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Spinal nerve injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433644/supraspinal-respiratory-plasticity-following-acute-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Vitaliy Marchenko, Lyandysha V Zholudeva, Victoria M Spruance, Michael A Lane
Impaired breathing is a devastating result of high cervical spinal cord injuries (SCI) due to partial or full denervation of phrenic motoneurons, which innervate the diaphragm - a primary muscle of respiration. Consequently, people with cervical level injuries often become dependent on assisted ventilation and are susceptible to secondary complications. However, there is mounting evidence for limited spontaneous recovery of respiratory function following injury, demonstrating the neuroplastic potential of respiratory networks...
April 19, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432435/c4-5-foraminal-stenosis-predicts-c5-palsy-after-expansive-open-door-laminoplasty
#2
Ho-Jin Lee, Jae-Sung Ahn, Byungkon Shin, Hoseok Lee
INTRODUCTION: Laminoplasty is frequently performed in cervical myelopathy patients, but can lead to unexpected postoperative C5 palsy. Although several studies have examined the pathogenesis and prevention of postoperative C5 palsy, many controversies remain and some radiological findings identified as risk factors were not correlated with our outcomes. PURPOSE: This study sought reliable radiological findings that predict C5 palsy after laminoplasty and examined why the predictors of C5 palsy did not apply in our series...
April 21, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429047/therapeutic-outcome-of-ct-guided-radiofrequency-ablation-in-patients-with-osteoid-osteoma
#3
Louis Lassalle, R Campagna, G Corcos, A Babinet, F Larousserie, J Stephanazzi, A Feydy
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term outcome of computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation (CT-guided RFA) in patients with suspected osteoid osteoma (OO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-center retrospective study. Patients with clinical suspicion and imaging diagnosis of osteoid osteoma were treated by CT-guided RFA using the same device with either a 7- or 10-mm active tip electrode. Specific precautions were applied in case of articular or spinal OO. Patients were contacted by phone to evaluate the long-term outcome in terms of pain, ability to perform daily activities (including sports), and long-term complications...
April 20, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428928/origin-branching-and-communications-of-the-intercostobrachial-nerve-a-meta-analysis-with-implications-for-mastectomy-and-axillary-lymph-node-dissection-in-breast-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Brandon Michael Henry, Matthew J Graves, Jakub R Pękala, Beatrice Sanna, Wan Chin Hsieh, R Shane Tubbs, Jerzy A Walocha, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN), which usually originates from the lateral cutaneous branch of the second intercostal nerve, innervates areas of the axilla, lateral chest, and medial arm. It is at risk for injury during operative procedures that are often used in the management of breast cancer and such injury has been associated with postoperative sensory loss and neuropathic pain, decreasing the quality of life. PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Biosciences Information Service (BIOSIS), and Web of Science were searched comprehensively...
March 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428091/characterization-of-the-effects-of-l-4-chlorokynurenine-on-nociception-in-rodents
#5
Tony L Yaksh, Robert Schwarcz, H Ralph Snodgrass
Upon systemic administration in rats, the prodrug L-4-chlorokynurenine (4-Cl-KYN) (AV-101) is rapidly absorbed, actively transported across the blood-brain barrier, and converted in astrocytes to 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-Cl-KYNA), a potent and specific antagonist of the GlyB co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor. We examined the effects of 4-Cl-KYN in several rat models of hyperalgesia and allodynia and determined the concentrations of 4-Cl-KYN and newly produced 7-Cl-KYNA in serum, brain and spinal cord. Adult male rats were given 4-Cl-KYN (56, 167, 500 mg/kg), the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426550/neuropathic-pain-after-chronic-nerve-constriction-may-not-correlate-with-chloride-dysregulation-in-mouse-trigeminal-nucleus-caudalis-neurons
#6
Alberto Castro, Ying Li, Charles Raver, Ramesh Chandra, Radi Masri, Mary Kay Lobo, Asaf Keller
Changes in chloride reversal potential in rat spinal cord neurons have previously been associated with persistent pain in nerve injury and inflammation models. These changes correlate with a decrease in the expression of the potassium% chloride transporter, KCC2, and with increases in neuronal excitability. Here, we test the hypothesis that similar changes occur in mice with neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of the trigeminal infraorbital nerve (CCI¬-ION). This model allows us to distinguish an acute pain phase (3-¬5 days after injury) from a persistent pain phase (12¬-14 days after CCI-¬ION)...
April 18, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420964/identification-of-the-spinal-expression-profile-of-non-coding-rnas-involved-in-neuropathic-pain-following-spared-nerve-injury-by-sequence-analysis
#7
Jun Zhou, Qingming Xiong, Hongtao Chen, Chengxiang Yang, Youling Fan
Neuropathic pain (NP) is caused by damage to the nervous system, resulting in aberrant pain, which is associated with gene expression changes in the sensory pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. A non-coding Ribose Nucleic Acid (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. NcRNAs are involved in many cellular processes, and mutations or imbalances of the repertoire within the body can cause a variety of diseases. Although ncRNAs have recently been shown to play a role in NP pathogenesis, the specific effects of ncRNAs in NP remain largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413195/purinergic-signaling-in-microglia-in-the-pathogenesis-of-neuropathic-pain
#8
Kazuhide Inoue
Nerve injury often causes debilitating chronic pain, referred to as neuropathic pain, which is refractory to currently available analgesics including morphine. Many reports indicate that activated spinal microglia evoke neuropathic pain. The P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), a subtype of ionotropic ATP receptors, is upregulated in spinal microglia after nerve injury by several factors, including CC chemokine receptor CCR2, the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin in the spinal cord, interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) and IRF5...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394696/pharmacology-pharmacokinetics-and-metabolism-of-the-dna-decoy-ayx1-for-the-prevention-of-acute-and-chronic-post-surgical-pain
#9
Julien Mamet, Scott Harris, Michael Klukinov, David C Yeomans, Renee R Donahue, Brad K Taylor, Kelly Eddinger, Tony Yaksh, Donald C Manning
Background AYX1 is an unmodified DNA-decoy designed to reduce acute post-surgical pain and its chronification with a single intrathecal dose at the time of surgery. AYX1 inhibits the transcription factor early growth response protein 1, which is transiently induced at the time of injury and triggers gene regulation in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord that leads to long-term sensitization and pain. This work characterizes the AYX1 dose-response profile in rats and the link to AYX1 pharmacokinetics and metabolism in the cerebrospinal fluid, dorsal root ganglia, and spinal cord...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393429/lack-of-analgesic-synergy-of-the-cholecystokinin-receptor-antagonist-proglumide-and-spinal-cord-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#10
Shinsuke Inoue, Lisa M Johanek, Kathleen A Sluka
OBJECTIVE: Neuropathic pain is difficult to manage and treat. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become an established procedure for treating chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to pharmacological therapy. In order to achieve better analgesia, a number of studies have evaluated the effectiveness of combining drug therapy with SCS. Cholecystokinin antagonists, such as proglumide, enhance the analgesic efficacy of endogenous opioids in animal models of pain. We previously reported that both systemic and spinal administration of proglumide enhances analgesia produced by both low- and high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)...
April 10, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392569/multichannel-polymer-scaffold-seeded-with-activated-schwann-cells-and-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improves-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Er-Zhu Yang, Guo-Wang Zhang, Jian-Guang Xu, Shuai Chen, Hua Wang, Liang-Liang Cao, Bo Liang, Xiao-Feng Lian
The adult mammalian CNS has a limited capacity to regenerate after traumatic injury. In this study, a combinatorial strategy to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) was evaluated in adult rats. The rats were subjected to a complete transection in the thoracic spinal cord, and multichannel scaffolds seeded with activated Schwann cells (ASCs) and/or rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were acutely grafted into the 3-mm-wide transection gap. At 4 weeks post-transplantation and thereafter, the rats receiving scaffolds seeded with ASCs and MSCs exhibited significant recovery of nerve function as shown by the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) score and electrophysiological test results...
April 10, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389721/chemokines-in-neuron-glial-cell-interaction-and-pathogenesis-of-neuropathic-pain
#12
REVIEW
Zhi-Jun Zhang, Bao-Chun Jiang, Yong-Jing Gao
Neuropathic pain resulting from damage or dysfunction of the nervous system is a highly debilitating chronic pain state and is often resistant to currently available treatments. It has become clear that neuroinflammation, mainly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines were originally identified as regulators of peripheral immune cell trafficking and were also expressed in neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system...
April 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389474/perineurial-glial-plasticity-and-the-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-in-the-development-of-the-blood-nerve-barrier
#13
Angela D Morris, Gwendolyn M Lewis, Sarah Kucenas
Precisely orchestrated interactions between spinal motor axons and their ensheathing glia are vital for forming and maintaining functional spinal motor nerves. Following perturbations to peripheral myelinating glial cells, centrally-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) ectopically exit the spinal cord and myelinate peripheral nerves in myelin with central nervous system (CNS) characteristics. However, whether remaining peripheral ensheathing glia, such as perineurial glia, properly encase the motor nerve despite this change in glial cell and myelin composition, remains unknown...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389375/striatal-enriched-phosphatase-61-inhibited-the-nociceptive-plasticity-in-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn-of-rats
#14
Zhan-Wei Suo, Jiang-Ping Liu, Man Xue, Yun-Hui Yang, Xian Yang, Jun Xie, Xiao-Dong Hu
Striatal-enriched phosphatase 61 (STEP61) is a member of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatases, which is involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and a line of neuropsychiatric disorders. This protein tyrosine phosphatase is also abundant in pain-related spinal cord dorsal horn neurons. However, whether and how this tyrosine phosphatase modulates the nociceptive plasticity and behavioral hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. The present study recorded the long-term potentiation (LTP) of primary afferent C fiber-evoked field potentials in vivo in superficial dorsal horn of rats, and tested the possible role of STEP61 in spinal LTP...
April 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388831/estrogen-signaling-is-necessary-for-exercise-mediated-enhancement-of-motoneuron-participation-in-axon-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-mice
#15
Melina C Acosta, Patricia A Copley, Jamie R Harrell, Jennifer C Wilhelm
Thousands of people each year suffer from peripheral nerve injury. Treatment options are limited, and recovery is often incomplete. Treadmill exercise can enhance nerve regeneration; however, this appears to occur in a sex-dependent manner. Females respond best to short duration, high speed interval training; whereas, males respond best to slower, continuous training. Previous studies have shown a role for testosterone in this process, but the role of estrogen is unknown. To evaluate the role of estrogen signaling in treadmill exercise, we blocked estrogen receptor (ER) signaling during treadmill exercise in males and female wild type mice...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387564/reliability-of-functioning-free-muscle-transfer-and-vascularized-ulnar-nerve-grafting-for-elbow-flexion-in-complete-brachial-plexus-palsy
#16
S M Potter, S I Ferris
We compared outcomes of primary vascularized ulnar nerve grafts from the C5 root neurotizing biceps and brachialis muscles, and gracilis functioning free muscle transfer neurotized by the distal spinal accessory nerve, as a primary or salvage procedure after complete brachial plexus injury. At 45 months, three of eight primary vascularized ulnar nerve graft patients regained grade 4 elbow flexion, while one regained grade 3. All 13 primary gracilis transfer patients regained grade 4 elbow flexion. Four patients with vascularized ulnar nerve grafts failed and subsequently had salvage functioning free muscle transfer procedures resulting in delayed recovery...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381927/the-effects-of-minocycline-on-spinal-root-avulsion-injury-in-rat-model
#17
Tan Yew Chin, Sim Sze Kiat, Hizal Ghazali Faizul, Wutian Wu, Jafri Malin Abdullah
BACKGROUND: The neuroprotective role of minocycline in the treatment of brachial plexus injury is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To study the neuroprotective effect of minocycline via different routes in adult Sprague Dawley rats with brachial plexus injury. METHODS: The C7 nerve roots of the animals were avulsed via an anterior extravertebral approach. Traction force was used to transect the ventral motor nerve roots at the preganglionic level...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379583/b-vitamins-potentiate-acute-morphine-antinociception-and-attenuate-the-development-of-tolerance-to-chronic-morphine-in-mice
#18
Xue-Ting Deng, Yuan Han, Wen-Tao Liu, Xue-Jun Song
Objectives. : Opiate analgesics are the most effective treatments for severe pain, but their clinical utility is often hampered by the development of analgesic tolerance. There are striking similarities between morphine actions and neuropathic pain. We have demonstrated that B vitamins can attenuate neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury, sensory neuron inflammation/compression, and transient spinal cord ischemia. Given this similarity, the present study investigated whether B vitamins might be able to modify the antinociceptive effect of morphine as well as morphine tolerance in mice...
March 31, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378287/pediatric-thoracic-sciwora-after-back-bend-during-dance-practice-a-retrospective-case-series-and-analysis-of-trauma-mechanisms
#19
Jian Ren, Gao Zeng, Yong-Jie Ma, Nan Chen, Zan Chen, Feng Ling, Hong-Qi Zhang
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to describe a unique type of low-energy traumatic pediatric thoracic spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) after a back bend during dance practice and analyze the trauma mechanisms and treatment protocols. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series from September 2007 to August 2016. The study was conducted at a tertiary medical center in Beijing, China (Xuanwu Hospital, China International Neuroscience Institute [China-INI], Capital Medical University)...
April 4, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377693/inhibition-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-signaling-in-the-insular-cortex-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#20
Minjee Kwon, Jeongsoo Han, Un Jeng Kim, Myeounghoon Cha, Sun Woo Um, Sun Joon Bai, Seong-Karp Hong, Bae Hwan Lee
Injury of peripheral nerves can trigger neuropathic pain, producing allodynia and hyperalgesia via peripheral and central sensitization. Recent studies have focused on the role of the insular cortex (IC) in neuropathic pain. Because the IC is thought to store pain-related memories, translational regulation in this structure may reveal novel targets for controlling chronic pain. Signaling via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is known to control mRNA translation and influence synaptic plasticity, has been studied at the spinal level in neuropathic pain, but its role in the IC under these conditions remains elusive...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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