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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160051/irisin-as-a-regulator-of-bone-and-glucose-metabolism-a-narrative-review
#1
Silvia I Briganti, Gianluigi Gaspa, Gaia Tabacco, Anda M Naciu, Roberto Cesareo, Silvia Manfrini, Andrea Palermo
In humans, irisin is produced mainly by skeletal muscle in response to physical activity. It has been demonstrated that irisin plays a pivotal role in inducing fat browning and regulating energy expenditure. New findings from various studies conducted in both animals and humans suggest that irisin can affect bone and glucose metabolism. In particular, irisin is able to increase bone cortical mass by stimulating the osteoblast pathways, and irisin levels are inversely correlated with the incidence of fragility fractures among postmenopausal women affected by osteoporosis...
November 20, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158872/neuroprotective-and-cognitive-enhancing-effects-of-microencapsulation-of-mulberry-fruit-extract-in-animal-model-of-menopausal-women-with-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Supannika Kawvised, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Wipawee Thukham-Mee
Currently, the neuroprotectant and memory-enhancing agent for menopausal women with metabolic syndrome is required. Based on the advantages of polyphenolics on numerous changes observed in menopause with metabolic syndrome and the encapsulation method, we hypothesized that microencapsulated mulberry fruit extract (MME) could protect brain damage and improve memory impairment in an animal model of menopause with metabolic syndrome. To test this hypothesis, MME at doses of 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg was given to female Wistar rats which were induced experimental menopause with metabolic syndrome by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and fed with high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet for 8 weeks...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157904/anti-fatigue-activity-of-an-arabinan-rich-pectin-from-acerola-malpighia-emarginata
#3
Rafael Roberto Klosterhoff, Luiz K S Kanazawa, Ana L D M Furlanetto, Joao V C Peixoto, Claudia R Corso, Eliana R Adami, Marcello Iacomini, Rosalvo T H Fogaça, Alexandra Acco, Silvia M S C Cadena, Roberto Andreatini, Lucimara M C Cordeiro
A fraction composed of an arabinan-rich pectin was extracted from acerola fruit (Malpighia emarginata) and named ACWS. This fraction presented 93% of total carbohydrate, relative molecular weight of 7.5×10(4)g/mol, galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose in 52.1:32.4:7.2:4.8:3.5 molar ratio and had its structure confirmed by NMR analysis. The anti-fatigue activity of ACWS was evaluated using the weight load swim test on trained mice. ACWS was orally administered at doses of 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg for 28 days...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157255/effects-of-antarctic-krill-oil-on-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#4
Dewei Sun, Liang Zhang, Hongjian Chen, Rong Feng, Peirang Cao, Yuanfa Liu
BACKGROUND: Obesity and other metabolic diseases have become epidemic which greatly affect human health. Diets with healthy nutrition are efficient means to prevent this epidemic occurrence. Novel food resources and process technology were needed for these purpose. In this study, Antarctic krill oil (KO) extracted from a dry krill by a procedure of hot pump dehydration in combined with freezing-drying was used to investigate health effect in animals including the growth, lipid and glucose metabolism...
November 21, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156529/alpinetin-improved-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-through-improving-oxidative-stress-inflammatory-response-and-lipid-metabolism
#5
Yong Zhou, Yin-Lu Ding, Jian-Liang Zhang, Peng Zhang, Jin-Qing Wang, Zhao-Hua Li
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a serious medical problem and an increasing threat to public health. It is characterized by the abnormal fat accumulation in liver without excessive alcohol intake. The concurrent NAFLD might up-regulate the risk of chronic kidney disease as well as the mortality rate. Though various drugs have been investigated to attenuate NAFLD, further study is still necessary to find new therapeutic strategy and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. In the present study, NAFLD animal models were induced by feeding with high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks...
November 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155246/relatively-enriched-housing-conditions-delay-binge-onset-but-do-not-attenuate-binge-size
#6
Kerry E Preston, Rebecca L Corwin, Julia O Bader, Stephen L Crimmins
Housing and enrichment conditions are essential factors to consider when using animal models of behavior, as they can alter the behavior that is under investigation. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of the relatively enriched environment recommended by current animal care guidelines on development and maintenance of binge-type behavior in rats, using the limited access (LA) binge model. Non-food-deprived rats were divided into two groups, enriched and nonenriched, with all rats housed in shoebox cages...
November 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153180/a-100-year-review-progress-on-the-chemistry-of-milk-and-its-components
#7
John A Lucey, Don Otter, David S Horne
Understanding the chemistry of milk and its components is critical to the production of consistent, high-quality dairy products as well as the development of new dairy ingredients. Over the past 100 yr we have gone from believing that milk has only 3 protein fractions to identifying all the major and minor types of milk proteins as well as discovering that they have genetic variants. The structure and physical properties of most of the milk proteins have been extensively studied. The structure of the casein micelle has been the subject of many studies, and the initial views on submicelles have given way to the current model of the micelle as being assembled as a result of the concerted action of several types of interactions (including hydrophobic and the formation of calcium phosphate nanoclusters)...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153159/a-100-year-review-total-mixed-ration-feeding-of-dairy-cows
#8
David J Schingoethe
Total mixed rations (TMR) as we know them today did not exist in 1917. In fact, TMR are an invention of primarily the last half of the past 100 yr. Prior to that time many dairy herds were fed only forages, but dairy producers started moving toward TMR feeding as milk production per cow increased, herds became larger, freestall and large-group handling of cows became more common, and milking parlors became more prevalent. The earliest known reports in the Journal of Dairy Science of feeding "complete rations" or TMR may have appeared in the 1950s, but those studies were often reported only as abstracts at annual meetings of the American Dairy Science Association or in extension-type publications...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152245/metabolic-syndrome-and-inflammation-in-adipose-tissue-occur-at-different-times-in-animals-submitted-to-a-high-sugar-fat-diet
#9
Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti, André Ferreira Nascimento, Igor Otávio Minatel, Marcos Correa Dias, Renata de Azevedo Melo Luvizotto, Carolina Berchieri-Ronchi, Ana Lúcia A Ferreira, Camila Renata Corrêa
Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, triggered in adipose tissue, which may occur due to an excess of SFA from the diet that can be recognised by Toll-like receptor-4. This condition is involved in the development of components of the metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, especially insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and adipose tissue inflammation as a function of the period of time in which rats were submitted to a high-sugar/fat diet (HSF)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151890/techno-economic-and-resource-analysis-of-hydroprocessed-renewable-jet-fuel
#10
Ling Tao, Anelia Milbrandt, Yanan Zhang, Wei-Cheng Wang
Background: Biomass-derived jet fuel is an alternative jet fuel (AJF) showing promise of reducing the dependence on fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) concept is also known as one of the pathways for producing bio jet fuel. HEFA fuel was approved by the American Society for Testing and Materials in 2011, and can be blended up to 50% with conventional jet fuel. Since then, several HEFA economic and life-cycle assessments have been published in literature...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151256/melatonin-and-metformin-diminish-oxidative-stress-in-heart-tissue-in-a-rat-model-of-high-fat-diet-and-mammary-carcinogenesis
#11
Natalia Kurhaluk, Bianka Bojkova, Marek Radkowski, Olga V Zaitseva, Svitlana Kyriienko, Urszula Demkow, Pawel J Winklewski
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term administration of the oral antidiabetic metformin or the pineal hormone melatonin, and a combination thereof, in preventing oxidative stress in the heart tissue of female Sprague-Dawley rats with mammary tumors induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) (50 mg/kg) given on the 42nd postnatal day. Metformin and melatonin were administered 12 days before and 16 weeks after the carcinogen. During the experiment, all animals were fed a high fat diet (10% total fat, 2...
November 19, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148069/long-term-oral-exposure-to-safe-dose-of-bisphenol-a-in-association-with-high-fat-diet-stimulate-the-prostatic-lesions-in-a-rodent-model-for-prostate-cancer
#12
Camila H Facina, Silvana G P Campos, Bianca F Gonçalves, Rejane M Góes, Patricia S L Vilamaior, Sebastião R Taboga
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that exposure to environmental chemicals known as endocrine disruptors can cause permanent changes in genital organs, such as the prostate. Among these environmental chemicals stands out bisphenol A (BPA). Another factor associated with prostate changes is the consumption of a high-fat diet. Although the relationship between the consumption of a high-fat diet and an increased risk of prostate cancer is well established, the mechanisms that lead to the establishment of this disease are not completely understood, nor the simultaneous action of BPA and high-fat diet...
November 17, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146985/drosophila-muscles-regulate-the-immune-response-against-wasp-infection-via-carbohydrate-metabolism
#13
Hairu Yang, Dan Hultmark
We recently found that JAK/STAT signaling in skeletal muscles is important for the immune response of Drosophila larvae against wasp infection, but it was not clear how muscles could affect the immune response. Here we show that insulin signaling is required in muscles, but not in fat body or hemocytes, during larval development for an efficient encapsulation response and for the formation of lamellocytes. This effect requires TOR signaling. We show that muscle tissue affects the immune response by acting as a master regulator of carbohydrate metabolism in the infected animal, via JAK/STAT and insulin signaling in the muscles, and that there is indirect positive feedback between JAK/STAT and insulin signaling in the muscles...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144994/gene-pathways-associated-with-mitochondrial-function-oxidative-stress-and-telomere-length-are-differentially-expressed-in-the-liver-of-rats-fed-lifelong-on-virgin-olive-sunflower-or-fish-oils
#14
Alfonso Varela-Lopez, María Patricia Pérez-López, César Luis Ramirez-Tortosa, Maurizio Battino, Sergio Granados-Principal, María Del Carmen Ramirez-Tortosa, Julio José Ochoa, Laura Vera-Ramirez, Francesca Giampieri, José Luis Quiles
This study investigates the effect of lifelong intake of different fat sources rich in monounsaturated (virgin olive oil), n6 polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) or n3 polyunsaturated (fish oil) fatty acids in the aged liver. Male Wistar rats fed lifelong on diets differing in the fat source were killed at 6 and at 24 months of age. Liver histopathology, mitochondrial ultrastructure, biogenesis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial electron transport chain, relative telomere length and gene expression profiles were studied...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143786/dietary-factors-associated-with-plasma-thyroid-peroxidase-and-thyroglobulin-antibodies
#15
Antonela Matana, Vesela Torlak, Dubravka Brdar, Marijana Popović, Bernarda Lozić, Maja Barbalić, Vesna Boraska Perica, Ante Punda, Ozren Polašek, Caroline Hayward, Tatijana Zemunik
The knowledge about dietary habits and their influence in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease is insufficient. The aim of this study was to analyse the association of dietary factors and plasma thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) and/or thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). The study enrolled 1887 participants originating from the South Croatia. Participants with elevated plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab were defined as cases (n = 462) and those with TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab within referent values were defined as controls (n = 1425)...
October 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143706/potential-sensitivity-of-pork-production-situations-aiming-at-high-quality-products-to-the-use-of-entire-male-pigs-as-an-alternative-to-surgical-castrates
#16
M Bonneau, M Čandek-Potokar, M Škrlep, M Font-I-Furnols, M Aluwé, L Fontanesi
The perspective of a possible ban on surgical castration of male pigs in the EU is a real challenge for pork production systems aiming at (very) high-quality products. Information was collected from a total of 272 situations in 16 European countries, including 170 situations related to EU protected designations (Database of Origin & Registration (DOOR) database) and 102 other situations related to high-quality products or differentiated production systems, in order to evaluate their potential sensitivity to the use of entire male pigs along four dimensions: BT_Inc, likelihood of increased levels of boar taint compounds compared with conventional production of entire males; BT_Per, extent to which (some of) the associated pork product(s) are susceptible to perception of boar taint by consumers; FatQQ, likelihood that the quality of (some of) the related products is decreased due to the lower fat quantity and quality in entire males; Manag, increased likelihood of animal management and welfare problems compared with conventional production of entire males...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143690/standardisation-of-the-japanese-diet-for-use-in-animal-experiments
#17
Saeko Sugawara, Yui Mizowaki, Yui Iwagaki, Yu Sakamoto, Kazushi Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
The aim of this study was to develop a purified diet that mimics the characteristics of the Japanese diet using readily available materials with a simpler composition and a focus on quality, with the goal of facilitating performance of studies on the Japanese diet worldwide. The utility of the new diet was examined as a mimic of the standard Japanese diet for use in animal experiments. We examined whether a key characteristic of the Japanese diet of being less likely to cause obesity could be reproduced. The mimic diet had a balance of protein, fat and carbohydrate based on the 1975 Japanese diet, which is the least likely to cause obesity, and materials chosen with reference to the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS)...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141969/cardiovascular-and-antiobesity-effects-of-resveratrol-mediated-through-the-gut-microbiota
#18
REVIEW
Julia K Bird, Daniel Raederstorff, Peter Weber, Robert E Steinert
Encouraging scientific research into the health effects of dietary bioactive resveratrol has been confounded by its rapid first-pass metabolism, which leads to low in vivo bioavailability. Preliminary studies have shown that resveratrol can modulate gut microbiota composition, undergo biotransformation to active metabolites via the intestinal microbiota, or affect gut barrier function. In rodents, resveratrol can modify the relative Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and reverse the gut microbial dysbiosis caused by a high-fat diet...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141949/microvascular-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-and-brain-occurs-early-in-the-development-of-juvenile-obesity-in-pigs
#19
T Dylan Olver, Zachary Ian Grunewald, Thomas J Jurrissen, Rebecca Ek MacPherson, Paul J LeBlanc, Teagan R Schnurbusch, Alana M Czajkowski, Maurice Harold Laughlin, R Scott Rector, Shawn B Bender, Eric M Walters, Craig A Emter, Jaume Padilla
BACKGROUND: Impaired microvascular insulin signaling may develop prior to overt indices of microvascular endothelial dysfunction and represent an early pathological feature of adolescent obesity. Using a translational porcine model of juvenile obesity, we tested the hypotheses that in the early stages of obesity development, impaired insulin signaling manifests in skeletal muscle (triceps), brain (prefrontal cortex) and corresponding vasculatures, and that depressed insulin-induced vasodilation is reversible with acute inhibition of protein kinase C beta (PKCβ)...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141191/microbial-lipids-and-added-value-metabolites-production-by-yarrowia-lipolytica-from-pork-lard
#20
Marlene Lopes, Andreia S Gomes, Carla M Silva, Isabel Belo
Yarrowia lipolytica is a suitable microbial platform to convert low-value hydrophobic substrates into microbial oils and other important metabolites. In this work, this yeast species was used to simultaneously synthetize ex novo lipids and produce citric acid and lipase from animal fat (pork lard) adding higher value to the low-cost fatty substrate. The effect of pH, lard concentration, arabic gum concentration and oxygen mass transfer rate (OTR) on lipids accumulation on Y. lipolytica batch cultures was assessed by an experimental design based on Taguchi method...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
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