Suzanne F Beavers, Lisa Pascopella, Amy L Davidow, Joan M Mangan, Yael R Hirsch-Moverman, Jonathan E Golub, Henry M Blumberg, Risa M Webb, Rachel A Royce, Susan E Buskin, Michael K Leonard, Paul C Weinfurter, Robert W Belknap, Stephen E Hughes, Jon V Warkentin, Sharon F Welbel, Thaddeus L Miller, Saini R Kundipati, Michael Lauzardo, Pennan M Barry, Dolly J Katz, Denise O Garrett, Edward A Graviss, Jennifer M Flood
RATIONALE: More information on risk factors for death from tuberculosis in the United States could help reduce the tuberculosis mortality rate, which has remained steady for over a decade. Objective(s) To identify risk factors for tuberculosis-related death in adults. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 1,304 adults with tuberculosis who died before treatment completion and 1,039 frequency-matched controls who completed tuberculosis treatment in 2005-2006 in thirteen states reporting 65% of U...
February 28, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Amy B Parsons-White, Nadja Spitzer
Manganese (Mn) is a trace metal and micronutrient that is necessary for neurological function. Because of its ability to cross the blood brain barrier, excessive amounts of Mn are neurotoxic and can lead to a neurological disorder, manganism. Environmental overexposure to Mn correlates with impaired cognitive development in children. Though symptoms of manganism and overexposure are well defined, the changes in cellular mechanisms underlying these symptoms are not fully understood. We used cultured adult neural stem cells (NSCs) from young adult rats as an accessible model to investigate the effect of Mn on cellular mechanisms underlying neural differentiation...
February 24, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Tristan Neumann, Inke Jess, Christian Näther
The crystal structures of the title salts, (C7H11N2)2[Mn(NCS)4] (1) and (C7H11N2)3[Mn(NCS)5] (2), consist of manganese(II) cations that are tetra-hedrally (1) or trigonal-bipyramidally (2) coordinated to four or five terminal N-bonded thio-cyanate ligands, respectively, into discrete anionic complexes. The negative charge is compensated by two (1) or three (2) 4-(di-methyl-amino)-pyridinium cations, which are protonated at the pyridine N atom. The asymmetric unit of compound 1 consists of one anionic complex and two 4-(di-methyl-amino)-pyridinium cations, whereas that of compound 2 consists of two anionic complexes and six 4-(di-methyl-amino)-pyridinium cations, all of them located in general positions...
January 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Jiayan Chen, Peng Su, Wenjing Luo, Jingyuan Chen
Overexposure to manganese (Mn) leads to manganism and neurotoxicity induced by Mn is the focus of recent research. Microglia play a vital role in Mn-induced neurotoxicity, and our previous studies firstly showed that Mn could stimulate activation of microglia, leading to the neuroinflammation, and inhibition of microglial inflammation effectively attenuated Mn-induced death of dopamine neurons. However, the detailed mechanism of manganese-induced neuroinflammation is still unclear. Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders...
February 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jiaming Zhang, Jun Ma, Haoran Song, Shaofang Sun, Zhongxiang Zhang, Tao Yang
Remarkable atrazine degradation in the S(IV) autoxidation process catalyzed by Fe2+-Mn2+ (Fe2+/Mn2+/sulfite) was demonstrated in this study. Competitive kinetic experiments, alcohol inhibiting methods and electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments proved that sulfur radicals were not the major oxidation species. Mn(III) was demonstrated to be the primary active species in the Fe2+/Mn2+/sulfite process based on the comparison of oxidation selectivity. Moreover, the inhibiting effect of the Mn(III) hydrolysis and the S(IV) autoxidation in the presence of organic contaminants indicated the existence of three Mn(III) consumption routes in the Fe2+/Mn2+/sulfite process...
January 26, 2018: Water Research
James P Canfield, Dana Harley, Vannessa Hunn, Kristen L Haddad, Suk-Hee Kim, Willie Elliott, Lori Mangan
OBJECTIVE: Hope is an important component to adolescents' mental health and well-being. While much study and theory have explored hope, few examine the idea within contextualized factors such as locale. Even fewer have sought to measure hope for urban adolescents. The Urban Adolescent Hope Scale (UAHS) was developed to measure hope in a contextualized manner as guided by previous qualitative inquiry. This study aims to establish initial validation for the UAHS. METHOD: Using findings from qualitative inquiry, a 24-item proposed measure of hope for urban adolescents was developed...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
Jason H McGahan, Shane Mangan, Kieran Collins, Con Burns, Tim Gabbett, Cian O' Neill
The aim of the current study was to compare positional differences in running demands and technical performance variables among elite Gaelic football teams from separate Divisions. Data were obtained from a Division 1 (26.7 ± 2.9 years, 179.2 ± 21.3 cm, 89.9 ± 21.2 kg) and a Division 3 (25.7 ± 3.5 years, 183.0 ± 4.7 cm, 84.4 ± 6.5 kg) team. Match-play running variables were collected using 4-Hz global positioning system (GPS) units (VX Sport, New-Zealand) (Match data sets; Division 1: n = 107, Division 3: n = 97)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Svetlana Kišidayová, Peter Pristaš, Michaela Zimovčáková, Monika Blanár Wencelová, Lucia Homol'ová, Katarína Mihaliková, Klaudia Čobanová, Ľubomíra Grešáková, Zora Váradyová
Little is known about the effects of the high dose and types of manganese supplements on rumen environment at manganese intake level close above the limit of 150 mg/kg of dry feed matter. The effects of high dose of two manganese supplements (organic and inorganic) on rumen microbial ecosystem after four months of treatment of 18 lambs divided into three treatment groups were studied. We examined the enzyme activities (α-amylase, xylanase, and carboxymethyl cellulase), total and differential microscopic counts of rumen ciliates, total microscopic counts of bacteria, and fingerprinting pattern of the eubacterial and ciliates population analyzed by PCR-DGGE...
2018: PloS One
Xiao Liu, Hao Gong, Tao Wang, Hu Guo, Li Song, Wei Xia, Bin Gao, Zhongyi Jiang, Linfei Feng, Jianping He
Perovskite-type oxides based on alkaline-earth containing lanthanum manganate are the promising catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte. The perovskite-type LaMnO3 shows excellent ORR performance but poor OER activity. In order to improve OER performance of LaMnO3, the element Co is doped into the perovskite-type LaMnO3 via a sol-gel method with following calcination process. To assess electrocatalytic activities for ORR and OER, a series of prepared LaMn1-xCoxO3 (x = 0, 0...
January 10, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Irina Kurashova, Itay Halevy, Alexey Kamyshny
Rates of thiocyanate degradation were measured in waters and sediments of marine and limnic systems under various redox conditions, oxic, anoxic (non-sulfidic, non-ferruginous, non-manganous), ferruginous, sulfidic, and manganous, for up to 200-day period at micromolar concentrations of thiocyanate. The decomposition rates in natural aquatic systems were found to be controlled by microbial processes under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The Michaelis-Menten model was applied for description of the decomposition kinetics...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
David S Casper, Benjamin Zmistowski, Gregory D Schroeder, James C McKenzie, John Mangan, Jayanth Vatson, Alan S Hilibrand, Alexander R Vaccaro, Christopher K Kepler
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVES.: This study investigates the association between SCI and post-injury mortality. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) are severe conditions treated in the acute trauma setting. Due to neurological deficits, unstable spinal columns, and associated injuries, these patients often have complex inpatient hospitalizations with significant morbidity and mortality. It is assumed that a high rate of post-injury mortality would follow such severe injuries; however, the effect of SCI, and its treatment on predictors of longevity remain largely unknown...
December 26, 2017: Spine
He Nan, Liese Peterson, Jared L Anderson
Ionic liquids (IL) have been utilized as gas chromatography stationary phases due to their high thermal stability, negligible vapor pressure, wide liquid range, and the ability to solvate a range of analytes. In this study, the solvation properties of eight room temperature ILs containing various transition and rare earth metal centers [e.g., Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Nd(III), Gd(III), and Dy(III)] are characterized using the Abraham solvation parameter model. These metal-containing ILs (MCILs) consist of the trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation and functionalized acetylacetonate ligands chelated to various metals...
December 23, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Simon Devenney, Shane Mangan, Marcus Shortall, Kieran Collins
The current study aims to identify if mouth rinsing with a 6% carbohydrate solution (CMR) and mouth rinsing and ingestion of caffeine (CMR+CAFF) can affect exercise performance during steady state (SS) running and high intensity intervals (HIT) in comparison to a 0% control solution (PLA), when in a fed state. Eight recreationally trained males completed three trials (CMR, CMR + CAFF, and PLA) of 45-min SS run and a HIT protocol (90% peak treadmill velocity) until fatigue in a double blinded, repeated measures study...
December 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
T Hamidfar, A Dmitriev, B Mangan, P Bianucci, M Sumetsky
This publisher's note corrects the surname of one of the authors of Opt. Lett.42, 3060 (2017)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.42.003060.
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Richard Clark, Utsana Tonmukayakul, Yvonne Mangan, Michael Smith, Mark Gussy, David Manton, Denise Bailey, Hanny Calache
OBJECTIVES: Dental Health Services Victoria publishes evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to assist public oral health practitioners to provide high-quality dental care. How well these CPGs are implemented into practice is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to selected CPGs. METHODS: An electronic auditing tool was developed using clinical indicators derived for "stainless steel crown (SSC)," "restorative care for children under general anesthetic (GA)," and "direct restorative materials" CPG...
December 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
Chang Liu, Dong-Ying Yan, Xuan Tan, Zhuo Ma, Can Wang, Yu Deng, Wei Liu, Tian-Yao Yang, Zhao-Fa Xu, Bin Xu
Overexposure to manganese (Mn) has been known to induce alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) oligomerization, which is degraded mainly depending on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and autophagy pathways. However, little data reported the cross-talk between ER stress and autophagy on Mn-induced α-Syn oligomerization. To explore the relationship between ER stress and autophagy, we used 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA, the ER stress inhibitor), rapamycin (Rap, autophagy activator) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) in mice model of manganism...
March 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Sebastian A Stifter, Antony Y Matthews, Niamh E Mangan, Ka Yee Fung, Alexander Drew, Michelle D Tate, Tatiana P Soares da Costa, Daniel Hampsey, Jemma Mayall, Phil M Hansbro, Albert Garcia Minambres, Sahar G Eid, Johnson Mak, Judy Scoble, George Lovrecz, Nicole A deWeerd, Paul J Hertzog
The type I interferons (IFNs) are a family of cytokines with diverse biological activities, including antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunoregulatory functions. The discovery of the hormonally regulated, constitutively expressed IFNϵ has suggested a function for IFNs in reproductive tract homeostasis and protection from infections, but its intrinsic activities are untested. We report here the expression, purification, and functional characterization of murine IFNϵ (mIFNϵ). Recombinant mIFNϵ (rmIFNϵ) exhibited an α-helical fold characteristic of type I IFNs and bound to IFNα/β receptor 1 (IFNAR1) and IFNAR2, but, unusually, it had a preference for IFNAR1...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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