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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340081/retroocular-and-subdural-hemorrhage-or-hemosiderin-deposits-in-pediatric-autopsies
#1
Marc R Del Bigio, Susan M Phillips
The presence of hemosiderin in the optic nerve sheath and/or retina is sometimes used to estimate the timing of injury in infants or children with suspected non-accidental head trauma. To determine the prevalence of hemosiderin in deaths not associated with trauma, we performed a prospective study of retroocular orbital tissue, cranial convexity, and cervical spinal cord dura mater in infants and children <2.5 years age. In 53 cases of non-traumatic death, approximately 70% had blood or hemosiderin within the orbital fat, ocular muscles, and parasagittal cranial and/or cervical spinal subdural compartment...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332092/the-spectrum-of-neuropathological-changes-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#2
Leila Chimelli, Adriana S O Melo, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Clayton A Wiley, Aline H S Camacho, Vania S Lopes, Heloisa N Machado, Cecilia V Andrade, Dione C A Dock, Maria Elisabeth Moreira, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Patricia S Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Angela C G Carvalho, Odile N Ugarte, Alba G M Batista, Melania M R Amorim, Fabiana O Melo, Thales A Ferreira, Jacqueline R L Marinho, Girlene S Azevedo, Jeime I B F Leal, Rodrigo F Madeiro da Costa, Stevens Rehen, Monica B Arruda, Rodrigo M Brindeiro, Rodrigo Delvechio, Renato S Aguiar, Amilcar Tanuri
A major concern associated with ZIKV infection is the increased incidence of microcephaly with frequent calcifications in infants born from infected mothers. To date, postmortem analysis of the central nervous system (CNS) in congenital infection is limited to individual reports or small series. We report a comprehensive neuropathological study in ten newborn babies infected with ZIKV during pregnancy, including the spinal cords and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and also muscle, pituitaries, eye, systemic organs, and placentas...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331359/pregnancy-suppresses-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-chronic-constriction-injury-in-rats-through-the-inhibition-of-tnf-%C3%AE
#3
Yoshiko Onodera, Megumi Kanao-Kanda, Hirotsugu Kanda, Tomoki Sasakawa, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Takayuki Kunisawa
PURPOSE: Pregnancy-induced analgesia develops during late pregnancy, but it is unclear whether this analgesia is effective against neuropathic pain. The detailed molecular mechanisms underlying pregnancy-induced analgesia have not been investigated. We examined the antinociceptive effect of pregnancy-induced analgesia in a neuropathic pain model and the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Iba-1, and c-Fos in the spinal dorsal horn just before parturition...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330877/k-channel-modulatory-subunits-kchip-and-dpp-participate-in-kv4-mediated-mechanical-pain-control
#4
Yen-Ling Kuo, Jen-Kun Cheng, Wen-Hsien Hou, Yu-Cheng Chang, Po-Hao Du, Jhao-Jun Jian, Ruey-Horng Rau, Jung-Hui Yang, Cheng-Chang Lien, Meei-Ling Tsaur
The K(+) channel pore-forming subunit Kv4.3 is expressed in a subset of non-peptidergic nociceptors within the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and knockdown of Kv4.3 selectively induces mechanical hypersensitivity, a major symptom of neuropathic pain. K(+) channel modulatory subunits KChIP1, KChIP2 and DPP10 are coexpressed in Kv4.3(+) DRG neurons, but whether they participate in Kv4.3-mediated pain control is unknown. Here, we show the existence of a Kv4.3/KChIP1/KChIP2/DPP10 complex (abbreviated as the Kv4 complex) in the endoplasmic reticulum and cell surface of DRG neurons...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326946/polyamidoamine-dendrimer-conjugated-triamcinolone-acetonide-attenuates-nerve-injury-induced-spinal-cord-microglia-activation-and-mechanical-allodynia
#5
Hwisung Kim, Boomin Choi, Hyoungsub Lim, Hyunjung Min, Jae Hoon Oh, Sunghyun Choi, Joung Goo Cho, Jong-Sang Park, Sung Joong Lee
Background Accumulating evidence on the causal role of spinal cord microglia activation in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury suggests that microglial activation inhibitors might be useful analgesics for neuropathic pain. Studies also have shown that polyamidoamine dendrimer may function as a drug delivery vehicle to microglia in the central nervous system. In this regard, we developed polyamidoamine dendrimer-conjugated triamcinolone acetonide, a previously identified microglial activation inhibitor, and tested its analgesic efficacy in a mouse peripheral nerve injury model...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326943/analgesia-induced-by-the-epigenetic-drug-l-acetylcarnitine-outlasts-the-end-of-treatment-in-mouse-models-of-chronic-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain
#6
Serena Notartomaso, Giada Mascio, Matteo Bernabucci, Cristina Zappulla, Pamela Scarselli, Milena Cannella, Tiziana Imbriglio, Roberto Gradini, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria Bruno, Ferdinando Nicoletti
Background L-acetylcarnitine, a drug marketed for the treatment of chronic pain, causes analgesia by epigenetically up-regulating type-2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors in the spinal cord. Because the epigenetic mechanisms are typically long-lasting, we hypothesized that analgesia could outlast the duration of L-acetylcarnitine treatment in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Results A seven-day treatment with L-acetylcarnitine (100 mg/kg, once a day, i.p.) produced an antiallodynic effect in the complete Freund adjuvant mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326790/nerve-cells-decide-to-orient-inside-an-injectable-hydrogel-with-minimal-structural-guidance
#7
Jonas C Rose, María Cámara-Torres, Khosrow Rahimi, Jens Köhler, Martin Möller, Laura De Laporte
Injectable biomaterials provide the advantage of a minimally invasive application but mostly lack the required structural complexity to regenerate aligned tissues. Here, we report a new class of tissue regenerative materials that can be injected and form an anisotropic matrix with controlled dimensions using rod-shaped, magnetoceptive microgel objects. Microgels are doped with small quantities of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (0.0046 vol %), allowing alignment by external magnetic fields in the millitesla order...
March 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321940/anatomy-of-psoas-muscle-innervation-cadaveric-study
#8
Mark A Mahan, Luke E Sanders, Jian Guan, Andrew T Dailey, William Taylor, David A Morton
INTRODUCTION: Hip flexion weakness is relatively common after lateral transpsoas surgery. Persistent weakness may result from injury to the innervation of the psoas major muscles (PMMs); however, anatomical texts have conflicting descriptions of this innervation, and the branching pattern of the nerves within the psoas major, particularly relative to vertebral anatomy, has not been described. The authors dissected human cadavers to describe the branching pattern of nerves supplying the PMMs...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319551/a-contemporary-medicolegal-analysis-of-implanted-devices-for-chronic-pain-management
#9
Christopher R Abrecht, Penny Greenberg, Ellen Song, Richard D Urman, James P Rathmell
BACKGROUND: Analysis of closed malpractice claims allows the study of rare but serious complications and likely results in improved patient safety by raising awareness of such complications. Clinical studies and closed claims analyses have previously reported on the common complications associated with intrathecal drug delivery systems (IDDS) and spinal cord stimulators (SCS). This study provides a contemporary analysis of claims from within the past 10 years. METHODS: We performed a closed claims analysis for a period January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 for cases with pain medicine as the primary service...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318741/neonatal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-without-sedation-correlates-with-injury-severity-in-brachial-plexus-birth-palsy
#10
Andrea S Bauer, Peter Y Shen, Anna E Nidecker, Paul S Lee, Michelle A James
PURPOSE: Which infants with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) should undergo microsurgical plexus reconstruction remains controversial. The current gold standard for the decision for plexus reconstruction is serial clinical examinations, but this approach obviates the possibility of early surgical treatment. We hypothesize that a new technique using 3-dimensional volumetric proton density magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without sedation can evaluate the severity of BPBP injury earlier than serial clinical examinations...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315443/progesterone-modulates-diabetes-hyperglycemia-induced-changes-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-sciatic-nerve
#11
Fahim Atif, Megan C Prunty, Nefize Turan, Donald G Stein, Seema Yousuf
We investigated the effect of progesterone (P4) treatment on diabetes/hyperglycemia-induced pathological changes in brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve tissue in male rats. Animals were rendered hyperglycemic by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ). P4 treatment was started after hyperglycemia was confirmed and body weight and blood glucose levels were monitored once/week for 5 weeks. Rats underwent behavioral testing at week 5 and were then euthanized for histology. We assessed the expression of markers of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and tissue injury (CD11b, NG2, COX2 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)) in the brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerve...
March 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315267/pharmacological-modulation-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-and-the-treatment-of-pain
#12
Manuel Merlos, Javier Burgueño, Enrique Portillo-Salido, Carlos Ramón Plata-Salamán, José Miguel Vela
There is a critical need for new analgesics acting through new mechanisms of action, which could increase the efficacy with respect to existing therapies and reduce their unwanted effects. Current preclinical evidence supports the modulatory role of sigma-1 receptors (σ1R) in nociception, mainly based on the pain-attenuated phenotype of σ1R knockout mice and on the antinociceptive effect exerted by σ1R antagonists on pains of different etiologies. σ1R is highly expressed in different pain areas of the CNS and the periphery (particularly dorsal root ganglia), and interacts and modulates the functionality of different receptors and ion channels ...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304240/posterior-arch-c-1-screw-technique-a-cadaveric-comparison-study
#13
Marc Moisi, Christian Fisahn, Lara Tkachenko, Shiveindra Jeyamohan, Stephen Reintjes, Peter Grunert, Daniel C Norvell, R Shane Tubbs, Jeni Page, David W Newell, Peter Nora, Rod J Oskouian, Jens Chapman
OBJECTIVE Posterior atlantoaxial stabilization and fusion using C-1 lateral mass screw fixation has become commonly used in the treatment of instability and for reconstructive indications since its introduction by Goel and Laheri in 1994 and modification by Harms in 2001. Placement of such lateral mass screws can be challenging because of the proximity to the spinal cord, vertebral artery, an extensive venous plexus, and the C-2 nerve root, which overlies the designated starting point on the posterior center of the lateral mass...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303761/percutaneous-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-for-treatment-of-shoulder-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#14
Daniela Mehech, Melvin Mejia, Gregory A Nemunaitis, John Chae, Richard D Wilson
CONTEXT: This describes the first person with spinal cord injury (SCI) treated with percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation for chronic shoulder pain. FINDINGS: From baseline to one-week after treatment, the subject's worst pain in the last week, rated on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (BPI-SF3), decreased by 44%. Pain interference decreased and remained below baseline 12 weeks after the end of treatment. There was an associated improvement in the mental component of quality of life...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300618/the-novel-and-potent-anti-depressive-action-of-triptolide-and-its-influences-on-hippocampal-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-depression-comorbidity-of-chronic-pain
#15
Xiaofan Hu, Yulin Dong, Xiaohang Jin, Chunkui Zhang, Ting Zhang, Jie Zhao, Juan Shi, Jinlian Li
Chronic pain and depression frequently coexist in clinical setting, and current clinical treatments for this comorbidity have shown limited efficacy. Triptolide (T10), an active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., has been demonstrated to exert strong analgesic activities in experimental pain models, but whether it possesses anti-depressive actions remains unknown. Using a depression comorbidity of chronic pain rat model induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL), we investigated the potency of T10 for the treatment of comorbid depression in comparison with a widely used antidepressant, fluoxetine (FLX)...
March 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298927/therapeutic-potential-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-spinal-cord-injuries
#16
REVIEW
Zadroga Anna, Jezierska-Woźniak Katarzyna, Czarzasta Joanna, Monika Barczewska, Wojtkiewicz Joanna, Maksymowicz Wojciech
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition that affects individuals worldwide, significantly reducing quality of life, for both patients and their families. In recent years there has been a growing interest in cell therapy potential in the context of spinal cord injuries. The present review aims to discuss and compare the restorative approaches based on the current knowledge, available spinal cord restorative cell therapies, and use of selected cell types. However, treatment options for spinal cord injury are limited, but rehabilitation and experimental technologies have been found to help maintain or improve remaining nerve function in some cases...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293499/proximal-versus-distal-nerve-transfer-for-biceps-reinnervation-a-comparative-study-in-a-rat-s-brachial-plexus-injury-model
#17
Aleksandra M McGrath, Johnny Chuieng-Yi Lu, Tommy Naj-Jen Chang, Frank Fang, David Chwei-Chin Chuang
BACKGROUND: The exact role of proximal and distal nerve transfers in reconstruction strategies of brachial plexus injury remains controversial. We compared proximal with distal nerve reconstruction strategies in a rat model of brachial plexus injury. METHODS: In rats, the C6 spinal nerve with a nerve graft (proximal nerve transfer model, n = 30, group A) and 50% of ulnar nerve (distal nerve transfer model, n = 30, group B) were used as the donor nerves. The targets were the musculocutaneous nerve and the biceps muscle...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291470/comparative-efficacy-of-multiple-variables-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#18
LiPing Liu, Zhen Hua, Jun Shen, Yan Yin, Jing Yang, Kathleen Cheng, Aijun Liu, Lina Wang, Jianguo Cheng
OBJECTIVES: The current treatment options for neuropathic pain due to nerve injuries are limited and largely unsatisfactory. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation (MSC) has shown promise as an emerging therapy for neuropathic pain. However, a number of critical parameters, including the sources of cells, the number of cells, and routes of transplantation, need to be elucidated before it can be tested clinically. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow (rBM-MSCs) and adipose tissue (rAD-MSCs) and characterized by flow cytometry and functional differentiation...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289637/ultrasonography-evaluation-of-vulnerable-vessels-around-cervical-nerve-roots-during-selective-cervical-nerve-root-block
#19
Hoon Hoon Lee, Donghwi Park, Yoongul Oh, Ju Seok Ryu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of vulnerable blood vessels around cervical nerve roots before cervical nerve root block in the clinical setting. METHODS: This retrospective study included 74 patients with cervical radiculopathy who received an ultrasonography-guided nerve block at an outpatient clinic from July 2012 to July 2014. Before actual injection of the steroid was performed, we evaluated the vulnerable blood vessels around each C5, C6, and C7 nerve root of each patient's painful side, with Doppler ultrasound...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284149/microrna-93-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-through-targeting-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3
#20
Xue-Tao Yan, Li-Juan Ji, Zhiyu Wang, Xingjun Wu, Quan Wang, Shujie Sun, Jing-Min Lu, Yang Zhang
Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. However, the exact role of miRNAs in regulating neuropathic pain remains largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of miR-93 in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI). We found a significant decrease of miR-93 in the spinal cord of CCI rats compared with sham rats. Overexpression of miR-93 significantly alleviated neuropathic pain development and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression, including interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6 in CCI rats...
March 8, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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