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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772549/long-non-coding-rna-and-polycomb-an-intricate-partnership-in-cancer-biology
#1
Cyrinne Achour, Francesca Aguilo
High-throughput analyses have revealed that the vast majority of the transcriptome does not code for proteins. These non-translated transcripts, when larger than 200 nucleotides, are termed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and play fundamental roles in diverse cellular processes. LncRNAs are subject to dynamic chemical modification, adding another layer of complexity to our understanding of the potential roles that lncRNAs play in health and disease. Many lncRNAs regulate transcriptional programs by influencing the epigenetic state through direct interactions with chromatin-modifying proteins...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749381/effect-of-bmi1-over-expression-on-gene-expression-in-adult-and-embryonic-murine-neural-stem-cells
#2
Mythily Ganapathi, Nathan C Boles, Carol Charniga, Steven Lotz, Melissa Campbell, Sally Temple, Randall H Morse
The ability of isolated neural stem cells (NSCs) to proliferate as neurospheres is indicative of their competence as stem cells, and depends critically on the polycomb group (PcG) member Bmi1: knockdown of Bmi1 results in defective proliferation and self-renewal of isolated NSCs, whereas overexpression of Bmi1 enhances these properties. Here we report genome-wide changes in gene expression in embryonic and adult NSCs (eNSCs and aNSCs) caused by overexpression of Bmi1. We find that genes whose expression is altered by perturbations in Bmi1 levels in NSCs are mostly distinct from those affected in other multipotent stem/progenitor cells, such as those from liver and lung, aside from a small core of common targets that is enriched for genes associated with cell migration and mobility...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736883/abnormalities-of-regional-homogeneity-and-its-correlation-with-clinical-symptoms-in-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#3
Xiaoxin Zhao, Jingjing Yao, Yiding Lv, Xinyue Zhang, Chongyang Han, Lijun Chen, Fangfang Ren, Zhuma Jin, Yuan Li, Yuxiu Sui
Several resting-state neuroimaging studies have indicated abnormal regional homogeneity (ReHo) in chronic schizophrenia; however, little work has been conducted to investigate naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Even less investigated is the association between ReHo measures and clinical symptom severity in naïve patients with FES. The current study evaluated ReHo alterations in whole brain, and assessed the correlations between ReHo measures and clinical variables in naïve patients with FES...
May 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705391/stability-of-benzylpenicillin-potassium-and-ampicillin-in-an-elastomeric-infusion-pump
#4
Tomomi Nakamura, Yuki Enoki, Shunsuke Uno, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Osamu Iketani, Naoki Hasegawa, Kazuaki Matsumoto
Some infectious diseases, such as infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and abscesses, require treatment with long-term intravenous antimicrobial treatment. Therefore, the patient is required to stay in the hospital to receive therapy, which lowers their quality of life. Establishing an outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) by continuous infusion pump is desired in Japan to overcome these issues. However, the 24-h stability of antimicrobial agents dissolved in infusion solutions is unclear. Thus, we investigated the stability of antimicrobial agents in five different infusion solutions in a clinical setting...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677590/generation-of-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-from-urinary-cells-of-a-patient-with-primary-congenital-glaucoma-using-integration-free-sendai-technology
#5
Jingxue Zhang, Shen Wu, Man Hu, Qian Liu
We have generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line derived from urinary cells of a 10years old patient with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). The cells were reprogrammed with the human OSKM transcription factors using the Sendai-virus delivery system and shown to have full differentiation potential. The line is available and registered in the human pluripotent stem cell registry as BIOi001-A.
April 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675390/childhood-glaucoma-profile-in-dakahelia-egypt-a-retrospective-study
#6
Tharwat H Mokbel, Eman M El Hefney, Sherein M Hagras, Ahmed A ALNagdy, Amani E Badawi, Manal A Kasem, Shereen M El Shaer
AIM: To analyze childhood glaucoma regarding its demographics, presentations, different causes and surgical modalities used among patients in Dakahelia and to apply the Childhood Glaucoma Research Network (CGRN) classification retrospectively to evaluate its convenience. METHODS: A retrospective study in which the medical files of all glaucoma patients <16 years old presented to Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Mansoura University from 2014 to 2017, were retrieved and analyzed...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669515/compositional-and-mutational-rate-heterogeneity-in-mitochondrial-genomes-and-its-effect-on-the-phylogenetic-inferences-of-cimicomorpha-hemiptera-heteroptera
#7
Huanhuan Yang, Teng Li, Kai Dang, Wenjun Bu
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial genome (mt-genome) data can potentially return artefactual relationships in the higher-level phylogenetic inference of insects due to the biases of accelerated substitution rates and compositional heterogeneity. Previous studies based on mt-genome data alone showed a paraphyly of Cimicomorpha (Insecta, Hemiptera) due to the positions of the families Tingidae and Reduviidae rather than the monophyly that was supported based on morphological characters, morphological and molecular combined data and large scale molecular datasets...
April 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667247/the-nuclear-factor-constans-complex-antagonizes-polycomb-repression-to-de-repress-flowering-locus-t-expression-in-response-to-inductive-long-days-in-arabidopsis
#8
Xiao Luo, Zheng Gao, Yizhong Wang, Zhijuan Chen, Wenju Zhang, Jirong Huang, Hao Yu, Yuehui He
Many plants sense the seasonal cues, day length or photoperiod changes, to align the timing of the developmental transition to flowering with changing seasons for reproductive success. Inductive day lengths through the photoperiod pathway induces the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) or FT relatives that encode a major mobile florigen to promote flowering. In Arabidopsis thaliana, under inductive long days the photoperiod pathway output CONSTANS (CO) accumulates toward the end of the day and associates with the B and C subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) to form the NF-CO complex that acts to promote FT expression near dusk, whereas Polycomb group (PcG) proteins function to silence FT expression...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665352/epigenetic-and-non-epigenetic-functions-of-the-rybp-protein-in-development-and-disease-short-title-the-rybp-drybp-protein
#9
REVIEW
Carolina J Simoes da Silva, Rocío Simón, Ana Busturia
Over the last decades significant advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling organismal development. Among these mechanisms the knowledge gained on the roles played by epigenetic regulation of gene expression is extensive. Epigenetic control of transcription requires the function of protein complexes whose specific biochemical activities, such as histone mono-ubiquitylation, affect chromatin compaction and, consequently activation or repression of gene expression. Complexes composed of Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins promote transcriptional silencing while those containing trithorax group (trxG) proteins promote transcriptional activation...
April 14, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661849/feedback-regulation-by-antagonistic-epigenetic-factors-potentially-maintains-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#10
Devendran A Sadasivam, Der-Hwa Huang
Polycomb group (PcG) repressors confer epigenetically heritable silencing on key regulatory genes through histone H3 trimethylation on lysine 27 (H3K27me3). How the silencing state withstands antagonistic activities from co-expressed trithorax group (trxG) activators is unclear. Using overexpression of Trx H3K4 methylase to perturb the silenced state, we find a dynamic process triggered in a stepwise fashion to neutralize the inductive impacts from excess Trx. Shortly after Trx overexpression, there are global increases in H3K4 trimethylation and RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, marking active transcription...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661451/ischemia-with-preconditioning-in-wistar-rats-maintains-mitochondrial-respiration-even-with-mild-hepatocellular-disturbance
#11
R R Tártaro, G L Jorge, A H Dianin, C A F Escanhoela, I F S F Boin
INTRODUCTION: In hepatectomy or liver transplantation, preconditioning is a procedure indicated to protect the organ from ischemia-reperfusion injury (I-R). OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of preconditioning after hepatic I-R in Wistar rats, through mitochondrial respiration, liver histology, and profile. METHOD: Twenty male Wistar rats, weighing on average 307.1 g, were anesthetized with sodium thiopental (25 mg/kg) intravenously and xylazine hydrochloride (30 mg/kg) intramuscularly...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660468/ethyl-acetate-fraction-of-trichilia-catigua-protects-against-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#12
Jacqueline Godinho, Anacharis Babeto de Sa-Nakanishi, Lucas Stafuza Moreira, Rúbia Maria Weffort de Oliveira, Claudia Hitomi Huzita, João Carlos P Mello, André Oliveira Fernandes da Silva, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Isolde Santos Previdelli, Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro, Humberto Milani
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Trichilia catigua A. Juss (Meliaceae) preparations have been used in folk medicine to alleviate fatigue, stress, and improve memory. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and in vitro neuroprotective effects have been observed in animals. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) leads to severe neuropsychological deficits that are largely associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and neurodegeneration. We reported previously that an ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of T...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660180/a-chromatin-loop-represses-wuschel-expression-in-arabidopsis
#13
Lin Guo, Xiuwei Cao, Yuhao Liu, Jun Li, Yongpeng Li, Dongming Li, Ke Zhang, Caixia Gao, Aiwu Dong, Xigang Liu
WUSCHEL (WUS) is critical for plant meristem maintenance and determinacy in Arabidopsis, and the regulation of its spatiotemporal expression patterns is complex. We previously found that AGAMOUS (AG), a key MADS-domain transcription factor in floral organ identity and floral meristem determinacy, can directly suppress WUS expression through the recruitment of the Polycomb group (PcG) protein TERMINAL FLOWER2 (TFL2, also known as LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, LHP1) at the WUS locus. However, the mechanism by which WUS is repressed remains unclear...
April 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660015/structural-basis-of-dna-target-recognition-by-the-b3-domain-of-arabidopsis-epigenome-reader-val1
#14
Giedrius Sasnauskas, Kotryna Kauneckaite, Virginijus Siksnys
Arabidopsis thaliana requires a prolonged period of cold exposure during winter to initiate flowering in a process termed vernalization. Exposure to cold induces epigenetic silencing of the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) gene by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins. A key role in this epigenetic switch is played by transcriptional repressors VAL1 and VAL2, which specifically recognize Sph/RY DNA sequences within FLC via B3 DNA binding domains, and mediate recruitment of PcG silencing machinery. To understand the structural mechanism of site-specific DNA recognition by VAL1, we have solved the crystal structure of VAL1 B3 domain (VAL1-B3) bound to a 12 bp oligoduplex containing the canonical Sph/RY DNA sequence 5'-CATGCA-3'/5'-TGCATG-3'...
April 6, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643463/diagnostic-capacity-of-sd-oct-segmented-ganglion-cell-complex-versus-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-analysis-for-congenital-glaucoma
#15
Laura Morales-Fernandez, Maria Jimenez-Santos, Jose M Martinez-de-la-Casa, Ruben Sanchez-Jean, Maria Nieves, Federico Saenz-Frances, Sofia Garcia-Saenz, Lucia Perucho, Rosario Gomez-de-Liaño, Julian Garcia-Feijoo
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) analysis versus segmented ganglion cell complex analysis both by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in children with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). METHODS: Participants were 40 children diagnosed with PCG and 60 healthy children. Ophthalmological data collected (for one eye per child) were cup-disc ratio (C/D) and axial length (AL). SD-OCT with automated segmentation was used to measure the thicknesses and volumes of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL)...
April 12, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626667/the-effects-of-il-1%C3%AE-il-8-g-csf-and-tnf-%C3%AE-as-molecular-adjuvant-on-the-immune-response-to-an-e-tarda-subunit-vaccine-in-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#16
Ming Guo, Xiaoqian Tang, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
Cytokines play vital roles in mounting immune responses and activating host defense network. In this study, the expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 (pcN3) encoding four flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8 or G-CSF (pcIL-1β, pcTNF-α, pcIL-8 and pcG-CSF) were successfully constructed, and their adjuvant potential on an Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) subunit vaccine OmpV (rOmpV) were comparatively analyzed in vaccinated flounder model. Results revealed that flounder vaccinated with rOmpV plus pcIL-1β, pcIL-8 or pcG-CSF produced the relative percent survivals (RPS) of 71%, 65% and 49% respectively, which were higher than that in flounder vaccinated with rOmpV plus pcTNF-α (39%) or pcN3 (36%, the control group)...
April 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624568/resveratrol-attenuates-lipopolysaccharides-lps-induced-inhibition-of-osteoblast-differentiation-in-mc3t3-e1-cells
#17
Jun Ma, Zhu Wang, Jianquan Zhao, WuJun Miao, TianWen Ye, Aimin Chen
BACKGROUND LPS-inhibited osteoblastic differentiation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis. Thus, searching for drugs that affect LPS-mediated osteoblastic differentiation may be crucial in developing therapies for osteomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role and mechanisms of resveratrol, a natural polyphenol present in red wine, on LPS-inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Cell viability was measured by MMT assay. Mitochondrial ATP levels, membrane potential, and superoxide production were measured to evaluate the effects of LPS and resveratrol on mitochondrial functions in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells...
April 6, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620006/electroclinical-and-radiological-observation-of-dysfunctional-zones-in-a-patient-with-neurosyphilis
#18
Katsuya Sakai, Shogo Yazawa, Akiko Sugimoto, Koichi Nakao, Kazuhito Tsuruta, Eiji Ochiai, Yukiko Suzuki, Masao Matsuhashi
We report a 33-year-old Japanese man who suffered from repetitive generalized tonic-clonic seizures which were medically intractable. Neurosyphilis was serologically diagnosed in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and penicillin G (PcG) was consequently effective. The EEG during PcG pre-treatment showed frequent right occipital spikes and right frontocentral slow waves, which disappeared after treatment. During pre-treatment, positron emission tomography with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose and Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography revealed occipital hypermetabolism and hyperperfusion ("hot" area) and fronto-temporo-parietal hypometabolism and hypoperfusion ("cool" area) over the right hemisphere...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619865/mechanotransduction-nuclear-architecture-and-epigenetics-in-emery-dreifuss-muscular-dystrophy-tous-pour-un-un-pour-tous
#19
Bianchi Andrea, Manti Pierluigi Giuseppe, Lucini Federica, Lanzuolo Chiara
The alteration of the several roles that Lamin A/C plays in the mammalian cell leads to a broad spectrum of pathologies that - all together - are named laminopathies. Among those, the Emery Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EDMD) is of particular interest as, despite the several known mutations of Lamin A/C, the genotype-phenotype correlation still remains poorly understood; this suggests that the epigenetic background of patients might play an important role during the time course of the disease. Historically, both a mechanical role of Lamin A/C and a regulative one have been suggested as the driving force of Laminopathies; however, those two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive...
April 5, 2018: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590617/regulation-of-cellular-senescence-by-polycomb-chromatin-modifiers-through-distinct-dna-damage-and-histone-methylation-dependent-pathways
#20
Takahiro Ito, Yee Voan Teo, Shane A Evans, Nicola Neretti, John M Sedivy
Polycomb group (PcG) factors maintain facultative heterochromatin and mediate many important developmental and differentiation processes. EZH2, a PcG histone H3 lysine-27 methyltransferase, is repressed in senescent cells. We show here that downregulation of EZH2 promotes senescence through two distinct mechanisms. First, depletion of EZH2 in proliferating cells rapidly initiates a DNA damage response prior to a reduction in the levels of H3K27me3 marks. Second, the eventual loss of H3K27me3 induces p16 (CDKN2A) gene expression independent of DNA damage and potently activates genes of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
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