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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717045/multitasking-by-polycomb-response-elements
#1
Elizabeth S Jaensch, Sharmistha Kundu, Robert E Kingston
Development requires the expression of master regulatory genes necessary to specify a cell lineage. Equally significant is the stable and heritable silencing of master regulators that would specify alternative lineages. This regulated gene silencing is carried out by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, which must be correctly recruited only to the subset of their target loci that requires lineage-specific silencing. A recent study by Erceg and colleagues (pp. 590-602) expands on a key aspect of that targeting: The same DNA elements that recruit PcG complexes to a repressed locus also encode transcriptional enhancers that function in different lineages where that locus must be expressed...
June 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712876/drosophila-sce-dring-e3-ligase-inhibits-apoptosis-in-a-dp53-dependent-manner
#2
Rocío Simón, Carolina J Simoes da Silva, Sol Fereres, Ana Busturia
The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins control developmental gene silencing and are highly conserved between flies and mammals. PcG proteins function by controlling post-translational modification of histones, such as ubiquitylation, which impacts chromatin compaction and thus gene transcription. Changes in PcG cellular levels have drastic effects on organismal development and are involved in the generation of human pathologies such as cancer. However, the mechanisms controlling their levels of expression and their physiological effects are only partially understood...
July 13, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711634/role-of-epigenetic-modulation-in-cancer-stem-cell-fate
#3
REVIEW
Abhijeet Deshmukh, Mudra Binju, Frank Arfuso, Philip Newsholme, Arun Dharmarajan
A sub-population of the tumor micro-environment consists of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are responsible for the initiation and recurrence of cancer. Recently, epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodelling have been found to be involved in inducing epigenetic factors in CSCs. Most of these processes, such as DNA methylation, generally occur in the genome that is rich in Cytosine-Guanine repeat sequences, also known as CpG islands, which are distributed throughout the human genome...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706942/evaluation-of-the-sealing-ability-of-three-obturation-techniques-using-a-glucose-leakage-test
#4
Katarzyna Olczak, Halina Pawlicka
The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of three different canal filling techniques. Sixty-four roots of extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared using ProTaper® rotary instruments. The specimens were then randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 16) and 2 control groups (n = 8). The root canals were filled using cold lateral compaction (CLC group), continuous wave condensation technique using the Elements Obturation Unit® (EOU group), and ProTaper obturators (PT group)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702745/quercetin-reverses-altered-energy-metabolism-in-the-heart-of-rats-receiving-adriamycin-chemotherapy
#5
Naglaa Zakaria, Samah R Khalil, Ashraf Awad, Ghada M Khairy
The primary aim of this study was to find the potential modulatory roles of quercetin (QUE) against Adriamycin (ADR)-induced cardiotoxicity. A total of 50 rats were assigned to five groups: a control group, an ADR-treated group, a QUE-treated group, a prophylaxis-cotreated group, and a therapeutic-cotreated group, respectively. QUE exhibited a significant cardioprotective effect, particularly, when it was administered prior to and concurrently with ADR treatment (prophylaxis-cotreated group). This effect was biochemically evident by the significant decreases in the serum levels of myocardial injury biomarkers such as troponin, creatine kinase-myocardium bound, and creatine phosphokinase...
July 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698559/repression-of-abd-b-by-polycomb-is-critical-for-cell-identity-maintenance-in-adult-drosophila-testis
#6
Shuo Zhang, Chenyu Pan, Xiangdong Lv, Wei Wu, Hao Chen, Wenqing Wu, Hailong Wu, Lei Zhang, Yun Zhao
Hox genes play a fundamental role in regulating animal development. However, less is known about their functions on homeostasis maintenance in adult stem cells. Here, we report that the repression of an important axial Hox gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), in cyst stem cells (CySCs) is essential for the homeostasis and cell identity maintenance in the adult Drosophila testis. Derepression of Abd-B in CySCs disrupts the proper self-renewal of both germline stem cells (GSCs) and CySCs, and leads to an excessive expansion of early stage somatic cells, which originate from both lineages...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688483/imaging-of-heart-acoustic-based-on-the-sub-space-methods-using-a-microphone-array
#7
Hanie Moghaddasi, Farshad Almasganj, Arezoo Zoroufian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death around the world. Phonocardiogram (PCG) is an important bio-signal which represents the acoustic activity of heart, typically without any spatiotemporal information of the involved acoustic sources. The aim of this study is to analyze the PCG by employing a microphone array by which the heart internal sound sources could be localized, too. METHOD: In this paper, it is intended to propose a modality by which the locations of the active sources in the heart could also be investigated, during a cardiac cycle...
July 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679998/deregulated-polycomb-complex-function-in-the-pathogenesis-of-mds
#8
Atsushi Iwama
Epigenetic regulation holds a key role in gene expression due to its modulation of the structure and function of chromatin. Notably, epigenetic dysregulation is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. Polycomb group (PcG) genes encoding histone modifier proteins are representative epigenetic genes that regulate a variety of cellular functions, including self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation of stem cells. Surprisingly, many PcG genes are targeted by deletions or somatic mutations or both in a number of hematological malignancies, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672805/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-lung-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Joëlle Roche, Robert M Gemmill, Harry A Drabkin
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. It is an aggressive and devastating cancer because of metastasis triggered by enhanced migration and invasion, and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental developmental process that is reactivated in wound healing and a variety of diseases including cancer where it promotes migration/invasion and metastasis, resistance to treatment, and generation and maintenance of cancer stem cells. The induction of EMT is associated with reprogramming of the epigenome...
June 24, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665982/the-sertad-protein-taranis-plays-a-role-in-polycomb-mediated-gene-repression
#10
Pranabananda Dutta, Willis X Li
The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been implicated in epigenetic transcriptional repression in development, stem cell maintenance and in cancer. The chromodomain protein Polycomb (Pc) is a key member of the PcG. Pc binds to the histone mark, trimethylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), to initiate transcriptional repression. How PcG proteins are recruited to target loci is not fully understood. Here we show that the Drosophila SERTA domain protein Taranis (Tara) is involved in transcriptional regulation of Pc target genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636881/mitochondrial-genome-of-helice-tientsinensis-brachyura-grapsoidea-varunidae-gene-rearrangements-and-higher-level-phylogeny-of-the-brachyura
#11
Zhao-Zhe Xin, Yu-Liu, Dai-Zhen Zhang, Zheng-Fei Wang, Hua-Bin Zhang, Bo-Ping Tang, Chun-Lin Zhou, Xin-Yue Chai, Qiu-Ning Liu
The mitochondrial genome (mt genome) provides important information for understanding molecular evolution and phylogeny. The further understand the molecular evolution and phylogeny of Helice tientsinensis, the complete mt genome was determined. It is 16,212bp long and includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region. The genome composition of H. tientsinensis was highly A+T biased 69.0% and showed negative AT skew (-0.017) and GC skew (-0.289). One PCG, all rRNAs and 12 of the tRNAs appeared to be rearranged with respect to the pancrustacean ground pattern gene order...
June 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624581/polygenic-risk-for-depression-and-the-neural-correlates-of-working-memory-in-healthy-subjects
#12
Dilara Yüksel, Bruno Dietsche, Andreas J Forstner, Stephanie H Witt, Robert Maier, Marcella Rietschel, Carsten Konrad, Markus M Nöthen, Udo Dannlowski, Bernhard T Baune, Tilo Kircher, Axel Krug
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients show impairments of cognitive functioning such as working memory (WM), and furthermore alterations during WM-fMRI tasks especially in frontal and parietal brain regions. The calculation of a polygenic risk score (PRS) can be used to describe the genetic influence on MDD, hence imaging genetic studies aspire to combine both genetics and neuroimaging data to identify the influence of genetic factors on brain functioning. We aimed to detect the effect of MDD-PRS on brain activation during a WM task measured with fMRI and expect healthy individuals with a higher PRS to be more resembling to MDD patients...
June 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624326/randomized-trial-on-illuminated-microcatheter-circumferential-trabeculotomy-versus-conventional-trabeculotomy-in-congenital-glaucoma
#13
Jyoti Shakrawal, Shveta Bali, Talvir Sidhu, Saurabh Verma, Ramanjit Sihota, Tanuj Dada
PURPOSE: To compare one year outcomes of illuminated microcatheter-assisted circumferential trabeculotomy(IMCT) vs conventional partial trabeculotomy(CPT) for Primary Congenital Glaucom (PCG). DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial METHODS: Forty eyes of 31 patients with unilateral or bilateral primary congenital glaucoma aged less than two years were randomized to undergo IMCT (20 eyes) or CPT (20 eyes). Primary outcome measure was IOP reduction. The success criterion was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≤ 12 mm Hg without and with anti-glaucoma medications (absolute success and qualified success respectively)...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622530/brain-network-dynamics-in-the-human-articulatory-loop
#14
Masaaki Nishida, Anna Korzeniewska, Nathan E Crone, Goichiro Toyoda, Yasuo Nakai, Noa Ofen, Erik C Brown, Eishi Asano
OBJECTIVE: The articulatory loop is a fundamental component of language function, involved in the short-term buffer of auditory information followed by its vocal reproduction. We characterized the network dynamics of the human articulatory loop, using invasive recording and stimulation. METHODS: We measured high-gamma activity70-110 Hz recorded intracranially when patients with epilepsy either only listened to, or listened to and then reproduced two successive tones by humming...
August 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620713/angiopoietin-receptor-tek-interacts-with-cyp1b1-in-primary-congenital-glaucoma
#15
Meha Kabra, Wei Zhang, Sonika Rathi, Anil K Mandal, Sirisha Senthil, Goutham Pyatla, Muralidhar Ramappa, Seema Banerjee, Konegari Shekhar, Srinivas Marmamula, Asha L Mettla, Inderjeet Kaur, Rohit C Khanna, Hemant Khanna, Subhabrata Chakrabarti
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a severe autosomal recessive ocular disorder associated with considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Recently, rare heterozygous alleles in the angiopoietin receptor-encoding gene TEK were implicated in PCG. We undertook this study to ascertain the second mutant allele in a large cohort (n = 337) of autosomal recessive PCG cases that carried heterozygous TEK mutations. Our investigations revealed 12 rare heterozygous missense mutations in TEK by targeted sequencing...
August 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612725/-the-biological-complexity-of-polycomb-group-proteins-the-case-of-ezh2
#16
Myriam Koubi, Christian Chabannon, Estelle Duprez
Polycomb Group proteins (PcG) are repressive epigenetic factors essential for development and involved in numerous cancer processes, yet their modes of action and recruitment to specific genomic loci are not fully understood. Recently, it has been shown that the PcG protein recruitment is a dynamic process, contrary to what was foreseen in the initial hierarchical model. In addition, EZH2, a key PcG protein, can be associated to transcribed genes, challenging the former function of PcG proteins as transcriptional repressors...
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608457/potential-therapeutic-interventions-for-chronic-kidney-disease-associated-sarcopenia-via-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#17
Yuki Enoki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Riho Arake, Rui Fujimura, Kana Ishiodori, Tadashi Imafuku, Kento Nishida, Ryusei Sugimoto, Saori Nagao, Shigeyuki Miyamura, Yu Ishima, Motoko Tanaka, Kazutaka Matsushita, Hirotaka Komaba, Masafumi Fukagawa, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients experience skeletal muscle wasting and decreased exercise endurance. Our previous study demonstrated that indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, accelerates skeletal muscle atrophy. The purpose of this study was to examine the issue of whether IS causes mitochondria dysfunction and IS-targeted intervention using AST-120, which inhibits IS accumulation, or mitochondria-targeted intervention using L-carnitine or teneligliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor which retains mitochondria function and alleviates skeletal muscle atrophy and muscle endurance in chronic kidney disease mice...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602921/the-shared-neural-basis-of-music-and-language
#18
Mengxia Yu, Miao Xu, Xueting Li, Zhencai Chen, Yiying Song, Jia Liu
Human musical ability is proposed to play a key phylogenetical role in the evolution of language, and the similarity of hierarchical structure in music and language has led to considerable speculation about their shared mechanisms. While behavioral and electrophysioglocial studies have revealed associations between music and linguistic abilities, results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on their relations are contradictory, possibly because these studies usually treat music or language as single entities without breaking down to their components...
June 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602614/mir-203-interplays-with-polycomb-repressive-complexes-to-regulate-the-proliferation-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#19
Pei-Pei Liu, Gang-Bin Tang, Ya-Jie Xu, Yu-Qiang Zeng, Shuang-Feng Zhang, Hong-Zhen Du, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
The polycomb repressive complexes 1 (PRC1) and 2 (PRC2) are two distinct polycomb group (PcG) proteins that maintain the stable silencing of specific sets of genes through chromatin modifications. Although the PRC2 component EZH2 has been known as an epigenetic regulator in promoting the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), the regulatory network that controls this process remains largely unknown. Here we show that miR-203 is repressed by EZH2 in both embryonic and adult NSPCs. MiR-203 negatively regulates the proliferation of NSPCs...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599500/notable-roles-of-ezh2-and-dnmt1-in-epigenetic-dormancy-of-the-shp1-gene-during-the-progression-of-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia
#20
Jing Wang, Luoming Hua, Ming Guo, Lin Yang, Xiaojun Liu, Yanmeng Li, Xiaoyan Shang, Jianmin Luo
Tumor development is associated with the methylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) islands. The occurrence of methylation requires several factors, such as DNA methylation systems and polycomb group (PcG) proteins. At present, novel drugs are needed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), particularly considering the current prognosis of CML. The methylation status of the Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP1) gene, a negative regulator of signal transduction, has been identified as being altered in numerous haematological malignancies...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
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