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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346355/characterization-of-active-anthocyanin-degradation-in-the-petals-of-rosa-chinensis-and-brunfelsia-calycina-reveals-the-effect-of-gallated-catechins-on-pigment-maintenance
#1
Honghui Luo, Shuangfan Deng, Wei Fu, Xin Zhang, Xuelian Zhang, Zhaoqi Zhang, Xuequn Pang
Anthocyanin degradation decreases ornamental or nutritional values of horticultural products. To investigate factors that may influence colour change in flower development, anthocyanin degradation was compared between the flowers of Brunfelsia calycina and Rosa chinensis, which show rapid and slow degradation, respectively. In-gel activity assays, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of tannins, enzyme kinetics measurement and immune-detection of anthocyanin degradation related-perioxidases (PODs) were carried out for the comparison...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345788/horticultural-activity-predicts-later-localized-limb-status-in-a-contemporary-pre-industrial-population
#2
Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C Trumble, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven
OBJECTIVES: Modern humans may have gracile skeletons due to low physical activity levels and mechanical loading. Tests using pre-historic skeletons are limited by the inability to assess behavior directly, while modern industrialized societies possess few socio-ecological features typical of human evolutionary history. Among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists, we test whether greater activity levels and, thus, increased loading earlier in life are associated with greater later-life bone status and diminished age-related bone loss...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343049/stabilisation-of-spent-mushroom-substrate-for-application-as-a-plant-growth-promoting-organic-amendment
#3
Fabiana S Paula, Enrico Tatti, Florence Abram, Jude Wilson, Vincent O'Flaherty
Over three million tonnes of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced in Europe every year as a by-product of the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The management of SMS has become an increasing challenge for the mushroom production industry, and finding environmentally and economically sustainable solutions for this organic residue is, therefore, highly desirable. Due to its physical properties and nutrient content, SMS has great potential to be employed in agricultural and horticultural sectors, and further contribute to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, such as peat...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334236/spirotetramat-resistance-selected-in-the-phenacoccus-solenopsis-homoptera-pseudococcidae-cross-resistance-patterns-stability-and-fitness-costs-analysis
#4
Masood Ejaz, Sarfraz Ali Shad
The Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a major agricultural and horticultural pest of crops throughout the world. To develop a better resistance management strategy for P. solenopsis, we conducted a study on life history parameters of different populations of this pest, one selected with spirotetramat (Spiro-SEL), an unselected (UNSEL) population, and their reciprocal crosses. We also studied the cross-resistance and the stability of spirotetramat resistance. The Spiro-SEL of P. solenopsis exhibited a 328...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334098/untangling-the-reticulate-history-of-species-complexes-and-horticultural-breeds-in-abelia-caprifoliaceae
#5
Sven Landrein, Sven Buerki, Hua-Feng Wang, James J Clarkson
Background and Aims: The genetic and morphological consequences of natural selection and selective breeding are explored in the genus Abelia . The genus consists of ornamental shrubs endemic to China, which have been bred to create attractive and diverse cultivars. Methods: DNA fingerprinting (AFLP) and DNA sequence data are used to investigate the genetic diversity among 46 accessions of Abelia (22 natural taxa and 24 horticultural breeds). In the cultivated varieties these data are used to explore taxon boundaries, hybridisation and backcrossing...
February 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331401/dna-barcoding-and-species-delimitation-of-chaitophorinae-hemiptera-aphididae
#6
Xi-Chao Zhu, Jing Chen, Rui Chen, Li-Yun Jiang, Ge-Xia Qiao
Chaitophorinae aphids are widespread across Eurasia and North America, and include some important agricultural and horticultural pests. So, accurate rapid species identification is very important. Here, we used three mitochondrial genes and one endosymbiont gene to calculate and analyze the genetic distances within different datasets. For species delimitation, two distance-based methods were employed, threshold with NJ (neighbor-joining) and ABGD (Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery), and two tree-based approaches, GMYC (General Mixed Yule Coalescent) and PTP (Poisson Tree Process)...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330124/somaclonal-variations-and-their-applications-in-horticultural-crops-improvement
#7
REVIEW
Hare Krishna, Mahdi Alizadeh, Dhurendra Singh, Udayvir Singh, Nitesh Chauhan, Maliheh Eftekhari, Radha Kishan Sadh
The advancements made in tissue culture techniques has made it possible to regenerate various horticultural species in vitro as micropropagation protocols for commercial scale multiplication are available for a wide range of crops. Clonal propagation and preservation of elite genotypes, selected for their superior characteristics, require high degree of genetic uniformity amongst the regenerated plants. However, plant tissue culture may generate genetic variability, i.e., somaclonal variations as a result of gene mutation or changes in epigenetic marks...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326001/the-role-of-plant-processing-for-the-cancer-preventive-potential-of-ethiopian-kale-brassica-carinata
#8
Grace Akinyi Odongo, Nina Schlotz, Corinna Herz, Franziska S Hanschen, Susanne Baldermann, Susanne Neugart, Bernhard Trierweiler, Lara Frommherz, Charles M A P Franz, Benard Ngwene, Abraham Wahid Luvonga, Monika Schreiner, Sascha Rohn, Evelyn Lamy
Background: Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata) is a horticulturally important crop used as leafy vegetable in large parts of East and Southern Africa. The leaves are reported to contain high concentrations of health-promoting secondary plant metabolites. However, scientific knowledge on their health benefits is scarce. Objective: This study aimed to determine the cancer preventive potential of B. carinata using a human liver in vitro model focusing on processing effects on the pattern of secondary plant metabolites and bioactivity...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316790/plant-grafting-insights-into-tissue-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
Charles W Melnyk
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plants together through a process known as grafting. The severed tissues adhere, the cells divide and the vasculature differentiates through a remarkable process of regeneration between two genetically distinct organisms as they become one. Grafting is becoming increasingly important in horticulture where it provides an efficient means for asexual propagation. Grafting also combines desirable roots and shoots to generate chimeras that are more vigorous, more pathogen resistant and more abiotic stress resistant...
February 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301562/diversity-and-community-structure-of-cyanobacteria-and-other-microbes-in-recycling-irrigation-reservoirs
#10
Ping Kong, Patricia Richardson, Chuanxue Hong
Recycling irrigation reservoirs (RIRs) are emerging aquatic environments of global significance to crop production, water conservation and environmental sustainability. This study characterized the diversity and population structure of cyanobacteria and other detected microbes in water samples from eight RIRs and one adjacent runoff-free stream at three ornamental crop nurseries in eastern (VA1 and VA3) and central (VA2) Virginia after cloning and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene targeting cyanobacteria and chloroplast of eukaryotic phytoplankton...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293849/inhibitors-of-ethylene-biosynthesis-and-signaling
#11
G Eric Schaller, Brad M Binder
Ethylene is a gas biosynthesized by plants which has many physiological and developmental effects on their growth. Ethylene affects agriculturally and horticulturally important traits such as fruit ripening, post-harvest physiology, senescence, and abscission, and so ethylene action is often inhibited to improve the shelf life of fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers. Chemical inhibitors of ethylene action are also useful for research to characterize the mechanisms of ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction, and the role that ethylene plays in various physiological processes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291597/diel-rhythms-in-the-volatile-emission-of-apple-and-grape-foliage
#12
Valentino Giacomuzzi, Luca Cappellin, Iuliia Khomenko, Franco Biasioli, Alan L Knight, Sergio Angeli
This study investigated the diel emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from intact apple (Malus x domestica Borkh., cv. Golden Delicious) and grape (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Pinot Noir) foliage. Volatiles were monitored continuously for 48 h by proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). In addition, volatiles were collected by closed-loop-stripping-analysis (CLSA) and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 1 h and again 24 and 48 h later...
March 11, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286716/most-ornamental-plants-on-sale-in-garden-centres-are-unattractive-to-flower-visiting-insects
#13
Mihail Garbuzov, Karin Alton, Francis L W Ratnieks
BACKGROUND: Gardeners and park managers seeking to support biodiversity in urban areas often plant ornamentals attractive to flower-visiting insects. There is a huge diversity of garden plant varieties, and some recommendations are available as to which are attractive to insects. However, these are largely not based on rigorous empirical data. An important factor in consumer choice is the range of varieties available for purchase. In the UK, garden centres are a key link in the supply chain between growers and private gardens...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284188/the-peach-v2-0-release-high-resolution-linkage-mapping-and-deep-resequencing-improve-chromosome-scale-assembly-and-contiguity
#14
Ignazio Verde, Jerry Jenkins, Luca Dondini, Sabrina Micali, Giulia Pagliarani, Elisa Vendramin, Roberta Paris, Valeria Aramini, Laura Gazza, Laura Rossini, Daniele Bassi, Michela Troggio, Shengqiang Shu, Jane Grimwood, Stefano Tartarini, Maria Teresa Dettori, Jeremy Schmutz
BACKGROUND: The availability of the peach genome sequence has fostered relevant research in peach and related Prunus species enabling the identification of genes underlying important horticultural traits as well as the development of advanced tools for genetic and genomic analyses. The first release of the peach genome (Peach v1.0) represented a high-quality WGS (Whole Genome Shotgun) chromosome-scale assembly with high contiguity (contig L50 214.2 kb), large portions of mapped sequences (96%) and high base accuracy (99...
March 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228093/comparative-profiling-of-hepatopancreas-transcriptomes-in-satiated-and-starving-pomacea-canaliculata
#15
Lei Yang, Tian-Yin Cheng, Fei-Yan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Although Pomacea canaliculata is native to South and Central America, it has become one of the most abundant invasive species worldwide and causes extensive damage to agriculture and horticulture. Conventional physical and chemical techniques have been used to eliminate P. canaliculata, but the effects are not ideal. Therefore, it is important to devise a new method based on a greater understanding of the biology of P. canaliculata. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying digestion and absorption in P...
February 22, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226394/the-social-dimensions-of-therapeutic-horticulture
#16
Holly Harris
Harnessing nature to promote mental health is increasingly seen as a sustainable solution to healthcare across the industrialised world. The benefits of these approaches to well-being include reduced symptoms of anxiety, depression and improved social functioning. Many studies assume that contact with nature is the main therapeutic component of these interventions yet 'green care' programmes typically include activities not based on 'nature' that may contribute to positive outcomes. This study explored the views of service users participating in a Therapeutic Horticultural programme on what factors promoted their engagement in the project, to identify variables other than 'nature' that may be responsible for successful engagement in these programmes...
February 22, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221902/monitoring-pesticide-residues-in-fruits-and-vegetables-at-two-of-the-biggest-fresh-produce-markets-in-africa
#17
Mbulaheni T Mutengwe, Lizyben Chidamba, Lise Korsten
In most countries, fresh produce sold at local markets is usually not analyzed for agricultural chemical residues as export products are, which raises concerns about the perceived safety levels of local food supplies in contrast with exported products. The aim of this study was to determine pesticide residue levels in fruits and vegetables sold at two of the biggest fresh produce markets in Africa. A total of 199 fruit and vegetable samples were collected between 2012 and 2014 and analyzed for 74 pesticides commonly used in the horticultural sector...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217004/rna-silencing-in-plants-mechanisms-technologies-and-applications-in-horticultural-crops
#18
Qigao Guo, Qing Liu, Neil A Smith, Guolu Liang, Ming-Bo Wang
Understanding the fundamental nature of a molecular process or a biological pathway is often a catalyst for the development of new technologies in biology. Indeed, studies from late 1990s to early 2000s have uncovered multiple overlapping but functionally distinct RNA silencing pathways in plants, including the posttranscriptional microRNA and small interfering RNA pathways and the transcriptional RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. These findings have in turn been exploited for developing artificial RNA silencing technologies such as hairpin RNA, artificial microRNA, intrinsic direct repeat, 3' UTR inverted repeat, artificial trans-acting siRNA, and virus-induced gene silencing technologies...
December 2016: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208645/polyphenol-oxidases-in-crops-biochemical-physiological-and-genetic-aspects
#19
Francesca Taranto, Antonella Pasqualone, Giacomo Mangini, Pasquale Tripodi, Monica Marilena Miazzi, Stefano Pavan, Cinzia Montemurro
Enzymatic browning is a colour reaction occurring in plants, including cereals, fruit and horticultural crops, due to oxidation during postharvest processing and storage. This has a negative impact on the colour, flavour, nutritional properties and shelf life of food products. Browning is usually caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), following cell damage caused by senescence, wounding and the attack of pests and pathogens. Several studies indicated that PPOs play a role in plant immunity, and emerging evidence suggested that PPOs might also be involved in other physiological processes...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205632/using-dna-metabarcoding-to-investigate-honey-bee-foraging-reveals-limited-flower-use-despite-high-floral-availability
#20
Natasha de Vere, Laura E Jones, Tegan Gilmore, Jake Moscrop, Abigail Lowe, Dan Smith, Matthew J Hegarty, Simon Creer, Col R Ford
Understanding which flowers honey bees (Apis mellifera) use for forage can help us to provide suitable plants for healthy honey bee colonies. Accordingly, honey DNA metabarcoding provides a valuable tool for investigating pollen and nectar collection. We investigated early season (April and May) floral choice by honey bees provided with a very high diversity of flowering plants within the National Botanic Garden of Wales. There was a close correspondence between the phenology of flowering and the detection of plants within the honey...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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