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Jinhua Zuo, Yunxiang Wang, Benzhong Zhu, Yunbo Luo, Qing Wang, Lipu Gao
Cowpea is an important horticultural crop in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, as well as parts of southern Europe and Central and South America. Chilling injury is a common physiological hazard of cowpea in cold chain logistics which reduce the cowpea pod's nutritional quality and product value. However, the molecular mechanism involved in chilling injury remains unclear in cowpea pods. RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq technologies were employed to decipher the miRNAs and mRNAs expression profiles and their regulatory networks in cowpea pods involved in chilling stress...
May 21, 2018: Gene
Samer Omari, Yuri Kamenir, Jennifer I C Benichou, Sarah Pariente, Hanan Sela, Rafael Perl-Treves
BACKGROUND: Snake melon (Cucumis melo var. flexuosus, "Faqqous") is a traditional and ancient vegetable in the Mediterranean area. A collection of landraces from 42 grower fields in Israel and Palestinian territories was grown and characterized in a "Common Garden" rain-fed experiment, at the morphological-horticultural and molecular level using seq-DArT markers. RESULTS: The different landraces ("populations") showed extensive variation in morphology and quantitative traits such as yield and femaleness, and clustered into four horticultural varieties...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genetics
David Beresford-Jones, Alexander Pullen, George Chauca, Lauren Cadwallader, Maria García, Isabel Salvatierra, Oliver Whaley, Víctor Vásquez, Susana Arce, Kevin Lane, Charles French
Moseley's (1975) Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization hypothesis challenges, in one of humanity's few pristine hearths of civilization, the axiom that agriculture is necessary for the rise of complex societies. We revisit that hypothesis by setting new findings from La Yerba II (7571-6674 Cal bp) and III (6485-5893 Cal bp), Río Ica estuary, alongside the wider archaeological record for the end of the Middle Preceramic Period on the Peruvian coast. The La Yerba record evinces increasing population, sedentism, and "Broad Spectrum Revolution" features, including early horticulture of Phaseolus and Canavalia beans...
2018: Journal of archaeological method and theory
Shana K Carpenter, Cynthia L Haynes, Daniel Corral, Kam Leung Yeung
People often have erroneous knowledge about the world that is firmly entrenched in memory and endorsed with high confidence. Although strong errors in memory would seem difficult to "un-learn," evidence suggests that errors are more likely to be corrected through feedback when they are originally endorsed with high confidence compared to low confidence. This hypercorrection effect has been predominantly studied in laboratory settings with general knowledge (i.e., trivia) questions, however, and has not been systematically explored in authentic classroom contexts...
May 19, 2018: Memory
Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken
Adventitious root formation in cuttings and establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis reflect the enormous plasticity of plants and are key factors in the efficient and sustainable clonal propagation and production of ornamental crops. Based on the high importance of Petunia hybrida for the European and US annual bedding plant markets and its suitability as a model for basic plant sciences, petunia has been established as an experimental system for elucidating the molecular and physiological processes underlying adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Saima Umbreen, Jibril Lubega, Beimi Cui, Qiaona Pan, Jihong Jiang, Gary J Loake
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and their cognate redox signalling networks pervade almost all facets of plant growth, development, immunity and environmental interactions. The emerging evidence implies that specificity in redox signalling is achieved by a multi-layered molecular framework. This encompasses the production of redox cues in the locale of the given protein target and protein tertiary structures that convey the appropriate local chemical environment to support redox-based, post-translational modifications (PTMs)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Shan-Shan Sun, Peng-Cheng Fu, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Yan-Wei Cheng, Fa-Qi Zhang, Shi-Long Chen, Qing-Bo Gao
The chloroplast (cp) genome is useful in the study of phylogenomics, molecular dating, and molecular evolution. Gentiana sect. Kudoa is a predominantly alpine flowering plant that is valued for its contributions to medicine, ecology, and horticulture. Previous evolutionary studies showed that the plastid gene loss pattern and intra-sectional phylogenetics in sect. Kudoa are still unclear. In this study, we compared 11 Gentiana plastomes, including 7 newly sequenced plastomes from sect. Kudoa , to represent its three serious: ser...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhe Cao, Yufang Guo, Qian Yang, Yanhong He, Mohammed Fetouh, Ryan M Warner, Zhanao Deng
A major bottleneck in plant breeding has been the much limited genetic base and much reduced genetic diversity in domesticated, cultivated germplasm. Identification and utilization of favorable gene loci or alleles from wild or progenitor species can serve as an effective approach to increasing genetic diversity and breaking this bottleneck in plant breeding. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in wild or progenitor petunia species that can be used to improve important horticultural traits in garden petunia...
May 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Alfonso Garmendia, María Dolores Raigón, Olmo Marques, María Ferriol, Jorge Royo, Hugo Merle
Organic agriculture is becoming increasingly important, and many natural products are now available for organic farmers to manage and improve their crops. Several ethnobotanical studies have indicated that the use of nettle slurry as fertilizer in organic farming for horticultural crops is spreading. Sometimes, however, the consequences of using these natural products have been poorly evaluated, and there is very little scientific evidence for the effects of using these slurries. In this study, we aimed to analyze the possible effect of nettle slurry on potato yields produced by organic farming...
2018: PeerJ
Daniele De Rosa, David W Rowlings, Johannes Biala, Clemens Scheer, Bruno Basso, Peter R Grace
Accounting for nitrogen (N) release from organic amendments (OA) can reduce the use of synthetic N-fertiliser, sustain crop production, and potentially reduce soil borne greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. However, it is difficult to assess the GHG mitigation potential for OA as a substitute of N-fertiliser over the long term due to only part of the organic N added to soil is being released in the first year after application. High-resolution nitrous oxide (N2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions monitored from a horticultural crop rotation over 2...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Magdalena Frąc, Silja E Hannula, Marta Bełka, Małgorzata Jędryczka
Soil health, and the closely related terms of soil quality and fertility, is considered as one of the most important characteristics of soil ecosystems. The integrated approach to soil health assumes that soil is a living system and soil health results from the interaction between different processes and properties, with a strong effect on the activity of soil microbiota. All soils can be described using physical, chemical, and biological properties, but adaptation to environmental changes, driven by the processes of natural selection, are unique to the latter one...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Y-W Chang, X-X Zhang, J-Y Chen, M-X Lu, W-R Gong, Y-Z Du
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) participate in diverse physiological processes in insects, and HSP70 is one of the most highly conserved proteins in the HSP family. In this study, full-length cDNAs of three HSP70 genes (Lthsc70, Lthsp701, and Lthsp702) were cloned and characterized from Liriomyza trifolii, an important invasive pest of vegetable crops and horticultural crops worldwide. These three HSP70s exhibited signature sequences and motifs that are typical of the HSP70 family. The expression patterns of the three Lthsp70s during temperature stress and in different insect development stages were studied by real-time quantitative PCR...
May 10, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
A Hakeem, J F Grant, P L Lambdin, F A Hale, J R Rhea, G J Wiggins, C Coots
Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an exotic pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), in the eastern United States. Two commonly used insecticides to manage adelgid are imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid insecticide, and horticultural oil, a refined petroleum oil foliar spray. We have investigated the influence of imidacloprid and horticultural oil on spider abundance at different canopy strata in eastern hemlock. In total, 2,084 spiders representing 11 families were collected from the canopies of eastern hemlock...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Rafael Muñoz-Carpena, Garey A Fox, Amy Ritter, Oscar Perez-Ovilla, Ismael Rodea-Palomares
Understanding and simulating the fate and transport of pesticides from a field to adjacent receiving water bodies is critical for estimating long-term environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) in regulatory higher-tier environmental exposure assessments (EEA). The potential of field mitigation practices like vegetative filter strips (VFS) to reduce pesticide pollution is receiving increasing attention. Previous research has proposed a modeling framework that links the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US-EPA) PRZM/EXAMS higher-tier EEA with a process-based VFS model (VFSMOD)...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
D Kulus, A Abratowska
  BACKGROUND: Ajania pacifica, a novelty on the horticultural market, is valued as an ornamental and a medicinal plant. Breeding programs led to the creation of numerous cultivars. Therefore, it is important to develop species storage methods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study has been to develop an encapsulation-based cryopreservation protocol of Ajania pacifica shoot tips. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Shoot tips of ajania 'Bengo' were precultured on media with different sucrose and ABA concentrations, encapsulated and dehydrated for various periods and stored in liquid nitrogen...
September 2017: Cryo Letters
Benjamin C Trumble, Jonathan Stieglitz, Adrian V Jaeggi, Bret Beheim, Matthew Schwartz, Edmond Seabright, Daniel Cummings, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven
The physiology of fatherhood is a growing field of study, and variability in hormonal mediators of reproductive effort (e.g. testosterone, cortisol) can predict variability in paternal investment. Studies often find that lower testosterone levels are associated with increased paternal investment, though most studies are conducted under relatively stable ecological conditions. In this paper, we examine parental physiological correlates of crop loss and family health problems among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists following a catastrophic flood in lowland Bolivia...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Ania T Deutscher, Catherine M Burke, Aaron E Darling, Markus Riegler, Olivia L Reynolds, Toni A Chapman
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota affects tephritid (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit fly development, physiology, behavior, and thus the quality of flies mass-reared for the sterile insect technique (SIT), a target-specific, sustainable, environmentally benign form of pest management. The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Tephritidae), is a significant horticultural pest in Australia and can be managed with SIT. Little is known about the impacts that laboratory-adaptation (domestication) and mass-rearing have on the tephritid larval gut microbiome...
May 5, 2018: Microbiome
Mohammad Yazdani, Zhaoxia Sun, Hui Yuan, Shaohua Zeng, Theodore W Thannhauser, Julia Vrebalov, Qiyue Ma, Yimin Xu, Zhangjun Fei, Joyce Van Eck, Shiping Tian, Yaakov Tadmor, James J Giovannoni, Li Li
Carotenoids are critically important to plants and humans. The ORANGE (OR) gene is a key regulator for carotenoid accumulation, but its physiological roles in crops remain elusive. In this study, we generated transgenic tomato ectopically overexpressing the Arabidopsis wild type OR (AtORWT ) and a 'golden SNP'-containing OR (AtORH is ). We found that AtORH is initiated chromoplast formation in very young fruit and stimulated carotenoid accumulation at all fruit developmental stages, uncoupled from other ripening activities...
May 5, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Yang Dong, Jing Liu, Peng-Wei Li, Chao-Qun Li, Tian-Feng Lü, Xia Yang, Yin-Zheng Wang
Unlike most crops, which were domesticated through long periods of selection by ancient humans, horticultural plants were primarily domesticated through intentional selection over short time periods. The molecular mechanisms underlying the origin and spread of novel traits in the domestication process have remained largely unexplored in horticultural plants. Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa), whose attractive peloric flowers influenced the thoughts of Darwin, have been cultivated since the early 19th century, but its origin and genetic basis are currently unknown...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Yuqiong Wu, Qihong Yang, Meng Chen, Ying Zhang, Zhenghong Zuo, Chonggang Wang
Fenbuconazole (FBZ), a triazole-containing fungicide, is widely used in agriculture and horticulture. In the present study, the development and cardiac functioning were observed and determined in zebrafish embryos exposed to FBZ at 5, 50 and 500 ng/L nominal concentrations for 72 h. The results showed that 500 ng/L FBZ significantly increased pericardial edema rate, spine curvature rate, disturbed cardiac function, and led a shortened lower jaw. The transcription of genes such as tbx5, nkx2.5, tnnt2, gata4, bmp2b, myl7 was altered, which might be responsible for the cardiac developmental and functioning defects in the larvae...
April 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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