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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886392/deregulated-expression-of-ezh2-in-congenital-brainstem-disconnection
#1
P G Barth, E Aronica, S Fox, K Fluiter, M A J Weterman, A Poretti, D C Miller, E Boltshauser, B Harding, M Santi, F Baas
Congenital brainstem disconnection (CBSD) is an enigmatic embryo-fetal defect presenting as (sub)total absence of a segment between mesencephalon and lower brainstem. Rostro-caudal limits of the defect vary while the basal pons is always involved and the cerebellum is globally hypoplastic. A recent update and review[1] lists 14 cases, including 3 brain autopsy studies[1-3]. Necrosis and glial- or inflammatory reactions were absent. Inferior olivary nuclei were small or absent, pontine nuclei depleted, and the cerebellar dentate nuclei dysplastic...
November 25, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881472/an-unexpected-regulatory-cascade-governs-a-core-function-of-the-drosophila-prc1-chromatin-protein-su-z-2
#2
Son C Nguyen, Stephanie Yu, Elaine Oberlick, Chao-Ting Wu
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are major chromatin-bound factors that can read and modify chromatin states to maintain gene silencing throughout development. Here we focus on a close homolog of the PcG protein Posterior sex combs in order to better understand how these proteins affect regulation. This homolog, called Suppressor 2 of zeste, or Su(z)2 is comprised of two regions: the N-terminal "homology region" (HR), which serves as a hub for protein interactions, and the C-terminal region (CTR), which is believed to harbor the core activity of compacting chromatin...
November 23, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869105/an-open-access-database-for-the-evaluation-of-heart-sound-algorithms
#3
Chengyu Liu, David Springer, Qiao Li, Benjamin Moody, Ricardo Abad Juan, Francisco J Chorro, Francisco Castells, José Millet Roig, Ikaro Silva, Alistair E W Johnson, Zeeshan Syed, Samuel E Schmidt, Chrysa D Papadaniil, Leontios Hadjileontiadis, Hosein Naseri, Ali Moukadem, Alain Dieterlen, Christian Brandt, Hong Tang, Maryam Samieinasab, Mohammad Reza Samieinasab, Reza Sameni, Roger G Mark, Gari D Clifford
In the past few decades, analysis of heart sound signals (i.e. the phonocardiogram or PCG), especially for automated heart sound segmentation and classification, has been widely studied and has been reported to have the potential value to detect pathology accurately in clinical applications. However, comparative analyses of algorithms in the literature have been hindered by the lack of high-quality, rigorously validated, and standardized open databases of heart sound recordings. This paper describes a public heart sound database, assembled for an international competition, the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology (CinC) Challenge 2016...
November 21, 2016: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869042/invited-review-efficient-computation-strategies-in-genomic-selection
#4
I Misztal, A Legarra
The purpose of this study is review and evaluation of computing methods used in genomic selection for animal breeding. Commonly used models include SNP BLUP with extensions (BayesA, etc), genomic BLUP (GBLUP) and single-step GBLUP (ssGBLUP). These models are applied for genomewide association studies (GWAS), genomic prediction and parameter estimation. Solving methods include finite Cholesky decomposition possibly with a sparse implementation, and iterative Gauss-Seidel (GS) or preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG), the last two methods possibly with iteration on data...
November 21, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853675/the-effects-of-valsartan-on-renal-glutathione-peroxidase-expression-in-alleviation-of-cyclosporine-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#5
Sina Raeisi, Amir Ghorbanihaghjo, Hassan Argani, Siavoush Dastmalchi, Babollah Ghasemi, Teimour Ghazizadeh, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi, Nasrin Bargahi, Mahboob Nemati, Ali Mota, Amir Mansour Vatankhah
Introduction: Nephrotoxicity as a side effect caused by the immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine-A (CsA), can be a major problem in transplant medicine. Oxidative stress may play an important role in the CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. It has been shown that the antihypertensive drug, valsartan (Val), has also renoprotective effects but, its molecular mechanism is largely unknown. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the Val effect in the alleviation of CsA nephrotoxicity via probable renal glutathione peroxidase (GPx) upregulation and oxidative stress decrease...
2016: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848912/auxin-production-in-the-endosperm-drives-seed-coat-development-in-arabidopsis
#6
Duarte D Figueiredo, Rita A Batista, Pawel J Roszak, Lars Hennig, Claudia Köhler
In flowering plants, seed development is initiated by the fusion of the maternal egg and central cells with two paternal sperm cells, leading to the formation of embryo and endosperm, respectively. The fertilization products are surrounded by the maternally derived seed coat, whose development prior to fertilization is blocked by epigenetic regulators belonging to the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein family. Here we show that fertilization of the central cell results in the production of auxin and most likely its export to the maternal tissues, which drives seed coat development by removing PcG function...
November 16, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837089/the-arabidopsis-polycomb-repressive-complex-1-prc1-components-atbmi1a-b-and-c-impact-gene-networks-throughout-all-stages-of-plant-development
#7
Wiam Merini, Francisco J Romero-Campero, Angeles Gomez-Zambrano, Yue Zhou, Franziska Turck, Myriam Calonje
PcG regulation in Arabidopsis is required to maintain cell differentiation and to allow developmental phase transitions. This is achieved by the activity of three PRC2s and the participation of a yet poorly defined PRC1. Previous results showed that apparent PRC1 components perform discrete roles during plant development, suggesting the existence of PRC1 variants; however, it is not clear in how many processes these components participate. We show that AtBMI1 proteins are required to promote all developmental phase transitions and to control cell proliferation during organ growth and development, expanding their proposed range of action...
November 9, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828034/accurate-feature-detection-for-out-of-focus-camera-calibration
#8
Yuwei Wang, Xiangcheng Chen, Jiayuan Tao, Keyi Wang, Mengchao Ma
For conventional camera calibration methods, well-focused images are necessary to detect features accurately. However, this requirement causes practical inconveniences to image acquisition for long- and short-distance photogrammetry. In this study, three active phase-shift circular grating (PCG) arrays are used as calibration patterns. The PCGs' centers are regarded as feature points that can be accurately extracted by ellipse fitting of 2π-phase points even though patterns are substantially blurred. In the experiments, Gaussian filters are utilized to blur pattern images, and different standard deviations are set for different fuzzy degrees...
October 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821251/effects-of-a-psychological-intervention-on-the-quality-of-life-of-obese-adolescents-under-a-multidisciplinary-treatment
#9
Camila R M Freitas, Thrudur Gunnarsdottir, Yara L Fidelix, Thiago R S Tenório, Mara C Lofrano-Prado, James O Hill, Wagner L Prado
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of multidisciplinary treatment with and without psychological counseling on obese adolescents' self-reported quality of life. METHODS: Seventy-six obese adolescents (15.87±1.53 y) were allocated into psychological counseling group (PCG; n=36) or control group (CG; n=40) for 12 weeks. All participants received the same supervised exercise training, nutritional and clinical counseling. Participants in PCG also received psychological counseling...
November 4, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820421/cyp1b1-mutations-in-individuals-with-primary-congenital-glaucoma-and-residing-in-denmark
#10
Karen Grønskov, Alba Redó-Riveiro, Lisbeth Sandfeld, Nathalie Zibrandtsen, Pernille Harris, Daniella Bach-Holm, Zeynep Tümer
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG OMIM 231300) can be caused by pathogenic sequence variations in cytochrome P450, subfamily 1, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1). The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of sequence variations in CYP1B1 in a cohort of individuals with PCG residing in Denmark. METHODS: The study included 37 unrelated individuals with PCG. Individuals were investigated for CYP1B1 mutations by Sanger sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products using BigDye terminators and capillary electrophoresis...
December 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819666/a-cis-cold-memory-element-and-a-trans-epigenome-reader-mediate-polycomb-silencing-of-flc-by-vernalization-in-arabidopsis
#11
Wenya Yuan, Xiao Luo, Zicong Li, Wannian Yang, Yizhong Wang, Rui Liu, Jiamu Du, Yuehui He
Some plants acquire competence to flower in spring after experiencing a seasonal temperature drop-winter cold, in a process termed vernalization. In Arabidopsis thaliana, prolonged exposure to cold induces epigenetic silencing of the potent floral repressor locus FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, and this silencing is stably maintained in subsequent growth and development upon return to warm temperatures. Here we show that a cis-regulatory DNA element in the nucleation region for PcG silencing at FLC and two homologous trans-acting epigenome readers, VAL1 and VAL2, control vernalization-mediated FLC silencing...
November 7, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813696/chromatin-changes-in-smarcal1-deficiency-a-hypothesis-for-the-gene-expression-alterations-of-schimke-immuno-osseous-dysplasia
#12
Marie Morimoto, Kunho Choi, Cornelius F Boerkoel, Kyoung Sang Cho
Mutations in SMARCAL1, which encodes a DNA annealing helicase with roles in DNA replication fork restart, DNA repair, and gene expression modulation, cause Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by skeletal dysplasia, renal disease, T-cell immunodeficiency, and arteriosclerosis. The clinical features of SIOD arise from pathological changes in gene expression; however, the underlying mechanism for these gene expression alterations remains unclear. We hypothesized that changes of the epigenome alter gene expression in SIOD...
November 4, 2016: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811080/fie-a-nuclear-prc2-protein-forms-cytoplasmic-complexes-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Moran Oliva, Yana Butenko, Tzung-Fu Hsieh, Ofir Hakim, Aviva Katz, Nechama I Smorodinsky, Daphna Michaeli, Robert L Fischer, Nir Ohad
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are evolutionarily conserved chromatin modifiers that regulate developmental pathways in plants. PcGs form nuclear multi-subunit Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRCs). The PRC2 complex mediates gene repression via methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3, which consequently leads to chromatin condensation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, several PRC2 complexes with different compositions were identified, each controlling a particular developmental program.The core subunit FIE is crucial for PRC2 function throughout the plant life cycle, yet accurate information on its spatial and temporal localization was absent...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807477/chromatin-proteins-and-rna-are-associated-with-dna-during-all-phases-of-mitosis
#14
Kathryn L Black, Svetlana Petruk, Tyler K Fenstermaker, Jacob W Hodgson, Jeffrey L Caplan, Hugh W Brock, Alexander Mazo
Mitosis brings about major changes to chromosome and nuclear structure. We used recently developed proximity ligation assay-based techniques to investigate the association with DNA of chromatin-associated proteins and RNAs in Drosophila embryos during mitosis. All groups of tested proteins, histone-modifying and chromatin-remodeling proteins and methylated histones remained in close proximity to DNA during all phases of mitosis. We also found that RNA transcripts are associated with DNA during all stages of mitosis...
2016: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803189/regulation-of-vegetative-phase-change-by-swi2-snf2-chromatin-remodeling-atpase-brahma
#15
Yunmin Xu, Changkui Guo, Bingying Zhou, Chenlong Li, Huasen Wang, Ben Zheng, Han Ding, Zhujun Zhu, Angela Peragine, Yuhai Cui, Scott Poethig, Gang Wu
Plants progress from a juvenile vegetative phase of development to an adult vegetative phase of development before they enter the reproductive phase. miR156 has been shown to be the master regulator of the juvenile-to-adult transition in plants. However, the mechanism of how miR156 is transcriptionally regulated still remains elusive. In a forward genetic screen, we identified that a mutation in the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA (BRM) exhibited an accelerated vegetative phase change phenotype by reducing the expression of miR156, which in turn caused a corresponding increase in the levels of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779350/adrenal-insufficiency-in-neonates-after-cardiac-surgery-with-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#16
Jack H Crawford, Matthew S Hull, Santiago Borasino, Brad L Steenwyk, Kristal M Hock, Kevin Wall, Jeffrey A Alten
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may lead to adrenal insufficiency (AI). Emerging evidence supports association of AI with morbidity after cardiac surgery. AIMS: The aim of this study was to define AI incidence in neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery with CPB and its association with intraoperative post-CPB outcomes. METHODS: Forty subjects enrolled in a prior randomized control trial who received preoperative methylprednisolone as part of our institutional neonatal bypass protocol were included...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777502/analysis-of-cyp1b1-in-pediatric-and-adult-glaucoma-and-other-ocular-phenotypes
#17
Linda M Reis, Rebecca C Tyler, Eric Weh, Kathryn E Hendee, Ariana Kariminejad, Omar Abdul-Rahman, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Melanie A Manning, Catherine A McCarty, Terrie E Kitchner, Deborah Costakos, Elena V Semina
PURPOSE: The CYP1B1 gene encodes an enzyme that is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Mutations in CYP1B1 have been mainly reported in recessive pediatric ocular phenotypes, such as primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) and congenital glaucoma with anterior segment dysgenesis (CG with ASD), with some likely pathogenic variants also identified in families affected with adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: We examined CYP1B1 in 158 pediatric patients affected with PCG (eight), CG with ASD (22), CG with other developmental ocular disorders (11), juvenile glaucoma with or without additional ocular anomalies (26), and ASD or other developmental ocular conditions without glaucoma (91); in addition, a large cohort of adult patients with POAG (193) and POAG-negative controls (288) was examined...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770241/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-trabala-vishnou-guttata-lepidoptera-lasiocampidae-and-the-related-phylogenetic-analyses
#18
Liuyu Wu, Xiao Xiong, Xuming Wang, Tianrong Xin, Jing Wang, Zhiwen Zou, Bin Xia
The bluish yellow lappet moth, Trabala vishnou guttata is an extraordinarily important pest in China. The complete mitochondrial genome is sequenced and determined firstly, which is based on traditional PCR amplification and primer walking methods with a length of 15,281 bp, including 13 protein-coding (PCG) genes, 22 transfer RNA (rRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (tRNA) genes, and an A + T-rich region. The gene order and orientation of the T. vishnou guttata mitogenome were identical to the other sequenced Lasiocampidae species...
December 2016: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764161/polycomb-protein-osfie2-affects-plant-height-and-grain-yield-in-rice
#19
Xianbo Liu, Xiangjin Wei, Zhonghua Sheng, Guiai Jiao, Shaoqing Tang, Ju Luo, Peisong Hu
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2) protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759699/a-case-of-plasma-cell-granuloma-located-on-the-gingiva
#20
Neslihan Akdoğan, Başak Yalçn, Güneş Gür Aksoy, Elvan Evrim Tuna, Devrim Tuba Ünal
Plasma cell granuloma (PCG) is an uncommon benign tumor of unknown etiology, primarily located in the lungs. We report a case of PCG on the gingiva mimicking benign and malignant tumors in a 56-year-old woman. Histopathological examination revealed a relatively sharp circumscribed inflammatory cell infiltration under the mucosa-containing plasma cells, predominantly those including Russell bodies. Plasma cells are stained by CD138 immunohistochemistry. Polyclonal status of the lesion was confirmed by kappa and lambda light chaining...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
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