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Photobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213283/pyrrolo-3-2-6-7-cyclohepta-1-2-b-pyridines-with-potent-photo-antiproliferative-activity
#1
Virginia Spanò, Daniele Giallombardo, Vincenzo Cilibrasi, Barbara Parrino, Anna Carbone, Alessandra Montalbano, Ilaria Frasson, Alessia Salvador, Sara N Richter, Filippo Doria, Mauro Freccero, Stella Cascioferro, Patrizia Diana, Girolamo Cirrincione, Paola Barraja
Pyrrolo[3',2':6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridines were synthesized as a new class of tricyclic system in which the pyridine ring is annelated to a cycloheptapyrrole scaffold, with the aim of obtaining new photosensitizing agents with improved antiproliferative activity and lower undesired toxic effects. A versatile synthetic pathway was approached, which allowed the isolation of derivatives of the title ring system with a good substitution pattern on the pyrrole moiety. Photobiological studies revealed that the majority of the new compounds showed a potent cytotoxic effect upon photoactivation with light of the proper wavelength, especially when decorated with a 2-ethoxycabonyl group and a N-benzyl substituted moiety, with EC50 values reaching the submicromolar level...
February 7, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211524/epigenetic-and-genetic-dissections-of-uv-induced-global-gene-dysregulation-in-skin-cells-through-multi-omics-analyses
#2
Yao Shen, Milda Stanislauskas, Gen Li, Deyou Zheng, Liang Liu
To elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse effects UV radiation (UVR) on skin homeostasis, we performed multi-omics studies to characterize UV-induced genetic and epigenetic changes. Human keratinocytes from a single donor treated with or without UVR were analyzed by RNA-seq, exome-seq, and H3K27ac ChIP-seq at 4 h and 72 h following UVR. Compared to the relatively moderate mutagenic effects of UVR, acute UV exposure induced substantial epigenomic and transcriptomic alterations, illuminating a previously underappreciated role of epigenomic and transcriptomic instability in skin pathogenesis...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195487/sequential-proton-coupled-electron-transfer-mediates-excited-state-deactivation-of-a-eumelanin-building-block
#3
Juan J Nogueira, Alice Corani, Amal El Nahhas, Alessandro Pezzella, Marco d'Ischia, Leticia Gonzalez, Villy Sundstrom
Skin photoprotection is commonly believed to rely on the photochemistry of 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI)- and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA)-based eumelanin building blocks. Attempts to elucidate the underlying excited-state relaxation mechanisms have been partly unsuccessful due to the marked instability to oxidation. Herein, we report a study of the excited-state deactivation of DHI using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence accompanied by high-level quantum chemistry calculations including solvent effects...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153588/positively-charged-phthalocyanine-arginine-conjugates-as-efficient-photosensitizer-for-photodynamic-therapy
#4
Ao Wang, Rongrong Zhou, Lin Zhou, Kang Sun, Jianchun Jiang, Shaohua Wei
Positively charged drugs usually have enhanced water solubility, cellular uptake efficiency and anticancer activity. However, the common quaternized and protonated cationic photosensitizers both have some drawbacks such as needing potentially dangerous agents for preparation and easily being deprotonated in alkaline circumstance. Arginine is unique among the amino acids as its guanidine group has exceptionally high basicity in aqueous solution, which may make it positively charged in a wide range of pH. In this paper, two arginine substituted zinc phthalocyanines (ArgEZnPc and ArgZnPc) were reported...
January 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152530/the-preventive-effect-of-coffee-compounds-on-dermatitis-and-epidermal-pigmentation-after-ultraviolet-irradiation-in-mice
#5
Yurika Yamate, Keiichi Hiramoto, Eisuke F Sato
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is well known to promote inflammation and pigmentation of skin. UVB mainly affects dermatitis and pigmentation. Coffee contains a number of polyphenols, such as caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) but their in vivo bioactivity for photobiology remains unclear. METHODS: C57BL/6j male mice were irradiated with UVB (1.0 kJ/m2/day) for 3 days. Five days after the final session of UVB irradiation, the dorsal skin, ear epidermis, and blood samples were analyzed to investigate the inflammatory factors, melanogenesis factors and related hormones...
February 3, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071592/development-and-evaluation-of-zinc-phthalocyanine-nanoemulsions-for-use-in-photodynamic-therapy-for-leishmania-spp
#6
Luciana Betzler de Oliveira de Siqueira, Verônica da Silva Cardoso, Igor Almeida Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia Vazquez-Villa, Elisabete Pereira Dos Santos, Bruno da Costa Leal Ribeiro Guimarães, Cristal Dos Santos Cerqueira Coutinho, Alane Beatriz Vermelho, Eduardo Ricci Junior
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) combines light with photosensitizers (PS) for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill infectious microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The application of nanotechnology has enabled the advancement of PDT because many PS are insoluble in water, necessitating a nanocarrier as a physiologically acceptable carrier. Nanoemulsions are efficient nanocarriers for solubilizing liposoluble drugs, like the PS, in water. Cutaneous (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) are caused by different species of the genus Leishmania, transmitted to humans by sandfly bites...
February 10, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064366/increased-heterocyst-frequency-by-patn-disruption-in-anabaena-leads-to-enhanced-photobiological-hydrogen-production-at-high-light-intensity-and-high-cell-density
#7
Hajime Masukawa, Hidehiro Sakurai, Robert P Hausinger, Kazuhito Inoue
The effects of increasing the heterocyst-to-vegetative cell ratio on the nitrogenase-based photobiological hydrogen production by the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 were studied. Using the uptake hydrogenase-disrupted mutant (ΔHup) as the parent, a deletion-insertion mutant (PN1) was created in patN, known to be involved in heterocyst pattern formation and leading to multiple singular heterocysts (MSH) in Nostoc punctiforme strain ATCC 29133. The PN1 strain showed heterocyst differentiation but failed to grow in medium free of combined-nitrogen; however, a spontaneous mutant (PN22) was obtained on prolonged incubation of PN1 liquid cultures and was able to grow robustly on N2...
January 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042171/an-overview-of-photosubstitution-reactions-of-ru-ii-imine-complexes-and-their-application-in-photobiology-and-photodynamic-therapy
#8
Jessica K White, Russell H Schmehl, Claudia Turro
This article is a short review that presents a short review of photosubstitution reactions of Ru(II) imine complexes and illustrates their use in the development of therapeutic agents. The review begins with an overview of the photophysical behavior and common photoreactions of Ru(II) imine complexes, with select examples from the literature since the 1960s. It is followed by a more detailed picture of the application of knowledge gained over the years in the development of Ru(II) complexes for photobiology and photodynamic therapy...
January 1, 2017: Inorganica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038885/ultraviolet-radiation-and-the-skin-photobiology-and-sunscreen-photoprotection
#9
Antony R Young, Joël Claveau, Ana Beatris Rossi
The efficacy of sunscreens can be measured by different methods, involving in vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo techniques. There is a need for a worldwide standardization of these methods to avoid misunderstanding and confusion among sunscreen users. The clinical benefits of sunscreens have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials that established the role of sunscreens in the prevention of actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinomas, nevi, and melanomas. Sunscreens also prevent photoimmunosuppression and signs of photoaging...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009890/the-health-benefits-of-uv-radiation-exposure-through-vitamin-d-production-or-non-vitamin-d-pathways-blood-pressure-and-cardiovascular-disease
#10
Richard B Weller
The detrimental effects of ultraviolet radiation are well known. Skin cancer, photo-aging, and induction or exacerbation of photosensitive dermatoses have been the focus of most photobiological research since 1928 when Findlay confirmed the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet radiation using a murine model of skin cancer. The epidemiological, mechanistic and clinical trial data have enabled the classification by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of ultraviolet radiation as a Group 1 ('sufficient evidence') carcinogen for human skin...
December 23, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968729/fungal-light-sensing-at-the-bench-and-beyond
#11
K K Fuller, J C Dunlap, J J Loros
Visible light is a pervasive environmental signal that orients most organisms in space and time. For a fungus, the detection of light is facilitated by diverse classes of photoreceptor proteins, which in turn coordinate growth, spore dispersal, stress resistance, primary metabolism, and toxin production. We will first provide a discussion on signal input, focusing on recent insights into how fungal photoreceptors detect and transmit information at the biochemical and molecular levels. We will then pivot our discussion to how light influences fungal behaviors that are of industrial, agricultural, or even medical relevance...
2016: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943362/new-insights-of-red-light-induced-development
#12
REVIEW
András Viczian, Cornelia Klose, Éva Ádám, Ferenc Nagy
The red/far-red light absorbing photoreceptors phytochromes regulate development and growth, and thus play an essential role in optimizing adaptation of the sessile plants to the ever changing environment. Our understanding of how absorption of a red/far-red photon by phytochromes initiates/modifies diverse physiological responses has been steadily improving. Research performed in the last five years has been especially productive, and led to significant conceptual changes about the mode of action of these photoreceptors...
December 9, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924670/safety-of-iphone-retinal-photography
#13
Sheng Chiong Hong, Giles Wynn-Williams, Graham Wilson
BACKGROUND: With the advancement in mobile technology, smartphone retinal photography is becoming a popular practice. However, there is limited information about the safety of the latest smartphones used for retinal photography. AIMS: This study aims to determine the photobiological risk of iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 plus when used in conjunction with a 20Diopter condensing lens for retinal photography. METHOD: iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 plus (Apple, Cupertino, CA) were used in this study...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906783/evaluation-of-the-potential-optical-radiation-hazards-with-led-lamps-intended-for-home-use
#14
Robert H James, Robert J Landry, Bennett N Walker, Ilko K Ilev
The authors evaluated the potential for ocular damage from optical radiation emitted by Light Emitting Diode (LED) based lamps used for general illumination. Ten LED lamps were randomly selected off the shelf from a local home improvement store. The LEDs were behind diffusers in half of these lamps, while in the other half, the LEDs were clearly visible. In addition, a battery powered LED lantern having a LED source behind a diffuser was measured. The optical radiation emissions from two common incandescent lamps were also measured to compare the relative hazards of LED and incandescent lamps...
January 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897336/focus-theme-issue-december-2016-photobiology-photodermatology-photobiology-first
#15
EDITORIAL
Peter Wolf, Frank de Gruijl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813089/light-behind-the-curtain-photoregulation-of-nuclear-architecture-and-chromatin-dynamics-in-plants
#16
Giorgio Perrella, Eirini Kaiserli
Light is a powerful stimulus regulating many aspects of plant development and phenotypic plasticity. Plants sense light through the action of specialized photoreceptor protein families that absorb different wavelengths and intensities of light. Recent discoveries in the area of photobiology have uncovered photoreversible changes in nuclear organization correlated with transcriptional regulation patterns that lead to de-etiolation and photoacclimation. Novel signalling components bridging photoreceptor activation with chromatin remodelling and regulation of gene expression have been discovered...
December 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805047/an-open-hardware-platform-for-optogenetics-and-photobiology
#17
Karl P Gerhardt, Evan J Olson, Sebastian M Castillo-Hair, Lucas A Hartsough, Brian P Landry, Felix Ekness, Rayka Yokoo, Eric J Gomez, Prabha Ramakrishnan, Junghae Suh, David F Savage, Jeffrey J Tabor
In optogenetics, researchers use light and genetically encoded photoreceptors to control biological processes with unmatched precision. However, outside of neuroscience, the impact of optogenetics has been limited by a lack of user-friendly, flexible, accessible hardware. Here, we engineer the Light Plate Apparatus (LPA), a device that can deliver two independent 310 to 1550 nm light signals to each well of a 24-well plate with intensity control over three orders of magnitude and millisecond resolution. Signals are programmed using an intuitive web tool named Iris...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793344/solar-urticaria-epidemiology-and-clinical-phenotypes-in-a-spanish-series-of-224-patients
#18
A Pérez-Ferriols, M Barnadas, J Gardeazábal, D de Argila, J M Carrascosa, P Aguilera, A Giménez-Arnau, T Rodríguez-Granados, M V de Gálvez, J Aguilera
BACKGROUND: Solar urticaria is a chronic inducible urticaria also classified as an idiopathic dermatosis. The objective of this paper is to define the phenotypic characteristics of solar urticaria and to evaluate its incidence. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This was a retrospective multicenter study in which data were gathered on the epidemiology and clinical, photobiologic, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics of solar urticaria. RESULTS: A total of 224 patients (141 women and 83 men) were included from 9 photobiology units...
October 25, 2016: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779842/toward-automatic-rhodopsin-modeling-as-a-tool-for-high-throughput-computational-photobiology
#19
Federico Melaccio, María Del Carmen Marín, Alessio Valentini, Fabio Montisci, Silvia Rinaldi, Marco Cherubini, Xuchun Yang, Yoshitaka Kato, Michael Stenrup, Yoelvis Orozco-Gonzalez, Nicolas Ferré, Hoi Ling Luk, Hideki Kandori, Massimo Olivucci
We report on a prototype protocol for the automatic and fast construction of congruous sets of QM/MM models of rhodopsin-like photoreceptors and of their mutants. In the present implementation the information required for the construction of each model is essentially a crystallographic structure or a comparative model complemented with information on the protonation state of ionizable side chains and distributions of external counterions. Starting with such information, a model formed by a fixed environment system, a flexible cavity system, and a chromophore system is automatically generated...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769913/semi-synthesis-and-pdt-activities-of-a-new-amphiphilic-chlorin-derivative
#20
Milene N O Moritz, Joyce L S Gonçalves, Irwin A P Linares, Janice R Perussi, Kleber T de Oliveira
An amphiphilic chlorin derivative (CHL-T) was prepared from methylpheophorbide a (CHL) and 2-Amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (TRISMA(®)). The new chlorin was compared to other dyes (CHL and Hypericin) in relation to photophysical and photobiological activities in tumor and non-tumor cell lines. Cytotoxicity and cell death target were determined to evaluate the CHL-T efficiency, comparing to the precursor CHL and to the well-known dye hypericin (HY). All of the studied compounds exhibited absorption bands in the therapeutic window and presented a small fluorescence quantum yield compared to the reference dye (rhodamine B)...
October 18, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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