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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444460/plasmacytoid-pre-dendritic-cells-pdc-from-molecular-pathways-to-function-and-disease-association
#1
REVIEW
Solana Alculumbre, Salvatore Raieli, Caroline Hoffmann, Rabie Chelbi, François-Xavier Danlos, Vassili Soumelis
Plasmacytoid pre-dendritic cells (pDC) are a specialized DC population with a great potential to produce large amounts of type I interferon (IFN). pDC are involved in the initiation of antiviral immune responses through their interaction with innate and adaptive immune cell populations. In a context-dependent manner, pDC activation can induce their differentiation into mature DC able to induce both T cell activation or tolerance. In this review, we described pDC functions during immune responses and their implication in the clearance or pathogenicity of human diseases during infection, autoimmunity, allergy and cancer...
February 11, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444299/early-nodal-and-paranodal-disruption-in-autoimmune-optic-neuritis
#2
Aleksandar Stojic, Jovana Bojcevski, Sarah K Williams, Ricarda Diem, Richard Fairless
Disturbances in the nodes of Ranvier are an early phenomenon in many CNS disorders, including the autoimmune demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Using an animal model of optic neuritis, a common early symptom of MS, we have investigated nodal and paranodal compartments in the optic nerve during disease progression. Both nodes and paranodes, as identified by immunohistochemistry against sodium channels (Nav) and Caspr, respectively, were observed to increase in length during the late induction phase of the disease, prior to onset of the demyelination and immune cell infiltration characteristic of optic neuritis...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444121/no-evidence-of-a-causal-relationship-between-hypothyroidism-and-glaucoma-a-danish-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#3
Marianne Thvilum, Frans Brandt, Thomas Heiberg Brix, Laszlo Hegedüs
BACKGROUND: An interrelationship between hypothyroidism and glaucoma, due to a shared autoimmune background or based on deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the trabecular meshwork in the eye, has been suggested but is at present unsubstantiated. Therefore, our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide and population-based level, whether there is such an association. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Observational cohort study using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443886/antibacterial-peptides-in-dermatology-strategies-for-evaluation-of-allergic-potential
#4
REVIEW
Milena Deptuła, Anna Wardowska, Maria Dzierżyńska, Sylwia Rodziewicz-Motowidło, Michał Pikuła
During recent decades, the market for peptide-based drugs, including antimicrobial peptides, has vastly extended and evolved. These drugs can be useful in treatment of various types of disorders, e.g., cancer, autoimmune diseases, infections, and non-healing wounds. Although peptides are less immunogenic than other biologic therapeutics, they can still induce immune responses and cause allergies. It is important to evaluate the immunogenic and allergic potential of peptides before they are forwarded to the expensive stages of clinical trials...
February 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443773/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-associated-with-acute-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-a-case-report
#5
Xiaotang Cai, Hui Zhou, Yongmei Xie, Dan Yu, Zhiling Wang, Haitao Ren
RATIONALE: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been recognized as the most frequent autoimmune encephalitis in children. Several infectious agents have been implicated in anti-NMDA encephalitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy immunocompetent 9-year-old girl first presented with seizures, headaches and vomiting. Cerebrospinal fluid and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. After one week onset, the patient gradually developed unexplained personality and behavior changes, accompanied by fever and seizures again...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443033/a-method-for-the-measurement-of-salivary-gland-function-in-mice
#6
Harini Bagavant, Marta Trzeciak, Joanna Papinska, Indranil Biswas, Micah L Dunkleberger, Anna Sosnowska, Umesh S Deshmukh
Patients with Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disease affecting the exocrine glands, develop salivary gland inflammation and have reduced saliva production. Similarly, saliva production is severely compromised in patients receiving radiation treatment for head and neck cancers. Rodent models, developed to mimic these clinical conditions, facilitate an understanding of the disease pathogenesis and allow for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the ability to accurately, reproducibly, and repeatedly measure salivary gland function in animal models is critical...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442374/eosinophils-are-not-essential-for-maintenance-of-murine-plasma-cells-in-the-bone-marrow
#7
Konrad Haberland, Jochen A Ackermann, Natacha Ipseiz, Stephan Culemann, Katharina Pracht, Matthias Englbrecht, Hans-Martin Jäck, Georg Schett, Wolfgang Schuh, Gerhard Krönke
Eosinophils were reported to serve as an essential component of the plasma cell niche within the bone marrow. As the potential contribution of eosinophils to humoral immunity has remained incompletely understood, we aimed to further characterize their role during antibody responses and to additionally investigate their role in autoimmune disease. Contrary to our expectations and the currently prevailing paradigm, we found that eosinophils are fully dispensable for the survival of murine bone marrow plasma cells and accordingly do not contribute to antibody production and autoantibody-mediated disease...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442293/recombinant-human-ph20-baseline-analysis-of-the-reactive-antibody-prevalence-in-the-general-population-using-healthy-subjects
#8
Sanna Rosengren, Jennifer Souratha, Dave Conway, Douglas B Muchmore, Barry J Sugarman
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human PH20 (rHuPH20) is used to depolymerize hyaluronan in the subcutaneous space, increasing the dispersion and absorption of co-administered drugs. While ~ 5 to 10% of rHuPH20 treatment-naïve healthy volunteers have demonstrated rHuPH20-reactive antibodies, associations with age, sex, fertility, and immune disorders remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: Using demographically diverse healthy volunteers, we assessed the prevalence of rHuPH20-reactive antibodies in the general population and potential associations with fertility and autoimmunity diseases...
February 13, 2018: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442025/sinomenine-inhibits-the-inflammatory-responses-of-human-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-via-the-tlr4-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Ru-Bing Yao, Zhi-Ming Zhao, Ling-Jie Zhao, Hui Cai
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disorder mainly characterized by inflammation of the synovial tissue that can lead to destruction of bone and cartilage. Sinomenine is an alkaloid extracted from the stem of the Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum. It has been reported that sinomenine has immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of sinominine on IL-1β-induced human RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RAFLS) is poorly understood...
June 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441440/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-liver-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Xuefu Wang, Zhigang Tian
γδ T cells display unique developmental, distributional, and functional patterns and can rapidly respond to various insults and contribute to diverse diseases. Different subtypes of γδ T cells are produced in the thymus prior to their migration to peripheral tissues. γδ T cells are enriched in the liver and exhibit liver-specific features. Accumulating evidence reveals that γδ T cells play important roles in liver infection, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and liver cancer and regeneration...
February 14, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441414/association-between-igh-enhancer-hs1-2-and-type-1-diabetes
#11
Rossella Cianci, Pietro D'Addabbo, Giovanni Gambassi, Serena Lolli, Eliseo Serone, Alessandro Rizzi, Dario Pitocco, Franco Pandolfi, Domenico Frezza
AIM: To investigate the association of alleles of the 3' immunoglobulin heavy-chain regulatory region 1 (3'RR-1) enhancer hs1.2 in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Eighty-one patients with T1D [among which 12 had concomitant coeliac disease (CD) and 25 an autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD)] were compared to 248 healthy individuals. All subjects were recruited from the same geographical area. Blood samples were collected from all patients and a nested PCR was performed to amplify the core of the 3'RR-1 and detect the alleles of the hs1...
February 13, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441300/trauma-induced-focal-nodular-mucinoses-a-rare-entity
#12
Gunjan Verma, Pooja A Mrig, R K Gautam, Purnima Malhotra
Cutaneous mucinoses refer to disorders with abnormal accumulation of mucin in the skin. Mucin is an amorphous material that is a part of the extracellular matrix in dermis. Cutaneous mucinoses could be primary or secondary. The latter is associated with systemic disorders such as autoimmune diseases, diabetes mellitus, paraproteinemia, or altered thyroid function. Here, we report an adult female patient with trauma-induced cutaneous focal nodular mucinoses on left-sided scapular region. Histology showed replacement of collagen bundles by mucinous deposits in superficial and mid-dermis...
January 2018: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441167/is-this-a-worrisome-red-eye-episcleritis-in-the-primary-care-setting
#13
Amr Salama, Arwa Elsheikh, Richard Alweis
Episcleritis is the inflammation of the thin, loose, highly vascular connective tissue layer that lies between the conjunctiva and sclera. Incidence is less than 1/1000. It is more common in women and those between 40 and 50 years of age. Most cases are idiopathic. It is classified into simple and nodular. Most attacks resolve within 1-3 months. The nodular type tends to be more recurrent and painful. It presents with acute onset of redness, lacrimation, and photophobia. The diagnosis of is essentially clinical, and eye pain or tenderness should raise the concern for scleritis...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441165/propylthiouracil-induced-anca-negative-cutaneous-small-vessel-vasculitis
#14
Aliaksandr Trusau, Michael L Brit
Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a commonly used medication for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. PTU is known to cause different adverse reactions including autoimmune syndromes. PTU-induced autoimmune syndromes can be classified into drug-induced lupus or drug-induced vasculitis. Differential diagnoses could be very challenging. PTU-induced vasculitis is more common than PTU-induced lupus, and has a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. Usually it is limited to the skin in a form of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, but may also affect organs including kidneys and lungs...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441072/fatal-necrotizing-encephalopathy-after-treatment-with-nivolumab-for-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Markus Leitinger, Mihael V Varosanec, Slaven Pikija, Romana E Wass, Dave Bandke, Serge Weis, Michael Studnicka, Susanne Grinzinger, Mark R McCoy, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are antibodies, which enhance cellular and humoral immune responses and are approved for the treatment of various tumors. Immune-related adverse events (irAE) involving different organs and systems are, however, among the side-effects. Recent reports of severe persistent neurological deficits and even fatal cases underpin the need for better understanding of the exact pathomechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. To our knowledge, we report the first biopsy-proven case of fatal necrotizing encephalopathy after treatment with nivolumab...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441039/metastatic-burned-out-seminoma-causing-neurological-paraneoplastic-syndrome-not-quite-burned-out
#16
Yuval Freifeld, Payal Kapur, Ritika Chitkara, Francesca Lee, Pravin Khemani, Aditya Bagrodia
A 44-year-old man presented with cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis and was ultimately diagnosed with metastatic germ cell neoplasm resulting from a "burned out" primary testicular tumor. The patient had progressive ataxia, leading to a thorough investigation for infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, and malignant causes of acquired cerebellar ataxia that revealed no significant findings. Testicular sonography demonstrated a possible right testicular lesion that was not confirmed on radical inguinal orchiectomy...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440961/acute-pancreatitis-during-glp-1-receptor-agonist-treatment-a-case-report
#17
Bogdan Augustin Chis, Daniela Fodor
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are the newest treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM). These drugs can down-regulate fasting glucose more than oral drugs and lead to more constant glucose levels compared to regular insulin. Acute pancreatitis is a serious condition that may have a fatal outcome. It has been shown that long term and high doses of GLP-1RA can cause pancreatic changes in animals, but no connection has been proven in humans. We present the case of a 67 years old man with DM treated with oral drugs for 10 years until 3 months before, when GLP-1RA was added...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440848/ominous-comorbidities-small-ventricular-septal-defect-and-warm-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia
#18
Elaheh Malakan Rad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440643/dissection-and-function-of-autoimmunity-associated-tnfaip3-a20-gene-enhancers-in-humanized-mouse-models
#19
Upneet K Sokhi, Mark P Liber, Laura Frye, Sungho Park, Kyuho Kang, Tania Pannellini, Baohong Zhao, Rada Norinsky, Lionel B Ivashkiv, Shiaoching Gong
Enhancers regulate gene expression and have been linked with disease pathogenesis. Little is known about enhancers that regulate human disease-associated genes in primary cells relevant for pathogenesis. Here we use BAC transgenics and genome editing to dissect, in vivo and in primary immune cells, enhancers that regulate human TNFAIP3, which encodes A20 and is linked with autoimmune diseases. A20 expression is dependent on a topologically associating subdomain (sub-TAD) that harbors four enhancers, while another >20 enhancers in the A20 locus are redundant...
February 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440425/bryostatin-1-alleviates-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Michael D Kornberg, Matthew D Smith, Hasti Atashi Shirazi, Peter A Calabresi, Solomon H Snyder, Paul M Kim
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder targeting the central nervous system (CNS). The relapsing-remitting phase of MS is largely driven by peripheral activation of autoreactive T-helper (Th) 1 and Th17 lymphocytes. In contrast, compartmentalized inflammation within the CNS, including diffuse activation of innate myeloid cells, characterizes the progressive phase of MS, the most debilitating phase that currently lacks satisfactory treatments. Recently, bryostatin-1 (bryo-1), a naturally occurring, CNS-permeable compound with a favorable safety profile in humans, has been shown to act on antigen-presenting cells to promote differentiation of lymphocytes into Th2 cells, an action that might benefit Th1-driven inflammatory conditions such as MS...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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