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Lin Yang, Yanqing Liu, Mei Wang, Yayun Qian, Xiaoyun Dong, Hao Gu, Haibo Wang, Shiyu Guo, Tadashi Hisamitsu
Constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 signalosome (CSN) consists of a total of eight subunits (CSN1-CSN8) in mammalian cells. CSN6 may promote carcinogenesis by positively regulating v‑myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Myc) and MDM2 proto‑oncogene stability, and is regarded as a potential target for cancer therapy. Quercetin has a substantial anticancer effect on various human cancer cells. The present study investigated the effects of quercetin on HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and western blotting...
October 10, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Lucas Vanhaelewyn, Paolo Schumacher, Dirk Poelman, Christian Fankhauser, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Filip Vandenbussche
Ultraviolet B (UV-B) light is a part of the solar radiation which has significant effects on plant morphology, even at low doses. In Arabidopsis, many of these morphological changes have been attributed to a specific UV-B receptor, UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8). Recent findings showed that next to phototropin regulated phototropism, UVR8 mediated signaling is able of inducing directional bending towards UV-B light in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis, in a phototropin independent manner. In this study, kinetic analysis of phototropic bending was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each of these pathways in UV-B mediated phototropism...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Zachary A Myers, Roderick W Kumimoto, Chamindika L Siriwardana, Krystal K Gayler, Jan R Risinger, Daniela Pezzetta, Ben F Holt Iii
Recent reports suggest that NF-Y transcription factors are positive regulators of skotomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Three NF-YC genes (NF-YC3, NF-YC4, and NF-YC9) are known to have overlapping functions in photoperiod dependent flowering and previous studies demonstrated that they interact with basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. This included ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), which has well-demonstrated roles in photomorphogenesis. Similar to hy5 mutants, we report that nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 triple mutants failed to inhibit hypocotyl elongation in all tested light wavelengths...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
J Hou, Q Deng, J Zhou, J Zou, Y Zhang, P Tan, W Zhang, H Cui
CSN6, a critical subunit of the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN), has received attention as a regulator of the degradation of cancer-related proteins such as p53, c-myc and c-Jun, through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, suggesting its importance in cancerogenesis. However, the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of CSN6 in glioblastoma (GBM) remain poorly understood. Here, we report that GBM tumors overexpressed CSN6 compared with normal brain tissues and that CSN6 promoted GBM cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis...
August 22, 2016: Oncogene
Su Young Shin, Seong Hee Kim, Hye Jin Kim, Su Jeong Jeon, Soon Ae Sim, Gyeong Ryul Ryu, Cheol Min Yoo, Yong Hwa Cheong, Jong Chan Hong
LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and STF1 (Soybean TGACG-motif binding Factor 1) are two related bZIP transcription factors that play a positive role in photomorphogenesis and hormonal signaling. In this study, we compared full length STF1 and truncated STF1 overexpression lines and found that the C-terminal 133 amino acids (194-306) possess all the HY5-like function in Arabidopsis. The STF1-DC1 mutant (1-306), with a 20 amino acid deletion at the carboxy terminus, failed to complement the hy5 mutant phenotype, which suggests an intact C-terminus is required for STF1 function...
September 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chuang-Qi Wei, Chih-Wei Chien, Lian-Feng Ai, Jun Zhao, Zhenzhen Zhang, Kathy H Li, Alma L Burlingame, Yu Sun, Zhi-Yong Wang
Plant growth is controlled by integration of hormonal and light-signaling pathways. BZS1 is a B-box zinc finger protein previously characterized as a negative regulator in the brassinosteroid (BR)-signaling pathway and a positive regulator in the light-signaling pathway. However, the mechanisms by which BZS1/BBX20 integrates light and hormonal pathways are not fully understood. Here, using a quantitative proteomic workflow, we identified several BZS1-associated proteins, including light-signaling components COP1 and HY5...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Ling Zhu, Ruijiao Xin, Enamul Huq
Plants perceive red and far-red region of the light spectrum to regulate photomorphogenesis through a family of photoreceptors called phytochromes. Phytochromes transduce the light signals to trigger a cascade of downstream gene regulation in part via a subfamily of bHLH transcription factors called Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs). As the repressors of light signaling pathways, most PIFs are phosphorylated and degraded through the ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway in response to light. The mechanisms involved in the phosphorylation and degradation of PIFs have not been fully understood yet...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dongming Li, Xing Fu, Lin Guo, Zhigang Huang, Yongpeng Li, Yang Liu, Zishan He, Xiuwei Cao, Xiaohan Ma, Meicheng Zhao, Guohui Zhu, Langtao Xiao, Haiyang Wang, Xuemei Chen, Renyi Liu, Xigang Liu
Plant meristems are responsible for the generation of all plant tissues and organs. Here we show that the transcription factor (TF) FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) plays an important role in both floral meristem (FM) determinacy and shoot apical meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis, in addition to its well-known multifaceted roles in plant growth and development during the vegetative stage. Through genetic analyses, we show that WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3), two central players in the establishment and maintenance of meristems, are epistatic to FHY3 Using genome-wide ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data, we identify hundreds of FHY3 target genes in flowers and find that FHY3 mainly acts as a transcriptional repressor in flower development, in contrast to its transcriptional activator role in seedlings...
August 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Song Chen, Lennart Wirthmueller, Johannes Stauber, Niels Lory, Xu Holtkotte, Lisa Leson, Christian Schenkel, Margaret Ahmad, Ute Hoecker
BACKGROUND: Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to adapt growth and development to the light environment. The COP1/SPA complex is a key repressor of photomorphogenesis in dark-grown Arabidopsis plants and acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to ubiquitinate transcription factors involved in the light response. In the light, COP1/SPA activity is inhibited by photoreceptors, thereby allowing accumulation of these transcription factors and a subsequent light response. Previous results have shown that the four members of the SPA family exhibit partially divergent functions...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Lin Wang, Jun-Nian Zheng, Dong-Sheng Pei
C-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1 (Jab1) not only is full but also a subunit (CSN5) of the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 signalosome (CSN), which is an evolutionarily conserved and multifunctional protein that involves in controlling cellular proliferation and apoptosis, affecting a series of pathways, as well as regulating genomic instability and DNA damage and repair. The CSN is a highly conservative protein from yeast to human and interacts with the cullin-RING family of ubiquitin ligases so that it could be execute a process of removing NEDD8, a ubiquitin-like polypeptide (deneddylase activity)...
August 2016: Medical Oncology
Dongqing Xu, Yan Jiang, Jigang Li, Fang Lin, Magnus Holm, Xing Wang Deng
BBX21 (also known as SALT TOLERANCE HOMOLOG 2), a B-box (BBX)-containing protein, has been previously identified as a positive regulator of light signaling; however, the precise role of BBX21 in regulating seedling photomorphogenesis remains largely unclear. In this study, we report that CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) interacts with BBX21 in vivo and is able to ubiquitinate BBX21 in vitro. Thus, BBX21 is targeted for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings in a COP1-dependent manner...
July 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xu Holtkotte, Stefan Dieterle, Leonie Kokkelink, Oliver Artz, Lisa Leson, Kirsten Fittinghoff, Ryosuke Hayama, Margaret Ahmad, Ute Hoecker
The COP1/SPA complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase which acts as a key repressor of photomorphogenesis in dark-grown plants. While both, COP1 and the four SPA proteins contain coiled-coil and WD-repeat domains, SPA proteins differ from COP1 in carrying an N-terminal kinase-like domain which is not present in COP1. Here, we have analyzed the effects of deletions and missense mutations in the N-terminus of SPA1 when expressed in a spa-quadruple mutant background devoid of any other SPA proteins. Deletion of the large N-terminus of SPA1 severely impaired SPA1 activity in transgenic plants with respect to seedling etiolation, leaf expansion and flowering time...
June 16, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ziqiang Zhu, Chentao Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nature Plants
Zhaojin Chen, Chuanyu Ding, Yuan Zheng
Plants not only use light as an energy source for photosynthesis, but also have to monitor the light quality and quantity input to execute appropriate physiological and developmental responses, such as cell differentiation, structural and functional changes, as well as the formation of tissues and organs. The process is referred to as photomorphogenesis. Arabidopsis QUA1 (QUASIMODO1), which functions in pectin synthesis, is identified as a member of glycosyltransferases. Previously, the hypocotyl elongation of the qua1-1 mutant was shown to be inhibited under dark conditions...
May 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Beronda L Montgomery
Photosynthetic organisms absorb photons and convert light energy to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthetic efficiency is tuned in response to the availability of light, carbon dioxide and nutrients to promote maximal levels of carbon fixation, while simultaneously limiting the potential for light-associated damage or phototoxicity. Given the central dependence on light for energy production, photosynthetic organisms possess abilities to tune their growth, development and metabolism to external light cues in the process of photomorphogenesis...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Massimo Iorizzo, Shelby Ellison, Douglas Senalik, Peng Zeng, Pimchanok Satapoomin, Jiaying Huang, Megan Bowman, Marina Iovene, Walter Sanseverino, Pablo Cavagnaro, Mehtap Yildiz, Alicja Macko-Podgórni, Emilia Moranska, Ewa Grzebelus, Dariusz Grzebelus, Hamid Ashrafi, Zhijun Zheng, Shifeng Cheng, David Spooner, Allen Van Deynze, Philipp Simon
We report a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly and analysis of the carrot (Daucus carota) genome, the first sequenced genome to include a comparative evolutionary analysis among members of the euasterid II clade. We characterized two new polyploidization events, both occurring after the divergence of carrot from members of the Asterales order, clarifying the evolutionary scenario before and after radiation of the two main asterid clades. Large- and small-scale lineage-specific duplications have contributed to the expansion of gene families, including those with roles in flowering time, defense response, flavor, and pigment accumulation...
June 2016: Nature Genetics
Guiomar Martín, Pablo Leivar, Dolores Ludevid, James M Tepperman, Peter H Quail, Elena Monte
Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signals emitted by dysfunctional chloroplasts impact photomorphogenic development, but the molecular link between retrograde- and photosensory-receptor signalling has remained unclear. Here, we show that the phytochrome and retrograde signalling (RS) pathways converge antagonistically to regulate the expression of the nuclear-encoded transcription factor GLK1, a key regulator of a light-induced transcriptional network central to photomorphogenesis. GLK1 gene transcription is directly repressed by PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF)-class bHLH transcription factors in darkness, but light-activated phytochrome reverses this activity, thereby inducing expression...
2016: Nature Communications
Beronda L Montgomery
Light exposure results in distinct responses in specific seedling tissues during photomorphogenesis. Light promotes growth of cotyledons and leaves, as well as development and elongation of roots, whereas light inhibits elongation of hypocotyls. For distinct plant responses such as shade avoidance, far-red light or shifts in spectral light quality similarly have disparate impacts on distinct plant tissues, resulting in elongation of stems or petioles and a reduction in growth of leaf blades for many species...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jihye Yoo, Man-Ho Cho, Sang-Won Lee, Seong Hee Bhoo
Light signals recognized by phytochromes are transduced through interactions between down-stream signaling components. Phytochrome-interacting ankyrin repeat protein 2 (PIA2) was found to interact with phytochrome interacting factor 3 (PIF3), a well-known repressor of plant photomorphogenesis in response to phytochrome-mediated light signalling. Both PIA2 and PIF3 are known to be positive regulators of anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis seedlings under far-red conditions. Thus, we investigated the functional relationship between PIA2 and PIF3 in light signalling...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Biochemistry
Rohit Dhakarey, Preshobha Kodackattumannil Peethambaran, Michael Riemann
Jasmonic acid, one of the major plant hormones, is, unlike other hormones, a lipid-derived compound that is synthesized from the fatty acid linolenic acid. It has been studied intensively in many plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, in which most of the enzymes participating in its biosynthesis were characterized. In the past 15 years, mutants and transgenic plants affected in the jasmonate pathway became available in rice and facilitate studies on the functions of this hormone in an important crop...
2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
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