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cerebral salt waste syndrome fludrocortisone

Peter Taylor, Sasan Dehbozorgi, Arshiya Tabasum, Anna Scholz, Harsh Bhatt, Philippa Stewart, Pranav Kumar, Mohd S Draman, Alastair Watt, Aled Rees, Caroline Hayhurst, Stephen Davies
SUMMARY: Hyponatraemia is the most commonly encountered electrolyte disturbance in neurological high dependency and intensive care units. Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is the most elusive and challenging of the causes of hyponatraemia, and it is vital to distinguish it from the more familiar syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Managing CSW requires correction of the intravascular volume depletion and hyponatraemia, as well as mitigation of on-going substantial sodium losses...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Jayantee Kalita, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Usha Kant Misra
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the frequency, severity, and causes of hyponatremia in stroke and its influence on outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive computed tomography- or magnetic resonance imaging-proven stroke patients within 7 days of stroke were included. Severity of stroke was assessed using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and consciousness using the Glasgow Coma Scale. Hyponatremia was defined if 2 consecutive serum sodium levels were <135 mEq/L and hypernatremia if >145 mEq/L...
May 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Min Jeong Han, Soon Chul Kim, Chan Uhng Joo, Sun Jun Kim
RATIONALE FOR THIS CASE REPORT: Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome (CSWS) is characterized by hyponatremia and sodium wasting in the urine. These conditions are triggered by various neurosurgical disorders such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor, head injury, and brain surgery. To our knowledge, CSWS caused by Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) has been rarely reported. PRESENTING CONCERNS OF THE PATIENT: A 2-year-old male patient presented to our hospital due to a seizure attack...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nagendra Chaudhary, Santosh Pathak, Murli Manohar Gupta, Nikhil Agrawal
Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome is an important cause of hyponatremia in head injuries apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Proper diagnosis and differentiation between these two entities are necessary for management as the treatment is quite opposite in both conditions. Fludrocortisone can help in managing CSW where alone saline infusion does not work. We report a 17-month-old female child with head injury managed successfully with saline infusion and fludrocortisone.
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Yeon Jin Jeon, Hyun Young Lee, In Ah Jung, Won-Kyoung Cho, Bin Cho, Byung-Kyu Suh
Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a rare disease characterized by a extracellular volume depletion and hyponatremia induced by marked natriuresis. It is mainly reported in patients who experience a central nervous system insult, such as cerebral hemorrhage or encephalitis. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion is a main cause of severe hyponatremia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, whereas CSWS is rarely reported. We report 3 patients with childhood acute leukemia who developed CSWS with central nervous system complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
December 2015: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Orkun Tolunay, Tamer Celik, Umit Celik, Mustafa Kömür, Begul Yagci-Kupeli
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a hypovolemic hyponatremia caused by natriuresis and diuresis, of which the exact pathogenesis is unknown. Although CSWS has been more commonly described to be associated with neurosurgical disorders, increasing numbers of patients are diagnosed and new etiological factors are being identified as the awareness of it increases. METHODS: The files of the patients who had been hospitalized and treated with the diagnosis of CSWS at the pediatric critical care unit during the last three years were retrospectively reviewed...
December 2015: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Umit Celik, Tamer Celik, Orkun Tolunay, Hüseyin Başpınar, Mustafa Kömür, Fatma Levent
Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is characterized by severe natriuresis and volume depletion in the presence of cerebral pathology. In literature, there are few reports about tuberculous meningitis and cerebral CSWS. In this article, we report two tuberculous meningitis cases with CSWS and present a review of the literature on this topic. Cerebral salt wasting diagnosis was based on hyponatraemia associated with high urinary sodium excretion and inappropriately high urine output in the presence of dehydration...
2015: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Haroon Younas, Omer Sabir, Ilyas Baig, Nauman Tarif
Hyponatremia secondary to the Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) secretion is commonly observed in patients with various neurological disorders. Cerebral Salt Wasting (CSW) resulting in hyponatremia is also an infrequent occurrence in some patients with neurological disorders. Confusion in differentiating CSW from SIADH may arise since both results in similar electrolyte disturbances. Herein, we report three cases of CSW with intracranial afflictions. CSW was diagnosed on the basis of fractional excretion of urinary sodium and uric acid along with extremely low serum uric acid...
January 2015: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Sunggeun Lee, Anitsira Collado, Montish Singla, Roger Carbajal, Ashok Chaudhari, Donald Baumstein
Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte imbalances in HIV patients. The differential diagnosis may include hypovolemic hyponatremia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), and adrenal insufficiency. Here, we describe a case of hyponatremia secondary to cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in an HIV patient with cryptococcal meningitis. A 52-year-old man with a history of diabetes and HIV was admitted for headache and found to have cryptococcal meningitis. He was also found to have asymptomatic hyponatremia...
March 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Janice J Hwang, David Y Hwang
This review discusses concepts and treatments associated with the most clinically relevant areas of acute endocrine dysfunction amongst patients with common diseases in neuroscience intensive care units (Neuro ICUs). We highlight the following points:• While a thorough work-up for hyponatremia when it is present is always warranted, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients who are in a time window concerning for cerebral vasospasm and who are hyponatremic with high urine output are generally thought to have cerebral salt wasting...
February 2014: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Younes-Mhenni Samia, Kamoun Mahdi, Zantour Baha, Jerbi-Ommezine Saida, Sfar Mohamed Tahar, Sfar Mohamed Habib
A 15-yr-old male patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was referred to our department with a one year history of gradual worsening of tremors. He was diagnosed with salt-wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency CAH at 40 d old and was started on hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone and salt. He was found to have hypertension at 8 yr of age. Detailed investigations failed to detect any cause for secondary hypertension. Physical findings on the current hospitalization objectified obesity, blood pressure of 150/80 mmHg, postural and action tremor, left cerebellar syndrome, reflex tetra pyramidal syndrome and mental decline...
October 2010: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Ichiro Nakagawa, Yasuo Hironaka, Fumihiko Nishimura, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Ryosuke Matsuda, Shuichi Yamada, Yasushi Motoyama, Young-Su Park, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is a common complication occurring in one third of patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). One mechanism that likely mediates the development of hyponatremia in SAH is cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS), which induces natriuresis and reduces total blood volume, resulting in a risk of symptomatic vasospasm (SVS). The mineral corticoid fludrocortisone acetate enhances sodium reabsorption in the renal distal tubules and may help prevent post-SAH hyponatremia...
2013: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Min Jeong Choi, Yoon Su Oh, Se Jin Park, Ji Hong Kim, Jae Il Shin
Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction with associated cerebral pathology. It is distinct from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, which is characterized by inappropriate retention of free water. We report a patient with a porencephalic cyst who developed cerebral salt wasting. His initial treatment was supplementation of water and salt, which did not improve natriuresis or volume contraction. Fludrocortisone administration effectively managed the cerebral salt wasting...
July 1, 2012: Yonsei Medical Journal
Syed Ahmed Zaki, Vijay Lad, Preeti Shanbag
In patients with central nervous system disease, life-threatening hyponatremia can result from either the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting. Clinical manifestations of the two conditions may be similar, but their pathogeneses and management protocols are different. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and hyponatremia occurs in patients with intracranial diseases. We report a 6-month-old girl with CSWS associated with tuberculous meningoencephalitis...
April 2012: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Alberto Bettinelli, Laura Longoni, Fabiana Tammaro, Pietro B Faré, Luca Garzoni, Mario G Bianchetti
Hypotonic hyponatremia, a serious and recognized complication of any intracranial disorder, results from extra-cellular fluid volume depletion, inappropriate anti-diuresis or renal salt-wasting. The putative mechanisms by which intracranial disorders might lead to renal salt-wasting are either a disrupted neural input to the kidney or the elaboration of a circulating natriuretic factor. The key to diagnosis of renal salt-wasting lies in the assessment of extra-cellular volume status: the central venous pressure is currently considered the yardstick for measuring fluid volume status in subjects with intracranial disorders and hyponatremia...
May 2012: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Alejandro A Rabinstein, Nicolas Bruder
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte imbalance seen in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, occurring in one-third to one-half of patients. Hyponatremia may be caused by cerebral salt wasting and by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone or a combination of both. Limited data are available describing hyponatremia treatment in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. A Medline search was performed for English-language manuscripts describing original research in the treatment for hyponatremia in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage...
September 2011: Neurocritical Care
Abdul Jabbar, Syed Nadir Farrukh, Rabbia Khan
Case of a seventy year old female, who developed cerebral salt wasting syndrome in association with Tuberculous Meningitis is presented.
November 2010: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Melanie Lang, Rolf A K Stahl, Matthias Janneck
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is one of the most commonly seen electrolyte abnormalities in hospitalized patients. The differential diagnoses are complex once the typical causes for hyponatremia such as congestive cardiac failure, liver failure, hyperglycemia, thiazides, antipsychotic drugs or chemotherapy are excluded. Especially the differentiation between the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion and salt-wasting nephropathy as seen in cerebral salt wasting (CSW) can be difficult. CASE REPORT: The case of a 79-year-old lady is discussed who presented to the Emergency Department with extreme dizziness after having fallen off a ladder...
April 2010: Medizinische Klinik
Soichi Sano, Keiko Yamagami, Takashi Morikawa, Katsunobu Yoshioka
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) could occurs in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), because of infiltration of leukemic cells into the neurohypophysis or some other reason and it is closely associated with abnormalities of chromosome 7. We report a case of MDS with abnormalities of chromosome 7, presenting as CDI followed by deterioration of polyuria and hyponatremia with a decreased extracellular fluid volume. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed symmetrically enhanced lesions in the hypothalamus...
2010: Internal Medicine
Halil Ozdemir, Zehra Aycan, Aydan Degerliyurt, Ayse Metin
Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically ill neurological patients. The major differential diagnoses in this situation are the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, marked by inappropriate retention of free water, and cerebral salt wasting, characterized by excessive urinary loss of sodium and resulting in polyuria and extracellular volume contraction. Cerebral salt wasting is a syndrome of hyponatremia due to increased urine output and excessive natriuresis described in patients with central nervous system disease...
January 2010: Turkish Neurosurgery
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