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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792954/increased-brain-docosahexaenoic-acid-has-no-effect-on-the-resolution-of-neuroinflammation-following-intracerebroventricular-lipopolysaccharide-injection
#1
Marc-Olivier Trépanier, Kathryn E Hopperton, Vanessa Giuliano, Mojgan Masoodi, Richard P Bazinet
Resolution of inflammation in the periphery was once thought to be a passive process, but new research now suggests it is an active process mediated by specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). However, this has yet to be illustrated in neuroinflammation. The purpose of this study was to measure resolution of neuroinflammation and to test whether increasing brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affects the resolution of neuroinflammation. C57Bl/6 mice, fat-1 mice and their wildtype littermates, fed either fish oil or safflower oil, received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the left lateral ventricle...
May 21, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791869/ghrelin-and-the-heart
#2
Takeshi Tokudome, Kentaro Otani, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
Ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide that was first discovered in the stomach of rats in 1999, is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin exerts its potent growth hormone-releasing and orexigenic activities by binding to specific receptors in the brain. Subsequent studies showed that ghrelin participates in the regulation of diverse processes, including energy balance, body weight maintenance, and glucose and fat metabolism, and demonstrated that ghrelin is beneficial for treatment of cardiac diseases...
May 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787827/genetic-variants-of-fatty-acid-elongase-6-in-chinese-holstein-cow
#3
Si Chen, Menglin Chai, Chen Tian, Yuzhuang Li, Tian Deng, Hui Wu, Xiaolin Liu
In the dairy industry, genetic variants have contributed to the improvement of milk production traits. Fatty acid elongase 6 (ELOVL6), which elongates saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), plays a distinct role in the balance of long-chain fatty acids composition in animals. ELOVL6 catalyzes the elongation of palmitic acids (C16:0) which is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals and also an essential precursor to synthesize other long-chain fatty acids. However, the genetic variant research of bovine ELOVL6 on milk quality traits is still unknown...
May 19, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787037/effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-dibutyltin-chloride-on-fat-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-vitro
#4
Raquel Chamorro-García, Bassem M Shoucri, Sigal Willner, Heidi Käch, Amanda Janesick, Bruce Blumberg
BACKGROUND: The organotin dibutyltin (DBT) is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, in construction materials, and in medical devices. Previous animal studies showed detrimental effects of DBT during in utero development at relatively high doses, but little was known about the effects of DBT exposure at environmentally relevant doses on endpoints such as obesity and metabolic disease. OBJECTIVES: We tested the potential obesogenic effects of DBT using in vitro and in vivo models...
May 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786878/dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-differentially-impact-acute-ethanol-responsive-behaviors-and-ethanol-consumption-in-dba-2j-versus-c57bl-6j-mice
#5
Jennifer T Wolstenholme, M Scott Bowers, Alexander B Pais, A Christian Pais, Ryan S Poland, Justin L Poklis, Andrew G Davies, Jill C Bettinger
BACKGROUND: Complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors influence the risk for developing alcohol use disorder (AUD) in humans. To date, studies of the impact of environment on AUD risk have primarily focused on psychological characteristics or on the effects of developmental exposure to ethanol. We recently observed that modifying levels of the long-chain ω-3 (LC ω-3) fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), alters acute physiological responses to ethanol in C. elegans...
May 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786844/effect-of-meat-type-animal-fatty-acid-composition-and-isothermal-temperature-on-the-viscoelastic-properties-of-meat-batters
#6
Seline Glorieux, Liselot Steen, Jos De Brabanter, Imogen Foubert, Ilse Fraeye
The aim of this research was to simultaneously study the effect of meat type (chicken breast and leg meat), animal fatty acid composition (selected pork backfats having a low and high degree of saturation, respectively), and isothermal temperature (50, 60, 70, and 80 °C) on the viscoelastic properties of meat batters during and after application of different time-temperature profiles. Gelation of meat proteins contributed most to the viscoelastic properties of meat batters during heating, whereas crystallization of the lipids especially contributed to the viscoelastic properties during the cooling phase...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786525/on-farm-mortality-and-related-risk-factors-in-estonian-dairy-cows
#7
Kaari Reimus, Toomas Orro, Ulf Emanuelson, Arvo Viltrop, Kerli Mõtus
Mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) reflects the health and welfare state of the cows and is associated with undesirable financial consequences for the farmer. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to identify risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in dairy cows. Data for a study period between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board and Estonian Livestock Performance Recording, Ltd. Cows from milk-recording herds with ≥20 cow-years were included...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785915/the-effects-of-a-synthetic-analogue-of-the-bovine-appeasing-pheromone-on-milk-yield-and-composition-in-valdostana-dairy-cows-during-the-move-from-winter-housing-to-confined-lowland-pastures
#8
Maria Cristina Osella, Alessandro Cozzi, Claudio Spegis, Germano Turille, Andrea Barmaz, Céline Lafont Lecuelle, Eva Teruel, Cécile Bienboire-Frosini, Camille Chabaud, Laurent Bougrat, Patrick Pageat
This Research Communication describes the effects of a synthetic analogue of the Bovine Appeasing Pheromone (BAP) on milk parameters in Valdostana dairy cows during the first turning out from tie-stalls to confined lowland pastures around the farms. Thirty healthy lactating Valdostana cows were enroled in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 15) and control group (CG, n = 15). The two groups were separately housed in the same farm and managed outside in two different pens...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785901/association-of-snp-and-str-polymorphisms-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-receptor-igf2r-gene-with-milk-traits-in-holstein-friesian-cows
#9
Marta Dux, Magdalena Muranowicz, Eulalia Siadkowska, Dagmara Robakowska-Hyżorek, Krzysztof Flisikowski, Emilia Bagnicka, Lech Zwierzchowski
The objective of the study reported in this Research Communication was to investigate the association of polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor receptor 2 (IGF2R) gene with milk traits in 283 Polish Holstein-Friesian (PHF) cows from the IGAB PAS farm in Jastrzębiec. IGF2R regulates the availability of biologically active IGF2 which is considered as a genetic marker for milk or meat production in farm animals. Two novel genetic polymorphisms were identified in the bovine IGF2R gene: a polymorphic TG-repeat in intron 23 (g...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785143/pilot-study-of-the-antifibrotic-effects-of-the-multikinase-inhibitor-pacritinib-in-a-mouse-model-of-liver-fibrosis
#10
Suliman Al-Fayoumi, Taishi Hashiguchi, Yuka Shirakata, John Mascarenhas, Jack W Singer
Background: Fibrotic diseases result from an exuberant response to chronic inflammation. Myelofibrosis is the end result of inflammation in bone, caused by an inflammatory process triggered by production of abnormal myeloid cells driven by mutations affecting the JAK-STAT pathway. Inflammatory cytokine overproduction leads to increased mesenchymal cell proliferation, culminating in fibrosis. Although JAK2 inhibitors, such as the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib and the JAK2/FLT3/CSF1R/IRAK1 inhibitor pacritinib suppress abnormal clone expansion in myelofibrosis, ruxolitinib does not appear to prevent or reverse bone-marrow fibrosis in most patients...
2018: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783939/a-genome-wide-association-study-reveals-novel-genomic-regions-and-positional-candidate-genes-for-fat-deposition-in-broiler-chickens
#11
Gabriel Costa Monteiro Moreira, Clarissa Boschiero, Aline Silva Mello Cesar, James M Reecy, Thaís Fernanda Godoy, Priscila Anchieta Trevisoli, Maurício E Cantão, Mônica Corrêa Ledur, Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli, Jane de Oliveira Peixoto, Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares Moura, Dorian Garrick, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho
BACKGROUND: Excess fat content in chickens has a negative impact on poultry production. The discovery of QTL associated with fat deposition in the carcass allows the identification of positional candidate genes (PCGs) that might regulate fat deposition and be useful for selection against excess fat content in chicken's carcass. This study aimed to estimate genomic heritability coefficients and to identify QTLs and PCGs for abdominal fat (ABF) and skin (SKIN) traits in a broiler chicken population, originated from the White Plymouth Rock and White Cornish breeds...
May 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778485/meta-analysis-of-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic-acid-supplementation-on-ruminal-fermentation-milk-production-and-nutrient-digestibility
#12
X Feng, R R White, H A Tucker, M D Hanigan
Methionine is considered one of the most important essential AA for milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. Supplementation of unprotected, free Met is nearly 100% degraded by ruminal microorganisms, which complicates supplementation. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid (HMTBa) can be converted to Met in the body and is used as a Met source in dairy production. However, results of published studies assessing the effects of supplementing Met sources, including HMTBa, on performance variables are inconsistent...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778484/effect-of-grain-or-by-product-based-concentrate-fed-with-early-or-late-harvested-first-cut-grass-silage-on-dairy-cow-performance
#13
D Pang, T Yan, E Trevisi, S J Krizsan
This study compared the effects of a grain-based conventional concentrate (GC) and a concentrate based on agro-industrial by-products (BC), fed with grass silage harvested at early (ES) or late (LS) maturity stage, on dairy performance, CH4 and CO2 emissions, and metabolic status of dairy cows. Twenty lactating Nordic Red cows averaging 81 d in milk and 31.9 kg of milk/d pre-trial were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The silages were harvested 2 wk apart from the same primary growth grass ley...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777231/dietary-protein-intake-in-school-age-children-and-detailed-measures-of-body-composition-the-generation-r-study
#14
Vincent Jen, Leonidas G Karagounis, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
BACKGROUND: A high-protein diet in infancy increases the risk of obesity, but the effects of dietary protein intake in mid-childhood on body composition are unclear. Therefore, we studied associations of protein intake (total, animal and plant-sourced) at 8 years of age with anthropometric measures and body composition up to age 10 years. METHODS: We included 3991 children of the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary protein intake was assessed at 8 years of age using a food-frequency questionnaire and is expressed in energy percentage (E%)...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775616/amelioration-of-uvb-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-fat-1-transgenic-mouse-skin
#15
Hye-Won Yum, Seong Hoon Kim, Jing X Kang, Young-Joon Surh
ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in some fish oils, are known to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and increase host immunoresponsiveness. As UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in apoptotic cell death, this study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic capacity of fat-1 transgenic mice capable of converting ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and fat-1 mice were maintained on the AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil rich in ω-6 PUFAs for 5 weeks...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775545/effect-of-bamboo-vinegar-powder-as-an-antibiotic-alternative-on-the-digesta-bacteria-communities-of-finishing-pigs
#16
Huan Qu, Yanjie Huang, Yinghao Shi, Ying Liu, Shenglong Wu, Wenbin Bao
This study investigated the use for bamboo vinegar powder as an antibiotic alternative in the diet of growing-finishing pigs by examining their digestive bacterial communities. Forty-five Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire growing-finishing pigs were randomly allocated to five diet groups: 0%,0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% bamboo vinegar levels and antibiotics. After 37 days, the digesta in duodenum of four pigs from each treatment were analyzed for their bacterial community compositions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Addition of 1...
May 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775456/maternal-obesogenic-diet-induces-endometrial-hyperplasia-an-early-hallmark-of-endometrial-cancer-in-a-diethylstilbestrol-mouse-model
#17
Theresa O Owuor, Michaela Reid, Lauren Reschke, Ian Hagemann, Suellen Greco, Zeel Modi, Kelle H Moley
Thirty-eight percent of US adult women are obese, meaning that more children are now born of overweight and obese mothers, leading to an increase in predisposition to several adult onset diseases. To explore this phenomenon, we developed a maternal obesity animal model by feeding mice a diet composed of high fat/ high sugar (HF/HS) and assessed both maternal diet and offspring diet on the development of endometrial cancer (ECa). We show that maternal diet by itself did not lead to ECa initiation in wildtype offspring of the C57Bl/6J mouse strain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773684/when-fed-foods-with-similar-palatability-healthy-adult-dogs-and-cats-choose-different-macronutrient-compositions
#18
Jean A Hall, Jodi C Vondran, Melissa A Vanchina, Dennis E Jewell
Dogs and cats make short-term food choices based on palatability. We hypothesized that if palatability were masked, long-term food choices would be based on physiologic requirements, and circulating metabolite concentrations would reflect those choices. Four experimental foods with similar palatability, but varying in macronutrient composition, were prepared for healthy adult dogs (n=17) and cats (n=27). Food 1 was high protein; Food 2 was high fat; Food 3 was high carbohydrates; and Food 4 was balanced for macronutrients...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772998/partially-purified-aqueous-fraction-of-desmodium-gyrans-dc-improves-reverse-cholesterol-transport-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-wistar-rats-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#19
M S Indu, Jose Padikkala, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
Apart from the conventional hypolipidemic therapy, plaque regression through enhanced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) has emerged as novel approach in atherosclerotic drug development. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) mimetics as well as agents that augment the functional HDL and RCT pathways are under intense exploration. Desmodium gyrans (Fabacea) has been shown to have hypolipidemic efficacy, with an HDL-enhancing property. In this study, a chromatographically purified active fraction of D. gyrans (DGMAF) significantly decreased the serum and lipid profiles as well as lipotoxicity in liver in Wistar rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD)...
2018: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771124/genistein-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-targeting-thromboxane-a2-pathway
#20
Wenzhe Wang, Junliang Chen, Jinyan Mao, Hongling Li, Mingfu Wang, Hao Zhang, Haitao Li, Wei Chen
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now a public health issue worldwide, but no drug has received approval yet. Genistein, an isoflavonoid derived from soybean, ameliorates high fat diet-induced NAFLD in mice, but the molecular underpinnings remain largely elusive. Arachidonic acid is a major ingredient of animal fats, and arachidonic acid cascade has been implicated in chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether genistein against NAFLD by targeting arachidonic acid cascade. By using a mouse model, we showed that genistein supplementation improved high-fat diet induced NAFLD by normalizing hepatomegaly, liver steatosis, aminotransferase abnormalities and glucose tolerance...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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